Sunday, May 8, 2022

What Connects The Two Hemispheres Of The Brain

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Right Brain Hemisphere Vs Left Brain Hemisphere

The two Cerebral Hemispheres

The left brain hemisphere is needed for rational thinking and logical skills such as mathematics and language. On the other hand, the right side of the brain is responsible for creative activities like arts and connecting to others in an emotional way. So, a person who is left brain dominant is logical while the right brain dominant is more emotional.

Why Is It Rare To Be Left Handed

As handedness is a highly heritable trait associated with various medical conditions, and because many of these conditions could have presented a Darwinian fitness challenge in ancestral populations, this indicates left-handedness may have previously been rarer than it currently is, due to natural selection.

Left Brain And Right Brain Theory

A person can either be right-brained or left-brained. It means that one side of the brain is dominant. The left-brained dominant people are methodical and analytical in nature. Those right-brained dominant are creative and artistic.

The left brain and right brain theory was created in the 1960s by a psychologist named Roger W. Sperry.

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Two Brain Halves One Perception: How Communication Between Brain Hemispheres Determines Individual’s Subjective Experience

Date:
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Summary:
Our brain is divided into two hemispheres, which are linked through only a few connections. However, we do not seem to have a problem to create a coherent image of our environment — our perception is not “split” in two halves. For the seamless unity of our subjective experience, information from both hemispheres needs to be efficiently integrated. The corpus callosum, the largest fibre bundle connecting the left and right side of our brain, plays a major role in this process. Researchers in Germany investigated whether differences between individuals in the anatomy of the corpus callosum would predict how observers perceive a visual stimulus for which the left and right hemisphere need to cooperate. As their results indicate, the characteristics of specific callosal fibre tracts are related to the subjective experience of individuals.

Analyses revealed that the properties of specific fibre tracts connecting regions specialized for visual motion processing could predict observers’ individual parity ratio. “It seems that participants with a faster nerve-conduction velocity mediated through larger diameters of nerve fibres are better at integrating visual information across both hemispheres,” explains Axel Kohler. Importantly, this relationship was restricted to visual motion centres. Neighbouring fibre tracts in the visual system connecting areas specialized for other stimulus features were not associated with the parity ratio.

The Two Brain Hemispheres Are Just One Example Of Natures Duality Which Is Often Manifested As One Balanced Whole

Brain Biology

This whole consists of opposite characteristics that, in all cases, form a perfect unity. The driver of our natural function, the source of our thoughts, our brain is made of two very different parts.

The two brain hemispheres affect our thoughts, decisions, and everything we do. How we perceive reality is entirely based on the use of one of those parts of our brain.

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Injury In The Right Hemisphere Of The Brain

The right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body. Any injuries on the right side of the brain could result in left-sided weakness. The following problems could arise:

  • The patient finds it challenging to focus on concentrate on a task.
  • The left side of the body cant attend to things.
  • Difficulty in processing the information on the left visual field.
  • The patient cant recall the previously learned information as well as difficulty in learning new information.
  • The person fails to identify problems or even generate solutions.
  • The persons social communication skills are affected such as interpreting abstract language, understanding jokes, making inferences, and understanding non-verbal cues.
  • Difficulty in recalling significant events such as the time, date, and place.
  • Difficulty in organizing things such as arranging information and planning.

A detailed comparison between the right brain hemisphere and the left brain hemisphere is shown in the table below.

The brains two lateral halves also known as left hemisphere and right hemisphere have neurons/receptors which are used for various bodily functions. The left hemisphere of the brain is in-charge of the cognitive functions such as speech and language.

The right hemisphere of the brain is more on creativity and face recognition. Although the functions of the brain is divided based on its hemisphere, even a particular functions to be executed, it would still need the entire brain.

References

Inflammatory And Noninflammatory Lesions Of The Corpus Callosum

In general neurological practice, the most commonly seen corpus callosum lesions are secondary to MS. FLAIR pulse sequences in the sagittal and axial planes are generally sufficient to assess corpus callosum pathology, although coronal views are also quite helpful. Isolated T2 hyperintense lesions within the central fibers of the genu, body, or splenium of the corpus callosum that are noncontiguous with the septocallosal margin are an uncommon finding. If such lesions exhibit a punctate or snowball-like appearance on sagittal views, Susac syndrome should be considered . Other small-vessel vasculitides can also result in small or punctate lesions within the corpus callosum.

An isolated medium-sized, bilaterally symmetrical lesion within the central fibers of the splenium that often also exhibits restricted diffusion is a transient finding in epilepsy or metabolic encephalopathy . If patchy white matter T2 hyperintensities are present in conjunction with a reversible splenial lesion, CNS lupus should be considered. When accompanied by multiple acute-appearing white and gray matter lesions, ADEM is more likely, and the corpus callosum lesion in this case is more likely to evolve to a chronic appearance. A T2 hyperintense lesion involving most of the central fibers of the splenium while sparing the periphery is typical of Marchiafava-Bignami disease its typical morphology is best demonstrated on sagittal views.

Kathleen Baynes, in, 2002

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Building A Bridge: How The Two Hemispheres Of The Brain Connect During Development

The inspiration behind my creative interpretation of the glial cells, which play a major role in connecting the two hemispheres of the brain via the Corpus Callosum4 min 30 sec read

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    Its been over a century since the first scientists observed that the two hemispheres of the brain are predominantly separated during fetal development before becoming connected by interhemispheric nerve fiber tracts. These connections facilitate learning, memory, social behavior, and integration of both sensory and motor information but some people are born without these connections. Our team has been investigating how the brain structure is remodeled in utero and across evolution to enhance connectivity between the two hemispheres. We identified that glial cells build an interhemispheric bridge during fetal development that allows a large number of neural connections to cross between hemispheres . This event likely first occurred in the ancestors of placental mammals and led to the evolution of the corpus callosum, the largest neural tract in the human brain . Failure for this bridge to form is a major cause of disorders where the corpus callosum does not form . I recently won the QBI Art in Neuroscience Award and discuss what motivated my winning creative interpretation of glial cells in the human brain with the Nature team.

    Congratulations on winning the QBI Art in Neuroscience Award. What inspired you to create the image?

    What is the major take-home message in your piece?

    Cerebrum The Cerebrum Is The Largest Part Of The Brain It Is Divided Into 2 Halves Called The Left And Right Cerebral Hemispheres The 2 Hemispheres Are Connected By A Bridge Of Nerve Fibres Called The Corpus Callosum The Right Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Left Side Of The Body The Left Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Right Side Of The Body The Cerebral Cortex Is The Outer Folded Part Of The Brain It Is Also Called The Grey Matter The Cerebral Cortex Is Mostly Made Up Of The Cell Bodies And Dendrites Of Nerve Cells Cell Bodies Contain The Nucleus And Other Main Parts Of The Cell Dendrites Are The Short Branching Fibres That Receive Signals From Other Nerve Cells The Inner Part Of The Cerebrum Is Called The White Matter It Is Mostly Made Up Of The Long Fibres Of A Nerve Cell That Send Signals To And From The Brain To The Rest Of The Body The Fatty Coating That Surrounds Axons Gives This Part Of The Brain A Whitish Appearance Each Hemisphere Is Divided Into 4 Sections Called Lobes These Include The Frontal Parietal Temporal And Occipital Lobes

    Life With a Unique Brain (Missing the Part that Connects the Hemispheres)

    Each lobe has different functions:

    The frontal lobe controls movement, speech, behaviour, memory, emotions and intellectual functions, such as thought processes, reasoning, problem solving, decision-making and planning.

    The parietal lobe controls sensations, such as touch, pressure, pain and temperature. It also controls the understanding of size, shape and direction .

    The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory and emotions. The dominant temporal lobe also controls speech.

    The occipital lobe controls vision.

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    When The Bridge Between Hemispheres Is Lacking The Brain Reorganizes

    The brain adapts, through reorganization, in people born without a corpus callosum who lack a bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres. It is thought that these mechanisms enable the brain to compensate for the losses by recreating connections to other brain regions using alternative neural pathways.

    When the neuronal fibers that act as a bridge between the hemispheres are missing, the brains reorganization creates an impressive number of connections inside each hemisphere. A new study shows that this reorganization creates more intra-hemispheric connections than in a healthy brain, indicating that plasticity mechanisms are involved. It is thought that these mechanisms enable the brain to compensate for the losses by recreating connections to other brain regions using alternative neural pathways.

    This work is published in Cerebral Cortex in the paper, Structural Neuroplastic Responses Preserve Functional Connectivity and Neurobehavioral Outcomes in Children Born Without Corpus Callosum.

    One in 4,000 people is born without a corpus callosuma brain structure that transfers information from one hemisphere to the other. The corpus callosum, which develops in utero between the tenth and twentieth week of gestation, is the largest white matter pathway in the brain connecting the two hemispheres.

    Ial Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    ACC may also be partial , resulting in more subtle US findings than are associated with complete ACC. When the corpus callosum is incompletely formed, usually the posterior portion is affected in this situation, the CSP can be present, and often the only indirect US sign is colpocephaly. Identifying pACC is important because approximately one third of apparently isolated cases are associated with moderate or severe neurological morbidity.9 In up to one-third of cases there are no indirect signs, and consequently the diagnosis may be missed unless direct demonstration of the corpus callosum in the midsagittal plane is attempted.4,6,14 In cases of pACC without indirect signs, the shape of CSP is also abnormal.15 A sagittal view is the only way to make the diagnosis, visualizing a small corpus callosum that is lacking the posterior part and only partially surrounds the third ventricle. Less frequently, the remaining structure in pACC is the genu it can appear thin and barely discernible with grayscale imaging and can be identified only when highlighted by the course of the pericallosal artery.

    Midline interhemispheric cysts associated with ACC are considered extensions of the ventricular system . Intracranial lipoma is another median anomaly that may be associated with ACC. This anomaly is visible only in the third trimester as a hyperechoic structure under the inferior part of the interhemispheric fissure .

    Tally Lerman-Sagie, … Gustavo Malinger, in, 2017

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    What Is The Corpus Callosum And What Does It Do

    To understand the role of the corpus callosum, it is first important to remember that the brain is divided into two cerebral hemispheres . The hemispheres are made distinct from one another by a long groove called the medial longitudinal fissure. On a large scale, the two hemispheres are nearly identical, but on a microscopic and functional level there are some differences.

    When information like sensory data is sent to the brain it is typically received first in one hemisphere. For example, when you type on your keyboard, information about the feel of the keys is sent up from your right hand to the primary somatosensory cortex on the left side of your brain. That information, however, must then be shared with the right side of your brain as well. That’s where the corpus callosum comes into play. It is a large bundle of fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres, and it carries information received in one hemisphere over to the other.

    The Corpus Callosum Unites The Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    What Structure Connects The Right And Left Cerebral ...

    The corpus callosum, which interconnects the two cerebral hemispheres, is by far the largest fiber bundle in the human brain. It contains somewhere around 250 million axons most of them interconnect roughly mirror-image sites, but a substantial number end in areas different from, but related to, those in which they arise. Area 17 of one hemisphere, for example, projects to areas 18 and 19 of the contralateral hemisphere. Nearly all cortical areas receive commissural fibers , with a few notable exceptions such as the hand area of somatosensory and motor cortex and all of area 17 not representing areas adjacent to the vertical midline. The commissural fibers to and from much of the temporal lobe, particularly its inferior parts, pass through the anterior commissure.

    Jutta Kust Küst, in, 2003

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    Was Einstein Left Or Right Brained

    You may even see people tying Einsteins genius to his left-handedness. While he was certainly right-handed, autopsies suggest his brain didnt reflect the typical left-side dominance in language and speech areas. His brains hemispheres were more symmetricala trait typical of left-handers and the ambidextrous.

    Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex And Brain Hemispheres

    The cerebrum is involved in functions of higher consciousness. Most of the brain, around 85 per cent, is taken up by the cerebrum. It is this structure that gives the brain its distinctive shape of two halves – the right and left hemispheres. The cortex is essentially a sheet of neurons about 3mm thick, which forms the grey matter.The cerebral cortex is folded in on itself this provides the characteristic ridges and valleys of the brain. Connections between neurons and with remote nuclei are carried by a myriad of axons, forming the white matter. The right and left hemispheres are further divided into four lobes. These include:

    • Frontal – located behind the forehead. Functions include consciousness, thinking, emotions, language and memory.
    • Parietal – located on the top and rear of the head. These lobes process information from the sensory nerves and contribute to voluntary movement.
    • Temporal – located over each ear. Functions include memory and processing sounds, face recognition, recognition of complex objects and multi-sensory integration.
    • Occipital – located at the back of the head. The main function is interpretation of sensory information from the eyes.

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    The Cell Structure Of The Brain

    The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

    When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

    Are The Two Hemispheres Of The Brain Identical

    How Your Brain’s Hemispheres REALLY Differ

    You might not have a more dominant half, but your brain really is split into two hemispheres, left and right. And the left and right hemispheres are not the same. They are highly similar and redundant, though. Most processes that youd find on the left side also take place on the right, and vice-versa.

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    How Does The Corpus Callosum Affect Behavior

    Individuals with a disorder of the corpus callosum typically have delays in attaining developmental milestones such as walking, talking, or reading challenges with social interactions clumsiness and poor motor coordination, particularly on skills that require coordination of left and right hands and feet (such as

    Can The Corpus Callosum Regenerate

    It is not possible for the corpus callosum to regenerate. Neuropsychological testing reveals subtle differences in higher cortical function compared to individuals of the same age and education without ACC, although some individuals with callosal disorders have average intelligence and live normal lives.

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    Integrating The Two Hemispheres Of The Brain

    The ancient Egyptians were the first to notice that the left brain tends to control the right side of the body, while the right brain tends to control left side of the body. Although the two hemispheres are almost identical in terms of structure and function both hemispheres to a completely different way and are associated with various functions and activities. This is known as specialization and lateralization. Lateralization is evident if we consider the phenomenon of people prefer to use the right hand or left or preference to the left or right ear. However, the preference of the individual to use the left or right hand writing is not a sufficient indicator for the localization of brain function.

    Imagine looking down through the top of your head to the cortex of your brain. You will notice that it is made of two halves called hemispheres: one left side, other than the right. Left and right side of the brain is associated with a complex network of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. This neurological bridge is responsible for the transfer of information between the left and right hemisphere, allowing the brain to function as a whole.

    Also, much of the research for the development of both sides of the brain in children showed that less used connections between left and right.

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