What Do Multiple Myeloma Lesions Look Like
The classic radiographic appearance of multiple myeloma is that of multiple, small, well-circumscribed, lytic, punched-out, round lesions within the skull, spine, and pelvis. The pattern of lytic or punched-out radiolucent lesions on the skull have been described as resembling raindrops hitting a surface and splashing.
Uncovering The Hidden Side Of Brain Lesions
Much of our existing knowledge about the workings of the healthy brain comes from studying patients who have suffered brain injuries, for example, due to a stroke. However, despite this, we still have little idea of the impact which brain damage has on the networks of neuronal connections across the whole brain which underlie key cognitive functions. Dr Michel Thiebaut de Schotten and colleagues at the ICM Institute in Paris have developed a software package called BCBtoolkit which can help researchers and clinicians understand the effects of brain damage on brain connections. In future, this could help evolve our understanding of higher brain processes, as well as helping neurologists to predict whether a patient will recover or not from a stroke or other brain injuries.
Brain lesions are areas of abnormal tissue that have been damaged due to injury or disease, which can range from being relatively harmless to life-threatening. Clinicians typically identify them as unusual dark or light spots on CT or MRI scans which are different from ordinary brain tissue.
How do brain lesions impact brain function? Traditionally, if a patient has a lesion in a certain part of their brain, and displays a particular set of symptoms, such as reduced spatial awareness or impaired language production, neurologists deduce that these symptoms are a direct result of functional changes in the visibly damaged area.
What Are The Treatments For Brain Lesions
The treatment of brain lesions is quite complicated and the exact treatment regime depends on the type of lesion and basic cause.
Following are the treatment options available when it comes to the treatment of uncomplicated brain lesions:
- If the brain lesion is due to some underlying infection then the basic approach is to eradicate that organism, whether that is bacteria, virus or worms. The treatment of lesions due to bacterial meningitis is the use of appropriate anti-biotics.
- In the case of suspected stroke and vascular block the basic approach is to act promptly and not allow that clogged vessel to rupture and not allow that lesion to develop in first place. For that purpose vasodilators and cholesterol controlling drugs can be given. But if a clot has already plugged some brain vessel then the option is the use of tissue plasminogen activator, a drug that dissolves the clots.
- If the basic cause of brain lesion is some tumor then curing that underlying cancerous condition is important. Cure of such cases is almost always very difficult.
The success of treatment depends on proper diagnosis and staging of the disease so that appropriate medicines can be used for the treatment of cancer. In other words, there is no clear cut therapy for brain lesions.
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Diagnostic Imaging Tests For Ms Lesions
Computed tomography is a type of imaging technology that uses radiation to take images of brain tissue. A solution may be injected into a persons vein to help highlight brain structures. CT scans can be used to diagnose brain lesions.
Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that uses magnetic fields and computer technology to produce three-dimensional images of the brain. MRI shows greater detail in brain tissue, the cerebellum, and brain stem than a CT scan. MRI conducted with a contrast fluid called gadolinium can show whether or not the lesions are active and whether there is evidence of preexisting inflammation or lesions. If lesions do not appear brighter on a high-contrast MRI, theyre likely older than three months.
If you or your health care provider suspect your symptoms may be related to brain lesions, prompt attention is your best bet. A timely, thorough evaluation by a neurologist with specialized training is very important to identify the underlying cause of the lesions and recommend the most appropriate treatment plan.
Brain Lesions Are Complex And Can Appear For A Multitude Of Reasons
Some occur suddenly, while others develop over a period of time. Medical imaging helps healthcare providers determine their origin, cause, and nature so that appropriate treatment – if necessary – can be pursued.
But while a CT or MRI provides clarity for doctors, the medical reports patients receive after getting their scans often include technical terms that can cause confusion and anxiety.
I find that, more often than not, patients have a lot of questions about their reports that they dont typically have the opportunity to ask their radiologist, says Dr. WIntermark, Chief of Neuroradiology at Stanford University and Second Opinion Radiologist for DocPanel.
In this exclusive interview, we sat down with Dr. Wintermark to explore the most common questions patients have about brain lesions and find out how a second opinion can help provide clarity for those navigating a diagnosis.
DocPanel is committed to making sure every patient receives excellent care. If you would like an expert second opinion on your medical imaging scan from Dr. Wintermark or one of our other neuroradiology subspecialists, you can learn more here.
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What Causes Lesions On The Cerebellum
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Brain lesions can be caused by injury, infection, exposure to certain chemicals, problems with the immune system, and more. Typically, their cause is unknown.
Also, what are the symptoms of a damaged cerebellum?
- impaired coordination in the torso or arms and legs.
- frequent stumbling.
- uncontrolled or repetitive eye movements.
- trouble eating and performing other fine motor tasks.
- slurred speech.
Also to know is, can lesions on the brain go away?
In general, many brain lesions have only a fair to poor prognosis because damage and destruction of brain tissue is frequently permanent. However, some people can reduce their symptoms with rehabilitation training and medication.
What is the most common cause of cerebellar disease?
Cerebellar disorders have numerous causes, including congenital malformations, hereditary ataxias, and acquired conditions. Symptoms vary with the cause but typically include ataxia . Diagnosis is clinical and often by imaging and sometimes genetic testing.
What causes skin lesions?
What Causes White Matter Lesions
Lots of different diseases, as well as injuries and toxic substances, can cause damage to the white matter. High blood pressure is a very common cause. Other causes include diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol and smoking. Other factors such as genetics are likely to play a role. Sometimes, white matter lesions are caused by inflammation of the brain.
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What Does It Mean When You Have White Matter On A Brain Mri
White matter disease is commonly detected on brain MRI of aging individuals as white matter hyperintensities , or leukoaraiosis. Over the years it has become increasingly clear that the presence and extent of WMH is a radiographic marker of small cerebral vessel disease and an important predictor of the life-
What Are Incidental Findings
These are findings on a brain scan that are unrelated to the reason the scan has been requested. For example, brain scans are sometimes done because a patient is seeking reassurance that there is no sinister cause for their headache. Brain scans requested in this situation can be reassuring but they may show unexpected or incidental findings.
Ideally, it is good to be aware of the possibility of incidental findings being identified before having a brain scan.
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What Is A Brain Lesion
What is a brain lesion?
A brain lesion refers to any type of abnormal tissue in or around the brain tissue.
What are the different types of brain lesions and what causes them?
There is a wide array of brain lesions. Some are related to the normal aging process of the brain. Others are related to trauma, inflammation, or infection. Brain lesions also include vascular abnormalities and benign and malignant brain tumors.
Brain CTs and MRIs are often needed to elucidate the nature of brain lesions.
How Does The Brain Work
The brain controls thoughts, memory, speech, movements of the limbs, and organ function. There are many parts to the brain, and each section has a specific role to play in the human body.
Four lobes make up the brain:
Frontal lobe – the largest of the four lobes, is responsible for the bodys motor skills, such as voluntary movement, language, and intellectual and behavioral functions. This area controls memory, intelligence, concentration, temper and personality.
Temporal lobe – located on each side of the brain at ear level, is important for hearing, memory and speech.
Parietal lobe – at the center of the brain, is where sensory information like heat, pressure and pain is received and interpreted.
Occipital lobe – found at the back of the brain, is primarily responsible for vision.
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Preventing Misdiagnosis Of Brain Lesions
What are some common pitfalls in imaging of brain lesions that patients should be aware of?
Brain imaging is complex and many lesions can look almost the same – while representing different entities. The radiologist typically works closely with the patients physicians to make sure the latter has the best information to make their care decisions with their patient.
Because brain lesions can be tricky, interpretation from a neuroradiologist with subspecialty training and experience is very important in avoiding potential pitfalls.
How can patients help ensure they are not misdiagnosed?
The most important element in my mind is good communication with their physician. Patients should ask their doctors as many questions as they have, until they have all been answered.
What Causes Brain Lesions
Symptoms of a brain lesion depend upon what part of the brain is affected. Large parts of the brain can be involved in some diseases and there may be relatively few symptoms. Alternatively, very tiny lesions may be catastrophic if they occur in a critical part of the brain. For example, the reticular activating system is a tiny area located within the brainstem that is effectively the master on/off switch of the brain. If a midbrain stroke affects this area, the result is permanent coma. A patient needs the RAS and one functioning hemisphere of the cortex to be awake. If the patient is unconscious, then the RAS isn’t working or there is significant damage to both sides of the brain.
Initial signs and symptoms of a brain lesion are often non-specific and may include:
The diagnosis of a brain lesion begins with the health care practitioner taking a history and asking the patient questions about the symptoms such as:
- When did they start?
- Do they come and go or are they constant?
- Have they progressed over time?
- What makes them better or worse?
Depending upon the circumstances, the patient may not have insight or may not remember the symptoms or complaints, and it may be up to a family member, caregiver, or friend to supply the appropriate information.
Medical history and physical exams
Past medical history of the patient, exploring associated symptoms and complaints may be helpful in determining the diagnosis.
Imaging and other tests
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Benign Brain Tumor Symptoms & Signs
Symptoms of benign brain tumors often are not specific. The following is a list of symptoms that, alone or combined, can be caused by benign brain tumors unfortunately, these symptoms can occur in many other diseases:
- vision problems
- changes in mental ability
- seizures, muscle jerking
- change in sense of smell
Brain Tumor Vs Brain Cancer
All brain cancers are tumors, but not all brain tumors are cancerous. Noncancerous brain tumors are called benign brain tumors.
Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly, have distinct borders and rarely spread. Benign tumors can still be dangerous. They can damage and compress parts of the brain, causing severe dysfunction. Benign brain tumors located in a vital area of the brain can be life-threatening. Very rarely, a benign tumor can become malignant. Examples of typically benign tumors include meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and pituitary adenoma.
Malignant brain tumors are cancerous. They typically grow rapidly and invade surrounding healthy brain structures. Brain cancer can be life-threatening due to the changes it causes to the vital structures of the brain. Some examples of malignant tumors that originate in or near the brain include olfactory neuroblastoma, chondrosarcoma and medulloblastoma.
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Deterrence And Patient Education
Patients with vascular risk factors should be identified early and counseled on lifestyle changes as well as control of comorbid conditions. Self-monitoring of blood pressure and blood sugar, dietary modifications, weight reduction, and improving physical fitness has proven to decrease the progression of white matter lesions. Involvement in cognitively complex leisure activity to improve cognitive reserve has been associated with a protective effect on cognitive functioning and late-life depression in patients with WMLs.
What Parts Of The Brain Are Affected By Ms Lesions
MS lesions can occur anywhere on the brain. However, they are most likely to occur on the optic nerve, the spinal cord and the cerebellum.
It is also important to note that symptoms are highly specific to each person although patient A and patient B may have lesions in the same areas, each may have different symptoms. Lesions are unpredictable.
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Brain Lesions In Ms: What You Must Know
- Brain lesions in multiple sclerosis are caused by an abnormal immune system response.
- Lesions in the central nervous system cause different symptoms, depending upon their location, size, and severity.
- Disease-modifying medications and lifestyle changes can help prevent multiple sclerosis brain lesions from forming or worsening.
Lesions in multiple sclerosis are the result of damage to the cells of the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Sclerosis refers to the characteristic scar tissue that forms in lesions in the brains of people who have MS. MS lesions are also known as scleroses or plaques. This scar tissue is a result of damage to myelin and the inflammatory processes characteristic of MS.
Lesions in people with MS usually appear in the brain stem, cerebellum, spinal cord, and cranial nerves . Lesions can appear in one specific area of the brain, in multiple areas, or in large swathes of the central nervous system.
How Are White Matter Lesions Treated
There is no specific treatment for white matter lesions. It is sensible to make sure that treatable conditions such as high blood pressure are recognised and treated in case the white matter lesions are due to this. It is sensible to make sure conditions such as diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol are under control. If you smoke, it is sensible to stop.
Contact Professor Emsley to learn how he can help you with the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of neurological conditions.
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Can You Prevent Brain Lesions
Scientists are still looking for ways to protect against brain lesions. They think keeping your migraines in check can help. Having frequent attacks is linked with a higher risk of lesions, so fending off migraines or treating them early on may help lower your risk. These simple steps could help:
- Talk to your doctor. You may need to take medicine or get treatments, like Botox injections, to head off migraines.
- Know your triggers. Bright lights, weather changes, and certain foods could set off your migraines. Once you know your triggers, you can learn to avoid them.
- Keep a lid on stress. Make time to unwind and do things you enjoy every day.
- Get moving. Exercise eases tension and boosts blood flow to the brain, which can help stave off headaches. Research also shows that physical activity may prevent white matter lesions.
- Practice good sleep habits. A bad night could set off an attack. Try to go to bed and wake up at around the same time.
How Are Brain Lesions Diagnosed
If symptoms suggest that a person may be suffering from a brain lesion, it is important to contact the doctor for an appointment. A doctor will help diagnose and offer treatment options for each patient depending on the extent of the condition.
The doctor will ask questions about the patients symptoms and medical history and then perform a physical examination.
In order to find the location of the lesion, the doctor may touch the patients skin with hot, cold or vibrating objects, and also may pinch the patient to check for the feeling of pain. Additional tests may also be recommended by the doctor to further assess the condition.
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Summary Measures And Synthesis Of The Results
Based on descriptions by the original authors and/or available brain images, we classified each lesion according to laterality and affected brain region into whole-brain regions of interest defined a priori by three of the authors . For traced lesion images, quantification of lesion distribution in grey-matter and white-matter into more specific ROIs was performed on Anatomist software , using the Automated Anatomical Labeling atlas , and the John Hopkins University WM tractography atlas , respectively.