Thursday, June 16, 2022

What Brain Waves Are In Rem Sleep

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Experimental Evidence For A Role Of Rem Sleep In Emotional Regulation

Brain waves during sleep – Intro to Psychology

Some evidence suggests a sleep-dependent decrease in both subjective emotional arousal and autonomic response to negative stimuli compared to an equally long period of wake in humans . In line with this notion, sleep-dependent habituation was only observed across naps containing REM sleep, not across naps consisting solely of NREM sleep .

In contrast, Groch et al. found that subjective ratings of arousal to negative images was preserved over both SWS-rich early and REM sleep-rich late night sleep using a split-night design. In a further study, participants rated emotional stimuli as more negative across late sleep compared to early sleep . Similarly, subjective emotional arousal went down across wake and was maintained across sleep . The degree of arousal maintenance was associated with greater time spent in REM sleep. REM sleep amount also predicted an increase in autonomic response in the form of skin conductance to emotional images shown before and after sleep . Furthermore, REMSD reduced arousal ratings to negative images presented before and after sleep . Thus it appears that REM sleep may modulate emotional arousal, however the direction of this change may depend on other yet to be determined factors, such as the nature of the emotional stimuli, the stress experienced during the task or possibly the involvement of memory .

When Does Rem Sleep Occur

You experience your first cycle of REM sleep about 60 to 90 minutes after falling asleep. As part of a full nights sleep, you cycle through four stages of sleep multiple times: three stages of non-REM sleep, followed by one stage of REM sleep. Each cycle through all the sleep stages takes 90 to 120 minutes to complete. With each new cycle, you spend increasing amounts of time in REM sleep, with most of your REM sleep taking place in the second half of the night.

Each stage of sleep is distinct:

Sleep Memory And Learning

Another area that has been the focus of much research is the relationship between sleep and learning or memory formation. Scientists know for sure that sleep is crucial for learning but which stage of sleep is more important?

Does learning occur in the light REM sleep stage or the deep, non-REM phase of sleep? How do neurons in different brain areas coordinate across sleep stages to facilitate learning and memory consolidation?

Two studies that Medical News Today reported on help to shed light on these questions.

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The Different Types Of Brain Waves

We keep hearing about brain activity, but what does that entail, exactly? In our previous articles, we mentioned how different organs like our eyes translate vital cues into biochemical signals that can then be transmitted to our brain. That chain of biochemical signals continues once the information reaches our brain.

Simply put, brain activity takes the form of electrochemical impulses. These arent just one-off sparks, though. Imagine, instead, continuous chains of pulses traveling from one brain cell to the next. Those chains follow a cycle or pattern, depending on what the brain is trying to accomplish. When those cycles or patterns are echoed by numerous brain cellssay, in a specific region of the brainthey build enough power to be detected by external tools. The most prominent of those is the electroencephalograph , which allows researchers to measure these patterns of electrochemical impulses. On the EEG, these patterns register as waveshence the term brain waves.

So far, research has identified four main types of brain waves, differentiated according to their associated levels of brain activity.

Rem And Nrem Sleep Stages: Differences And Cycle Statistics

101 sleep &  dreams

Jill Zwarensteyn Disclaimer – Nothing on this website is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment…Read More Here

REM is one phase of sleep. During REM, a persons eyes move around quickly under closed eyelids. NREM is the other phase of sleep. During NREM, the eyes remain still.

The connection between REM and NREM is that these two phases make up a full sleep cycle. REM and NREM are important for sleep efficiency and quality because you need to complete them both to function at your best. Sleep efficiency is the ratio of the total time asleep to the time in bed. Good sleep efficiency is 85 percent or higher. Sleep quality refers to how restorative and restful you feel after waking up. Restful slumber requires a high sleep efficiency and high sleep quality.

Within a sleep cycle, there are three stages of NREM, followed by a fourth and final stage of REM. Most people complete five to six sleep cycles throughout the night to get enough rest. However, the point at which you wake up in a sleep cycle can also impact how well-rested you feel.

The best time to wake up is at the beginning of a new sleep cycle because you are in a lighter sleep. If you awaken in the last NREM stage or the REM phase, this could cause you to feel disorientated or groggy. The reason for this is that Stage 3 NREM is a deep sleep, while REM is when dreaming occurs.

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What Is The Difference Between Nrem And Rem

The difference between NREM and REM is that eye movement and brain activity decrease during NREM, and they increase in REM sleep.

When you are in REM sleep, your body becomes immobile even though the brain remains active. Dreams occur during REM sleep because the neurons in the central nervous system fire up quickly and cause vivid images in your mind.

In NREM, your brain waves, heart rate, and breathing slow down until you reach a deep sleep in Stage N3.

Why is REM Sleep more important?

REM Sleep is important because experts believe it is when memory consolidation occurs. During REM, adult-born neurons in the brain’s hippocampus region are active. The hippocampus is the part of the brain linked to memory consolidation. As a result, researchers hypothesize that increased activity may mean memories are forming.

Additionally, research suggests that more REM sleep means better memory and cognitive abilities as you age. Insufficient REM sleep is linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease and quicker cognitive decline.

How Does A Sleep Calculator Measure Rem Sleep

A sleep calculator is a device used to calculate your ideal bedtime and wake-up based on sleep cycles. If you wake up in the middle of a cycle, you could feel groggier than usual. The sleep calculator provides you with a wake-up time that should coincide with completing a full cycle.

Most sleep cycles last about 90-110 minutes. Adults should complete five or six cycles, equating to roughly seven to nine hours of rest.

Sleep calculators can be found online or on an app. To use a sleep calculator, input the time you’d like to wake up. Then, the calculator will provide you with an appropriate bedtime. You can also input the time you’d like to go to bed, and the calculator will give you a wake-up time instead.

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Oxygen Supply To Cornea

Dr. David M. Maurice, an eye specialist and former adjunct professor at Columbia University, proposed that REM sleep was associated with oxygen supply to the cornea, and that aqueous humor, the liquid between cornea and iris, was stagnant if not stirred. Among the supportive evidence, he calculated that if aqueous humor was stagnant, oxygen from the iris had to reach the cornea by diffusion through aqueous humor, which was not sufficient. According to the theory, when the organism is awake, eye movement enables the aqueous humor to circulate. When the organism is sleeping, REM provides the much needed stir to aqueous humor. This theory is consistent with the observation that fetuses, as well as eye-sealed newborn animals, spend much time in REM sleep, and that during a normal sleep, a person’s REM sleep episodes become progressively longer deeper into the night. However, owls experience REM sleep, but do not move their head more than in non-REM sleep and is well known that owls’ eyes are nearly immobile.

Circulation Respiration And Thermoregulation

2-Minute Neuroscience: Stages of Sleep

Generally speaking, the body suspends homeostasis during paradoxical sleep. Heart rate, cardiac pressure, cardiac output, arterial pressure, and breathing rate quickly become irregular when the body moves into REM sleep. In general, respiratory reflexes such as response to hypoxia diminish. Overall, the brain exerts less control over breathing electrical stimulation of respiration-linked brain areas does not influence the lungs, as it does during non-REM sleep and in waking. The fluctuations of heart rate and arterial pressure tend to coincide with PGO waves and rapid eye movements, twitches, or sudden changes in breathing.

Erections of the penis normally accompany REM sleep in rats and humans. If a male has erectile dysfunction while awake, but has NPT episodes during REM, it would suggest that the ED is from a psychological rather than a physiological cause. In females, erection of the clitoris causes enlargement, with accompanying vaginal blood flow and transudation . During a normal night of sleep, the penis and clitoris may be erect for a total time of from one hour to as long as three and a half hours during REM.

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How Much Deep Sleep Do People Get On Average

Many of us don’t get enough deep sleepâor enough sleep in general. Around one-third of American adults get fewer than seven hours of sleep each night. The amount of deep sleep we get each night also tends to decline with age. Adults age 60 and older may only spend about 2% of their night in deep sleep.

Can You Manipulate Your Theta Brain Waves

Were still learning about how theta waves work and how it may be possible to boost their activity, and why that might be appropriate or beneficial.

Although research is limited, there is some information thats come to light about theta brain waves in recent years.

Consider the results of a small 2017 brain wave study. The researchers analyzed the results of wireless implants that recorded brain wave activity in four volunteers.

They found that theta wave oscillations increased when the participants were trying to move around in an unfamiliar environment. Additionally, the researchers learned that theta wave activity tended to speed up when the study participants moved faster.

Another 2017 study explored the way that theta wave activity seems to be linked to one particular type of learning. This type of learning occurs when youre doing something that you may not have conscious access to, like learning to ride a bike. This is known as implicit learning.

This research suggests that examining brain wave activity could be helpful in figuring out how to teach people to learn certain kinds of information, or to perform certain tasks.

The researchers also noted that they may be able to use the evidence of theta wave activity to detect disorders like Alzheimers disease.

Additionally, earlier research suggests that finding ways to boost certain alpha and theta wave activity could also help reduce anxiety in people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder .

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How Delta Waves Are Measured During Deep Sleep

Delta waves were first identified and described in the early 1900s after the invention of the EEG allowed researchers to look at brain activity during sleep. During sleep, the brain cycles through a number of different stages differentiated from each other by the brain activity that occurs during each stage.

During the initial stages of sleep, people are still awake and somewhat alert. At this point, the quick and small beta waves are produced. Eventually, the brain begins to slow down and slower waves known as alpha waves can be observed with an EEG. Once asleep, the stages of sleep can begin:

  • Stage 1 is light sleep, typically beginning soon after getting into bed and lasting only a few minutes. At this point, the brain creates slow, high-amplitude activity known as theta waves.
  • Stage 2 sleep encompasses about 50% of a night’s sleep and is marked by sleep spindles and K-complexes. This stage lasts slightly longer than the previous stage.
  • Stage 3 is deep sleep and should encompass at least 20% of a night’s sleep. During this stage, the brain begins to produce the slow and deep waves of delta sleep. People are far less responsive and less aware of their external environment at this point. Delta wave sleep is often thought of as a transitional point between light and deep sleep.
  • REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements and increases in dreaming.REM sleep begins around 90 minutes after you fall asleep, and you may experience multiple REM cycles each night.

Sleep Patterns Across The Night

Usually sleepers pass through five stages: 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM (rapid ...

Following the N3 stage of sleep, a series of body movements usually signals an “ascent” to lighter NREM sleep stages. Typically, a 5- to 10-minute period of N2 precedes the initial REM sleep episode. REM sleep comprises about 20 to 25 percent of total sleep in typical healthy adults. NREM sleep and REM sleep continue to alternate through the night in a cyclical fashion. Most slow-wave NREM sleep occurs in the first part of the night REM sleep episodes, the first of which may last only one to five minutes, generally become longer through the night. During a typical night, N3 sleep occupies less time in the second cycle than the first and may disappear altogether from later cycles. The average length of the first NREM-REM sleep cycle is between 70 and 100 minutes the average length of the second and later cycles is about 90 to 120 minutes. The reason for such a specific cycling pattern of NREM and REM sleep across the night is unknown. Some scientists speculate that specific sequences of NREM and REM sleep optimize both physical and mental recuperation as well as some aspects of memory consolidation that occur during sleep, but this has not been confirmed.

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Where Are Delta Waves Found

Delta waves are the slowest recorded brain waves in human beings. They are found most often in infants and young children, and are associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep. Delta is prominently seen in brain injuries, learning problems, inability to think, and severe ADHD.

Biology Of Sleep Using Tinbergen’s Four Questions

Sleep has been described using Tinbergen’s four questions as a framework :

  • Function: Energy restoration, metabolic regulation, thermoregulation, boosting immune system, detoxification, brain maturation, circuit reorganization, synaptic optimization, avoiding danger.
  • Phylogeny: Sleep exists in invertebrates, lower vertebrates, and higher vertebrates. NREM and REM sleep exist in eutheria, marsupialiformes, and also evolved in birds.
  • Mechanisms: Mechanisms regulate wakefulness, sleep onset, and sleep. Specific mechanisms involve neurotransmitters, genes, neural structures, and the circadian rhythm.
  • Ontogeny: Sleep manifests differently in babies, infants, children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. Differences include the stages of sleep, sleep duration, and sex differences.

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How To Have Healthier Sleep Habits

The key to a good night of sleep is mastering whats called your sleep hygiene. Put simply, thats all the things you need to put in place before bed in order to maximize your chances of sleeping soundly, ranging from putting your phone down well before bed to learning which is the best sleeping position. Youll be amazed at how changing just a few habits can make a real difference to the quality of your sleep.

Try establishing a sleep schedule where you wake up at the same time every day, seven days a week. Block out any unwanted noise and go for cool, breathable fabrics on your bed and nightclothes too. Avoid drinking alcohol in the evening and make sure your room is as dark as it can be too so the photoreceptors in your eyes can send a message to your brain that its time to sleep.

Its important that the bedroom is cool as well. According to research published in the medical journal Sleep, warm rooms can reduce the amount of time that your body spends in REM sleep. Using a sleep tracker will also give you a valuable insight into how good your nights sleep is.

Finally, dont be tempted to use your cell phone or a tablet while in bed, as the blue light they emit acts to stifle melatonin. “Give yourself a wind-down ritual that’s free of any unnecessary stimulation,” added Dr Singh. “And remember, the most important aspects of sleep hygiene are routine, rhythm and repetition.”

Rem Sleep Blunts Emotional Pain From Memories

The DEEPEST Healing Sleep | 3.2Hz Delta Brain Waves | REM Sleep Music – Binaural Beats

What happens during REM sleep that helps you stay emotionally present? REM dreaming reduces pain from difficult emotional experiences. The brain seems to reprocess upsetting memories and emotional themes, retaining the useful lessons while blunting the visceral emotional pain. This might be why we can look back at painful memories without feeling the original full emotional intensity.

Interestingly, dreaming about the upsetting content itself, or its emotional themes, is necessary to have this emotional blunting effect. REM sleep by itself does not.

How might this happen? In REM sleep, the stress hormone norepinephrine in your brain is reduced to zero, which possibly allows the brain to process upsetting memories in a safe brain environment. In fact, REM sleep is the only time that norepinephrine is absent from your brain.

Suggestive evidence:

  • PTSD patients have elevated norepinephrine in REM sleep. They also have recurring nightmares where the pain of the memory does not fade, either dreaming or wake.
  • Reducing norepinephrine levels through a drug reduces PTSD severity in a subset of patients.

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