Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Body System Does The Brain Belong To

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The Brain & Nervous System In Everyday Life

How Nervous System Works Animation – Nerve Conduction Physiology. Central & Peripheral Anatomy Video

If the brain is like a central computer that controls all the functions of your body, then the nervous system is like a network that sends messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race takes a lot less time than it just took to read about it!

Dk Science: Body Systems


Our body structures are arranged into several different systems, each with its own specific function. The smallest units in the body are CELLS, which share certain characteristics. These tiny structures are collected into TISSUES, which are themselves arranged into ORGANS. Different body systems consist of collections of cells, tissues, and organs with a common purpose.

How Common Are These Conditions

Some causes of nerve damage occur more frequently than others. They include:

  • Diabetes: This disorder of the endocrine system causes nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy. Around 30 million Americans have diabetes and nearly 50% of them have some nerve damage. Diabetic neuropathy usually affects the arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers and toes.
  • Lupus: About 1.5 million Americans live with lupus, and 15% of them have experienced nerve damage.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: People with rheumatoid arthritis can also develop neuropathy. Rheumatoid arthritis affects more than 1.3 million people in the U.S. Its one of the most common forms of arthritis.
  • Stroke: Around 800,000 Americans have a stroke every year. Strokes occur more often in people over age 65.

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Each Body System Works With The Others

Each individual body system works in conjunction with other body systems. The circulatory system is a good example of how body systems interact with each other. Your heart pumps blood through a complex network of blood vessels. When your blood circulates through your digestive system, for example, it picks up nutrients your body absorbed from your last meal. Your blood also carries oxygen inhaled by the lungs. Your circulatory system delivers oxygen and nutrients to the other cells of your body then picks up any waste products created by these cells, including carbon dioxide, and delivers these waste products to the kidneys and lungs for disposal. Meanwhile, the circulatory system carries hormones from the endocrine system, and the immune systems white blood cells that fight off infection.

Each of your body systems relies on the others to work well. Your respiratory system relies on your circulatory system to deliver the oxygen it gathers, while the muscles of your heart cannot function without the oxygen they receive from your lungs. The bones of your skull and spine protect your brain and spinal cord, but your brain regulates the position of your bones by controlling your muscles. The circulatory system provides your brain with a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood while your brain regulates your heart rate and blood pressure.

What Happens Following A Spinal Cord Injury


A common set of biological events take place following spinal cord injury:

  • Cells from the immune system migrate to the injury site, causing additional damage to some neurons and death to others that survived the initial trauma.
  • The death of oligodendrocytes causes axons to lose their myelination, which greatly impairs the conduction of action potential, messages, or renders the remaining connections useless. The neuronal information highway is further disrupted because many axons are severed, cutting off the lines of communication between the brain and muscles and between the body’s sensory systems and the brain.
  • Within several weeks of the initial injury, the area of tissue damage has been cleared away by microglia, and a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by a glial scar is left behind. Molecules that inhibit regrowth of severed axons are now expressed at this site. The cavitation is called a syrinx, which acts as a barrier to the reconnection of the two sides of the damaged spinal cord.
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    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

    There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

    A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

    The Central Nervous System: Looking At The Brain As A Whole

    If we were to zoom back out and look at the central nervous system again we would see that the brain is the largest single part of the central nervous system. The brain is the headquarters of the entire nervous system and it is here that most of your sensing, perception, thinking, awareness, emotions, and planning take place. For many people the brain is so important that there is a sense that it is thereinside the brainthat a persons sense of self is located . The brain is so important, in fact, that it consumes 20% of the total oxygen and calories we consume even though it is only, on average, about 2% of our overall weight.

    It is helpful to examine the various parts of the brain and to understand their unique functions to get a better sense of the role the brain plays. We will start by looking at very general areas of the brain and then we will zoom in and look at more specific parts. Anatomists and neuroscientists often divide the brain into portions based on the location and function of various brain parts. Among the simplest ways to organize the brain is to describe it as having three basic portions: the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain. Another way to look at the brain is to consider;the brain stem, the Cerebellum, and the Cerebrum. There is another part, called the Limbic System that is less well defined. It is made up of a number of structures that are sub-cortical as well as cortical;regions of the brain .

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    Peripheral Nervous System Function

    Nerve fibers that exit the brainstem and spinal cord become part of the peripheral nervous system. Cranial nerves exit the brainstem and function as peripheral nervous system mediators of many functions, including eye movements, facial strength and sensation, hearing, and taste.

    The optic nerve is considered a cranial nerve but it is generally affected in a disease of the central nervous system known as multiple sclerosis, and, for this and other reasons, it is thought to represent an extension of the central nervous system apparatus that controls vision. In fact, doctors can diagnose inflammation of the head of the optic nerve by using an ophthalmoscope, as if the person’s eyes were a window into the central nervous system.

    Nerve roots leave the spinal cord to the exit point between two vertebrae and are named according to the spinal cord segment from which they arise . Nerve roots are located anterior with relation to the cord if efferent or posterior if afferent .

    Fibers that carry motor input to limbs and fibers that bring sensory information from the limbs to the spinal cord grow together to form a mixed peripheral nerve. Some lumbar and all sacral nerve roots take a long route downward in the spinal canal before they exit in a bundle that resembles a horse’s tail, hence its name, cauda equina.

    The Brain And Spinal Cord Are The Central Nervous System Nerves And Sensory Organs Make Up The Peripheral Nervous System

    What Alcohol Does to Your Body

    Together, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systems transmit and process sensory information and coordinate bodily functions. The brain and spinal cord function as the control center. They receive data and feedback from the sensory organs and from nerves throughout the body, process the information, and send commands back out. Nerve pathways of the PNS carry the incoming and outgoing signals. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves connect the brain to eyes, ears, and other sensory organs and to head and neck muscles. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord to tissues of the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Each nerve is responsible for relaying sensory information, sending motor commands, or both.

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    Researchers Are Trying To Unravel The Tangled Roots Of Gender Identity

    Transgender people often feel they are trapped in a body that does not match the identity that their brain “knows” them to be. For some of these people, getting others to see them as they see themselves can involve navigating a confusing maze that may begin as early as toddlerhood.;

    Illustration by James Provost

    First of two parts

    In November 2014, Zoë MacGregor celebrated her 13th birthday. Like any teen might, she invited a friend to her house for a sleepover. They ordered pizza, had brownies and ice cream for dessert, then watched a movie.

    The Seattle-natives journey to becoming a teen had been very different from that of many of her friends, however. Until she was 9, the girl had lived as Ian a boy.

    But by spring 2011, Zoë recalls, I was starting to feel more and more like I was not quite boy, but sort of both. Eventually it hit Zoë that she was neither a boy nor a hybrid of two genders. No, she realized, Im a girl.

    Brain And Cerebrum Location

    The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary actions, speech, senses, thought, and memory.

    The surface of the cerebral cortex has grooves or infoldings , the largest of which are termed fissures. Some fissures separate lobes.

    The convolutions of the cortex give it a wormy appearance. Each convolution is delimited by two sulci and is also called a gyrus . The cerebrum is divided into two halves, known as the right and left hemispheres. A mass of fibers called the corpus callosum links the hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the right side of the body. Almost every person has one dominant hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, or areas, which are interconnected.

    The cortex, also called gray matter, is the most external layer of the brain and predominantly contains neuronal bodies . The gray matter participates actively in the storage and processing of information. An isolated clump of nerve cell bodies in the gray matter is termed a nucleus . The cells in the gray matter extend their projections, called axons, to other areas of the brain.

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    How Do I Keep My Nervous System Healthy

    Your nervous system is the command center for your entire body. It needs care to keep working correctly. See your doctor regularly, eat a healthy diet, avoid drugs, and only drink alcohol in moderation. The best way to avoid nerve damage from disease is to manage conditions that can injure your nerves, such as diabetes.

    Overview Of Body Systems

    Human body systems

    All body systems are necessary for a complex organism to be able to survive and reproduce. This article will focus on the systems of the human body; similar systems are required by all animals, but the details of how they accomplish their tasks may vary.

    Functions that must be performed by an animal to stay alive include:

    • Absorbing oxygen for use in cellular respiration
    • Excreting carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration
    • Ingesting and processing food to obtain sugars and other nutrients.
    • Transporting necessary substances, such as oxygen and nutrients, to all cells in the body
    • Clearing toxic waste products from the body.
    • Responding to changes in the environmental conditions
    • Protecting the organs from the environment.
    • Fighting pathogens

    Additionally, for a species to survive, its individuals must be able to reproduce.

    How do our organs and tissues work together as systems to accomplish these tasks?

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    Gene And Protein Expression

    Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.

    As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.

    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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    The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

    The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

    The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

    • Breathing
    • Sensory relay
    • Hunger

    Problems Of The Nervous System


    Some common problems of the nervous system include:

    • Epilepsy storms of abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing seizures
    • Meningitis inflammation of the membrane covering the brain
    • Multiple sclerosis the myelin sheaths protecting the electrical cables of the central nervous system are attacked
    • Parkinsons disease death of neurones in a part of the brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking and problems with movement
    • Sciatica pressure on a nerve caused by a slipped disc in the spine or arthritis of the spine and, sometimes, other factors
    • Shingles infection of sensory nerves caused by the varicella-zoster virus
    • Stroke a lack of blood to part of the brain.

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    Functions Of The Cranial Nerves

    Each of the 12 cranial nerves has a specific function within the nervous system.

    • The olfactory nerve carries scent information to the brain from the olfactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity.
    • The optic nerve carries visual information from the eyes to the brain.
    • Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves all work together to allow the brain to control the movement and focus of the eyes. The trigeminal nerve carries sensations from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication.
    • The facial nerve innervates the muscles of the face to make facial expressions and carries taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
    • The vestibulocochlear nerve conducts auditory and balance information from the ears to the brain.
    • The glossopharyngeal nerve carries taste information from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and assists in swallowing.
    • The vagus nerve , sometimes called the wandering nerve due to the fact that it innervates many different areas, wanders through the head, neck, and torso. It carries information about the condition of the vital organs to the brain, delivers motor signals to control speech and delivers parasympathetic signals to many organs.
    • The accessory nerve controls the movements of the shoulders and neck.
    • The hypoglossal nerve moves the tongue for speech and swallowing.

    How Can I Keep My Nervous System Healthy

    Just like other parts of your body, your brain needs sleep for rest and repair, so a good regular sleep schedule is key. A healthy balanced diet that features foods high in omega-3 fatty acids is important, too. Those include fatty fish like salmon, albacore tuna, mackerel, herring, and farmed trout.

    Stress also can affect your nervous system, but you can do a few things to manage it:

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