Ccausative Properties Of Consciousness And Arousal States
The reader may recall at this point that brain wave frequencies are correlated with various states of consciousness or arousal. To recapitulate briefly, a predominance of beta waves signals a state encompassing the thinking process with its accompanying ego reactions. In this state one is focused on the external world, while at the opposite end of the arousal spectrum one is basically disassociated from the external world and exhibits a predominance of delta, or sleep waves . With a predominance of theta waves ones focus is on the internal world. This is the theta state described earlier, a world of hypnogogic imagery where a number of alphatheta patients have encountered an inner healer who represents their shift out of victim consciousness into empowerment. Alpha brain waves may be considered a bridge from the external world to the internal world, and vice versa.
Mark A. Runco, in, 2014
Structural Brain Damage Seizures Or Ictal Slow Waves
Is memory affected by structural brain damage, which eventually causes seizures, or is memory impairment a result of the seizures, being possibly related to the occurrence of ictal slow waves? The authors support the view that it is highly likely that both possibilities are eligible, but the amount of contribution of one or the other of these two processes may vary with epilepsy subtype, its age of onset, localization, lateralization, time-scale of the affected memories, age, type, and number of seizures especially the occurrence of generalized tonicclonic seizures, status epilepticus, and discharges during slow-wave sleep .
To discuss this sections question, we performed a systematic literature search on PubMed with the search terms epilepsy AND seizure AND memory AND , yielding 123 articles. Of these, 103 were excluded based on the title, 8 based on the abstract, and 2 based on the full text. Thus, 10 articles were included into this review. In addition, we searched the references in these articles in order to include further articles. We list those which refer to peri-ictal slow waves in Table and discuss the others in the following sections.
Table 1. Research on epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and peri-ictal slow waves.
What Happens After An Eeg
Once the test is completed, the electrodes will be removed and the electrode paste will be washed off with warm water, acetone, or witch hazel. In some cases, you may need to wash your hair again at home.
If you took any sedatives for the test, you may be required to rest until the sedatives have worn off. You will need to have someone drive you home.
Skin irritation or redness may be present at the locations where the electrodes were placed, but this will wear off in a few hours.
Your healthcare provider will inform you when you may resume any medicines you stopped taking before the test.
Your healthcare provider may give you additional or alternate instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular situation.
Data Processing And Power Spectrum Analyses
Data were low pass filtered with an 8th order Chebyshev Type I filter prior to downsampling to 256Hz for data manipulation. Post-implantation imaging was coregistered to the standard MNI space using BioImage Suite. Locations were determined for each contact and manually segmented into six regions: frontal, temporal and parietal/occipital regions for each side. Contacts involved in seizure onset were determined from clinical reports. Data for each contact were filtered with zero-phase high and low pass fourth-order butterworth filters with cutoff frequencies of 0.1 and 100Hz, respectively. Frequencies between 0.3Hz and 50Hz were considered following computation of the power spectral density by Welchs method. Spectra were normalized by mean total power from 0.3 to 50Hz to avoid undue influence specific to experimental conditions of the contact . Power spectra for each contact were calculated and normalized. These estimates were averaged across contacts for three groups: contacts that were ipsilateral to the SOZ and within 2cm of clinically defined SOZ contacts, contacts that were ipsilateral and more than 2cm away, and contacts that were contralateral to the SOZ. Power spectra from each contact and epoch across patients were averaged according to these three groups, except as otherwise noted.
Sounds Simple Doesnt It
Although this all sounds simple, it is not quite so easy! Usually when someone has a seizure, the seizure does not cause a typical pattern on the EEG, it just causes a change in the EEG . This means that sometimes the EEG is described as abnormal but does not prove that the person has epilepsy.
To complicate this further, some people have abnormal EEGs but do not have epilepsy. Also, many people who do have epilepsy will only have abnormal activity on the EEG if they have a seizure at the time the test is happening.
This is why having an EEG cannot epilepsy, and why EEGs are used alongside other tests and investigations.
The Impact Of Delta Waves On Deep Sleep
A delta wave is a type of high amplitude brain wave found in humans. Delta waves have a frequency from one to four hertz and are measured using an electroencephalogram . These brain waves are thought to emerge from the thalamus and are generally associated with slow-wave sleep This period of time during which delta waves occur is often known as deep sleep.
What Are The Risks Of An Eeg
The EEG has been used for many years and is considered a safe procedure. The test causes no discomfort. The electrodes record activity. They do not produce any sensation. In addition, there is no risk of getting an electric shock.
In rare instances, an EEG can cause seizures in a person with a seizure disorder. This is due to the flashing lights or the deep breathing that may be involved during the test. If you do get a seizure, your healthcare provider will treat it immediately.
Other risks may be present, depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the reading of an EEG test. These include:
- Low blood sugar caused by fasting
- Body or eye movement during the tests
- Lights, especially bright or flashing ones
- Certain medicines, such as sedatives
- Drinks containing caffeine, such as coffee, cola, and tea
- Oily hair or the presence of hair spray
What Does It All Mean
So EEGs show what is happening in the brain during the test, but why is this helpful in epilepsy? Epileptic seizures are caused by disturbed brain activity which simply means that the normal activity of the brain is suddenly interrupted and changes. When a seizure happens during an EEG, the normal pattern of brain activity that is seen on the EEG reading changes, and different brain activity can be seen.
In focal seizures the change in brain activity can be seen only on the electrodes on the part of the brain the seizure is happening in. The readings from the rest of the electrodes remain the same as normal brain activity . In generalised seizures the altered activity can be picked up by all the electrodes, from all parts of the brain.
Focal seizures . These are seizures that happen in, and affect, only part of the brain and start from a ‘focal point’ in the brain. What happens in these seizures varies depending on which part of the brain is affected and what that part of the brain normally does.
Generalised seizures seizures that happen in, and affect, both sides of the brain from the start. There are many different types of generalised seizures but they all involve the person becoming unconscious, even just for a few seconds, and they won’t remember the seizure itself. The most well-known generalised seizure is the tonic clonic seizure.
Can Neurofeedback Effectively Treat Adhd
We all know someone that has been diagnosed with ADHD and suffered negative side effects from medication used to treat it. But what if there was a non-medication way to address ADHD symptoms? For many patients, neurofeedback may be an effective way to treat ADHD.
According to the CDC, 11% of children in the US between the ages of 4 and 7 suffer from attention deficit disorder. A significant portion of these children take stimulant medications. Unfortunately, many of these medications produce negative side effects, stop working after a while, or do not control a patients symptoms.
Common side effects of ADHD medications like Adderall include:
- Sleep issues
- Decreased appetite
- Irritability and conflict with family members
- Headaches and stomachaches
Fortunately, there are now non-medication options for treating symptoms of ADHD. Several peer-reviewed scientific publications have provided strong evidence for neurofeedback as an alternative ADHD treatment that reduces impulsivity and increases attentiveness and executive function. Neurofeedback helps patients become calm and focused, without causing any significant side effects.
What is Neurofeedback and Brain Mapping?
Neurofeedback therapy is based on the concept of neuroplasticity which means your brain wave pattern is malleable, and that with practice, you can improve your brain waves to feel relaxed, focused, and happy.
What Happens During a Neurofeedback Training Session?
Drug Exposure And Eeg/qeeg Findings
A technical guide by Jay Gunkelman, QEEG-D
There is a generally reciprocal effect between alpha and beta, as brain stem stimulation desynchronizes the alpha generators, beta is seen. During states of under-arousal, this relationship is not seen, as when the subject is alerted, when both alpha and beta increase.
The point is that the arousal level changes the EEG responses expected, as when a stimulant is given to an under-aroused subject, increasing alpha. In a normally aroused subject, stimulants decrease alpha, and in an anxious subject alpha will not be seen as changed by a stimulant.
Though there is a response stereotype for each medication, there are also individual responses, which vary. Mixtures of medications become too complex to evaluate each individual medications contribution, not to speak of synergistic effects not seen with any single medication, which may be seen in polytherapy.
The following pages represent a summary of many articles, papers, reviews and books on medications and the CNS function, and finally nearly 30 years of experience in clinical and research EEG. The difficulty in this area is the definitions of bands varies, the methods of analysis range from visual inspection of the raw EEG to quantitative measures, not all of which are clearly defined and thus the need for a brief summary which puts this into a concise form for reference.
Marijuana/ Hashish/ THC:
Effects on the evoked potentials have been noted as well.
Brain Waves And Mental Health
Brain waves are relevant to mental health, as abnormalities in brain functioning can influence the development of certain conditions. For example, when certain areas of the brain are over-aroused, an individual may experience , nightmares or other sleep problems, impulsivity, and aggression. Too little arousal in the brain, on the other hand, has been correlated with depression, chronic pain, and . If brain rhythms are unstable, an individual may experience obsessive compulsions, develop , or have panic attacks.
Neuroscientists have recently discovered a link between an overabundance of gamma waves in the brain and . Gamma waves cause hyperactivity in areas of the brain, and when this hyperactivity is abnormally high, as it often is in those with schizophrenia, and can result. Poor sleep, which also results from an excess of hyperactive brain waves, has also been recently shown to be a contributing factor to symptoms of schizophrenia: Those who have trouble sleeping due to overabundant gamma waves in the brain may experience a triggering of schizophrenia symptoms.
What Happens If Alpha Waves Are Interrupted Or Out Of Balance
Your brain doesnt stop producing one type of brain wave just because you shift into a different state of consciousness or alertness.
Its more that one type of brain wave will dominate at any given time, based on whether youre awake or asleep, focused, or floating along. If for some reason your brain isnt producing very many alpha waves, it means that youre not in a relaxed, meditative state of mind.
But there are times when your brain waves can become imbalanced.
Research indicates that some people who have depression may have an imbalance of alpha waves, with more of them occurring in an area of the brain called the left frontal cortex.
You may actually be able to increase your alpha brain waves if you put your mind to it.
A found that neurofeedback training helped some people with generalized anxiety disorder . Neurofeedback is a type of where you respond in real time to the electrical activity in your brain and try to adjust it.
In this study, participants with GAD were divided into a treatment group and a control group.
The treatment group that underwent neurofeedback training was able to increase the amplitude of their alpha brain waves. These bigger alpha waves increased the participants sense of calm and reduced feelings of anxiety.
One caveat: This particular study also included theta waves in the neurofeedback training, which could have also played a role.
Correlations Between Contacts And Cross
Correlations can be assessed spatially between contacts and between frequency bands within a single contact, also known as cross-frequency coupling. For spatial correlations, the Euclidean distance was calculated between all contacts. To assess the strength of the linear relation relationship between contacts, a single Pearson correlation coefficient without any time lag was calculated for each contact pair for all contact combinations. The Fisher z-transformation was used to stabilize the variances of the Pearson coefficients prior to averaging.
Data from the 15-minute epochs for Awake, Sleep, and Postictal states were bandpass filtered with fourth-order Butterworth filters, and the correlation coefficients calculated.
Can You Manipulate Your Theta Brain Waves
Were still learning about how theta waves work and how it may be possible to boost their activity, and why that might be appropriate or beneficial.
Although research is limited, there is some information thats come to light about theta brain waves in recent years.
Consider the results of a small 2017 brain wave study. The researchers analyzed the results of wireless implants that recorded brain wave activity in four volunteers.
They found that theta wave oscillations increased when the participants were trying to move around in an unfamiliar environment. Additionally, the researchers learned that theta wave activity tended to speed up when the study participants moved faster.
Another 2017 study explored the way that theta wave activity seems to be linked to one particular type of learning. This type of learning occurs when youre doing something that you may not have conscious access to, like learning to ride a bike. This is known as implicit learning.
This research suggests that examining brain wave activity could be helpful in figuring out how to teach people to learn certain kinds of information, or to perform certain tasks.
The researchers also noted that they may be able to use the evidence of theta wave activity to detect disorders like Alzheimers disease.
When Should Eeg Be Performed In The Intensive Care Patient
To detect non-convulsive or clinically subtle seizures. Most cases of status on the intensive care unit are non-convulsive or difficult to identify on clinical grounds alone. NCSE should be anticipated if there is a prior history of epilepsy; in patients with CNS infection, recent neurosurgical procedures, head injury or stroke; as a sequela of convulsive status epilepticus; and following prolonged cardiorespiratory arrest. Up to 10% of patients with unexplained coma have NCSE, based on electrographic studies. Occurrence of NCSE and delay in recognition/treatment are associated with poorer outcome independent of aetiology of status and age.
To characterise paroxysmal clinical events that might be seizures, including grimacing, chewing, or nystagmoid eye movements; abrupt and otherwise unexplained changes in pulse, blood pressure or respiratory pattern; or abrupt deterioration in conscious level. Ideally, video and EEG should be recorded concurrently.
To distinguish coma from diminished responsiveness due to other causes .
EEG no longer has a role in determination of brain death, but demonstration of an isoelectric and wholly unreactive EEG, in addition to other assessment of the patient, may sometimes help relatives accept that ongoing treatment is futile.
Association Among Temporal Low
The results in this study suggested that TLID, BORTT and TMSSA data bore considerable resemblance, so next we examined whether there was coincidence of these temporal findings. We found that TLID appeared in 32/40 EEG with TMSSA and 8/10 EEG with BORTT. The correlation between TLID on the one hand and BORTT and TMSSA on the other was statistically significant .
Brain Waves And The Electroencephalogram
Numerous EEG studies suggest that there are particular brain wave patterns and brain structures associated with creative problem solving, or at least specific phases within the problem-solving process . Martindale and Hasenfus , for example, obtained EEG readings from 12 undergraduates with electrodes over the right posterior temporal area of the brain. Wave activity was recorded while the students waited for the study to begin, after the experiment had begun and they were directed to think about a fantasy story they could write, and while they were actually writing the story. Findings indicated that the students who had been rated by their instructors to be highly creative did indeed exhibit higher alpha activity during the inspiration phases than during the elaboration phases of the writing project. No differences were found for the students rated as less creative.
Figure 3.2. Example of EEG print-out.
Figure 3.3. It can be difficult for famous creators to find the time to do anything other than their work. Einstein generously submitted to an EEGand later, well after his death, his brain was dissected. Now that is generous!
Boris Kotchoubey, in, 1998
The Eeg In Psychiatric Disorders
A wide range of EEG abnormalities, often subtle and bordering on normal variants, has been described in psychiatric conditions, including personality disorders. None appears to be of diagnostic or prognostic value. Overall, there is low EEG yield in patients presenting with purely psychiatric symptoms. This is especially so in young subjects with new onset psychotic disorders featuring auditory and visual hallucinations. Such hallucinations in isolation of any other clinical pointers are hardly ever indicative of epilepsy. Even in neurological conditions that manifest initially with psychiatric featuresfor example, variant CJDEEG is usually normal in the early stages. In middle aged or elderly patients with new onset psychiatric illness, EEG can be more helpful in detection of organic brain syndromes, with diffuse abnormalities indicating a neurodegenerative or encephalopathic process, or focal slow activity alerting to a space occupying lesion.
What Are The Benefits Of Alpha Waves
You may be wondering why alpha waves are so important. When your brain is producing these waves, its responding to activities like meditation and rest that can reduce your stress levels and help you feel calmer.
If youre able to produce alpha brain waves, youre probably able to tap into a state that can help you get some rest and relaxation.
Boosting your alpha waves might also increase your creativity levels. In a 2015 study, researchers found evidence that they could trigger a surge in creativity if they specifically focused on enhancing alpha waves.
The study was small only 20 participants but as a randomized trial, it could hold promise for the use of noninvasive brain stimulation to rev up your brains production of alpha brain waves.
How Are Alpha Waves Different From Other Brain Waves
Alpha brain waves are only one type of brain wave. There are actually five common types of brain waves.
Brain waves are measured by frequency, which is cycles per second, or hertz , and they range from very slow to very fast. Alpha waves fit in the middle of the spectrum, between theta waves and beta waves.
Heres the full spectrum of the five common types of brain waves that you experience every day, from slowest to fastest:
Left Temporal Polymorphic Theta / Delta Slowing
Here we see a good PDRÂ throughout of 10 Hz, but note while the right temporal region is alpha and beta activity, the left temporal region has a kind of “sloppier”Â appearance with admixed slower frequencies from theta and delta. In a normal awake adult, you should basically never see theta or delta activity. The slowing here is not rhythmic and seems to run across the entire page, so we’d classify it as focal left temporal persistent polymorphic theta to delta slowing.
R E V I E W
There Are Many Symptoms Of Cognitive Decline Which Show That Your Brain Is Actually Slowing Down It Can Happen At Any Age Or For Any Number Of Reasons
Determining whether your brain is functioning properly or not might be a bit confusing, but you should pay attention to certain kinds of situations. For instance, you may find it hard to understand new technology and gizmos even though you may have been considered a techie in the past. Also, you may find people talking to you slowly or repeating things for you so that you can easily understand them.
Your brain slowing down with age can be frustrating. However, cognitive decline can be reduced and addressed with appropriate measures and adequate help. Here are a few of the symptoms of cognitive decline:
Location Of Temporal Slow Waves
In the group of 512 patients, TLID appeared predominantly on the left temporal area in 60% and on the right side in 17%. In the remaining 23% of patients, TLID appeared on both sides equally. A predominance on the left side was also found in the occurrence of BORTT and TMSSA . In 16 EEG records of healthy subjects with temporal slow waves of any type, left side predominance was again seen . In all records with temporal slow waves, the foci of the slow wave were at anterio-temporal or mid-temporal areas.
How Delta Waves Are Measured
Delta waves were first identified and described in the early 1900s after the invention of the electroencephalogram allowed researchers to look at brain activity during sleep. During sleep, the brain cycles through a number of different stages differentiated from each other by the brain activity that occurs during each stage.
During the initial stages of sleep, people are still awake and somewhat alert. At this point, the quick and small beta waves are produced. Eventually, the brain begins to slow down and slower waves known as alpha waves can be observed with an EEG. Once asleep, the three stages of sleep can begin:
- Stage 1 is light sleep, typically beginning soon after getting into bed and lasting roughly 710 minutes. At this point, the brain creates a slow, high amplitude activity known as theta waves.
- Stage 2 sleep encompasses about 50% of a night’s sleep and is marked not only by sleep spindles but also K-complexes. This stage lasts slightly longer than the previous stage.
- Stage 3 is deep sleep and should encompass about 20% to 25% of a night’s sleep. During this stage, the brain begins to produce the slow and deep waves of delta sleep. People are far less responsive and less aware of the external environment at this point. Delta wave sleep is often thought of as a transitional point between light and deep sleep. Previously, researchers distinguished between stage 3 and stage 4 of sleep, but they are now recognized as combined stages.
The Interaction Of Slow Waves And Ripples During Memory Consolidation
Seizure- or spike-related high-frequency oscillations, so-called ripples , in the hippocampus and ripples that are coupled to phases of slow oscillations during memory consolidation might also mirror the complex relationship between physiological slow waves during deep sleep and pathological peri-ictal slow waves .
Figure 1. In patients with structural abnormalities in the hippocampus, ripples occur in both the positive and negative peak of hippocampal delta oscillations . In analogy to the generation of spikes , we hypothesize that pathological ripples are caused by a simultaneous increase of the firing rate in large populations of cells because of inhibition breakdown. Under normal conditions, functional ripples occur mostly in the excitatory, positive half of slow oscillations and are relevant for memory consolidation . We hypothesize that activity from inhibitory neurons is necessary to generate selective firing patterns.