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What Diseases Can Cause Lesions On The Brain

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Causes Of A Brain Abscess

Three Lesions, Three Lives: Brain Lesions That Changed Science

There are 3 main ways a brain abscess can develop. These are:

  • an infection in another part of the skull such as an ear infection, sinusitis or dental abscess, which can spread directly into the brain
  • an infection in another part of the body for example, the infection that causes pneumonia spreading into the brain via the blood
  • trauma, such as a severe head injury that cracks open the skull, allowing bacteria or fungi to enter the brain

However, in some cases, the source of the infection remains unknown.

Read more about the causes of a brain abscess.

Can You Can Have Ms Without Mri Lesions

  • YES , it certainly may be possible to have MS and not have lesions, at least, not have lesions that may be found by current MRI technology. However, no matter what is actually wrong with you, be it MS, or Lyme disease, or lupus, or whatever….the person who will ultimately help you the most is you.

Brain Tumor Vs Brain Cancer

All brain cancers are tumors, but not all brain tumors are cancerous. Noncancerous brain tumors are called benign brain tumors.

Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly, have distinct borders and rarely spread. Benign tumors can still be dangerous. They can damage and compress parts of the brain, causing severe dysfunction. Benign brain tumors located in a vital area of the brain can be life-threatening. Very rarely, a benign tumor can become malignant. Examples of typically benign tumors include meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and pituitary adenoma.

Malignant brain tumors are cancerous. They typically grow rapidly and invade surrounding healthy brain structures. Brain cancer can be life-threatening due to the changes it causes to the vital structures of the brain. Some examples of malignant tumors that originate in or near the brain include olfactory neuroblastoma, chondrosarcoma and medulloblastoma.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Brain Lesions

Symptoms of brain lesions vary depending on the type of lesion, its extent, and where it is found. Everyone is different and symptoms will vary in individual cases. Many lesions, however, may be in areas of the brain that dont produce symptoms.

Typical symptoms may include:

  • Headaches are usually the first symptom to appear with brain lesions. The pain appears suddenly and worsens as time passes. Over-the-counter medicine usually offers no relief for the pain.
  • Nausea and possible vomiting
  • Impaired movement, if the lesion affects the part of the brain responsible for motor skills
  • Lack of concentration, the inability to make quick decisions, and agitation
  • Delayed speech, blurred vision, and impaired hearing
  • Involuntary movements of body parts, which may progress to convulsions in severe cases

The following symptoms are specific to lesions of the frontal lobe:

  • Absence of sense of smell, usually limited to one nostril
  • Speech impairment
  • Loss of motor activity on one or both sides of the body
  • Behavioral changes

The following symptoms are specific to lesions of the temporal lobe:

  • A change in behavior and emotions
  • Disruption in the sense of smell, taste, and hearing
  • Language and speech disorders
  • Problems with field of vision
  • Forgetfulness and the inability to focus

The following symptoms are specific to lesions of the parietal lobe:

  • Loss of sensations like touch
  • Astereognosis, or the inability to identity things placed in the hand
  • Weakening of language development
  • Changes in vision

What Is The Prognosis For A Brain Lesion

Lesions on the brain: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and ...

Because of the many different types of brain lesions, the prognosis and outcomes of brain lesions are variable. However, with most brain lesion types, the more brain tissue that is damaged or killed by a brain lesion, the worse the prognosis is for the person. Fortunately, the reverse is also generally true, but is mainly limited to lesions caused by mild trauma, strokes that affect a very small brain tissue area, a few rapidly treated infections, and occasionally, a few benign and malignant tumors that are effectively treated.

For some brain lesion types, the damage to some brain tissue is not reversible, so the prognosis may be only fair to good, as long as the person’s problems do not progress. Another problem with prognosis is that some brain lesions may recur , while others are simply progressive with no effective definitive cure available. The prognosis in the short term may be good if the symptoms respond to treatment, but the long-term prognosis usually is considered to be, at best, fair to eventually poor , due to their progressive nature.

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How Are Brain Lesions Diagnosed

If symptoms suggest that a person may be suffering from a brain lesion, it is important to contact the doctor for an appointment. A doctor will help diagnose and offer treatment options for each patient depending on the extent of the condition.

The doctor will ask questions about the patients symptoms and medical history and then perform a physical examination.

In order to find the location of the lesion, the doctor may touch the patients skin with hot, cold or vibrating objects, and also may pinch the patient to check for the feeling of pain. Additional tests may also be recommended by the doctor to further assess the condition.

What Are White Matter Lesions And When Are They A Problem

White matter is found throughout the central nervous system, but much of it lies in the interior of the brain, between the cerebral cortex and deep gray matter structures such as the thalamus and basal ganglia. White matter is made up of tracts, or bundles, each of which contains millions of nerve fibers that connect gray matter regions throughout the central nervous system. The nerve fibers are composed of axons, which transmit electrical signals that help neurons communicate with one another. Axons are surrounded by a fatty material called myelin, which insulates them like a sheath and gives white matter its color.

Abnormalities in white matter, known as lesions, are most often seen as bright areas or spots on MRI scans of the brain. They can reflect normal aging white matter deteriorates as people age. Studies have found that white matter lesions appear in some degree on brain scans of most older adults but less often in younger people. White matter lesions are among the most common incidental findingswhich means the lesions have no clinical significanceon brain scans of people of any age.

They may also reflect a mixture of inflammation, swelling, and damage to the myelin. With other imaging techniques, a white matter lesion may appear as a black hole, which indicates damage to the axons.

There is increasing evidence that white matter lesions may be an early component of neurodegenerative conditions such as and stroke.

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The Reasons That Provoke The Development Of Tumors In The Brain Can Be Many:

  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Exposure to chemicals.
  • Ionizing radiation.

To date, doctors are actively discussing the likelihood of the negative impact of bruises, cell phones, and various injuries in the head.If vascular pathology is detected, various mental disorders may develop.As a rule, they directly depend on the location of the hearth.As practice shows, most often they occur when the right hemisphere is affected.

Diagnosing A Brain Abscess

Lesions on the Brain (Brain Lesions) : Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis

If a brain abscess is suspected, an initial assessment will be made based on your symptoms, medical history and whether you’ve had a recent infection or a weakened immune system.

Blood tests can also be carried out to check for an infection.

If you’re referred to hospital for further tests, you may have either:

  • a CT scan a series of X-rays are used to produce a detailed image of the inside of your body
  • an MRI scan which uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of your body.

If an abscess is found, a procedure known as CT-guided aspiration may be used to remove a sample of pus for testing. This involves using a CT scan to guide a needle to the site of the abscess.

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Complications Of A Brain Abscess

Complications of a brain abscess can include:

  • a reoccurring abscess seek immediate medical advice if you think there’s even a small chance your abscess has reoccurred this is more common in people with a weakened immune system or cyanotic heart disease
  • brain damage mild to moderate brain damage often improves with time but severe brain damage is likely to be permanent brain damage is more of a risk if diagnosis and treatment are delayed
  • epilepsy where a person has repeated seizures
  • meningitis a life-threatening infection of the protective membranes around the brain, which requires urgent treatment this is more common in children

Page last reviewed: 20 May 2019 Next review due: 20 May 2022

Brain Tumors In Children

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in children and adolescents, affecting about 5,000 children in the U.S. each year. Several different types of brain tumors can occur in children, including astrocytomas , gliomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas.

Learn more about brain tumors in children.

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Epilepsy Classification And Pediatric Epilepsies

Morbidity and mortality risk can be ameliorated by successful treatment of epilepsy in childhood, but a thorough evaluation of the patient’s specific pediatric epilepsy type, its electrographic signatures, imaging, and neuropsychological characterization is mandatory. In what follows, we consider some of these common characteristics in childhood epilepsy and the management approach taken.

A number of different epilepsy syndromes are present in childhood some are often regarded as easily managed and usually outgrown, whereas others are designated as epileptic encephalopathies with more devastating outcomes. Some of the childhood-onset epilepsies have been widely regarded as being treatable with surgery. For others, most notably those associated with developmental delays or genetic abnormalities, surgery has only recently been considered as a possible treatment option. For the purposes of this chapter, we will first address those often treated with surgery, followed by those that have historically not been candidates because of associated comorbidities but may be candidates for palliative surgery.

C. DOMINIQUE TORAN-ALLERAND, in, 1986

Brain Tumor Causes And Risk Factors

Do lesions on your brain hurt?

Doctors donât know why some cells begin to form into tumor cells. It may have something to do with a personâs genes or his or her environment, or both. Some potential brain tumor causes and risk factors may include:

  • Cancers that spread from other parts of the body
  • Certain genetic conditions that predispose a person to overproduction of certain cells
  • Exposure to some forms of radiation

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Causes Of Cns Lesions:

Peri-intranasal pathologyDuring pregnancy or childbirth, even a slight effect on the mothers body can adversely affect the condition of the child.For example, oxygen starvation , premature detachment of the placenta, as well as prolonged childbirth can lead to irreversible processes in the brain cells of the child.A decrease in the tone of the uterus can also negatively affectIn some cases, this can lead to the death of a child aged 5 to 15 years.If life can be saved, such children are at risk of becoming disabled at a very early age.

Almost always, the violations that were described above lead to violations of the mental sphere.If the mental potential was initially reduced, this can lead to the formation of negative character traits.

Neurodegenerative Changes Associated With Aging And Cognitive Dysfunction

Etiology

  • Canine cognitive dysfunction is a neurodegenerative disease of the forebrain characterized by a very gradual onset and progression of cognitive decline in dogs greater than 11 years of age.
  • The cause of cognitive dysfunction is not fully understood, but certain morphologic and functional changes are recognized in association with this syndrome.
  • Cortical atrophy due to neuronal loss , amyloid plaques and perivascular amyloid, myelin degeneration with perivascular macrophage infiltration and gliosis, and intraneuronal lipofuscin accumulation are commonly observed. Changes in the frontal and temporal lobes are most severe. The density of amyloid plaques shows a correlation with the severity of cognitive decline.
  • Functional changes hypothesized to occur include decreased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in frontal cortex, increased monoamine oxidase activity with increased norepinephrine and dopamine breakdown , alterations in post-synaptic receptor numbers and function, and decreased mitochondrial energy production.

Clinical Signs

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Overestimating The Implications Of Lesions

Goadsby and many other headache specialists say they are confident that the risk of long-term damage is not a cause for concern. Another study they cite to support this is a population-based study from The Netherlands called the CAMERA Study. In this study, researchers compared the brain scans of healthy control subjects and the scans of people with migraine with aura. They re-examined the same subjects nine years later to determine whether people with migraine developed new lesions and whether these lesions were associated with changes in concentration, memory, information processing, and other cognitive tasks, and found that people with migraine had a slight increase in the number of lesions but that there was no evidence of neurological impairment related to these changes.

These same changes can occur in children and adolescents. In addition, age is a known factor that increases the risk of these tiny white matter lesions. The EVA study, a French population-based study on migraine and cognitive decline, conducted brain scans and cognitive function tests on subjects with and without migraine who were born between 1922 and 1932. Again, they found no correlation between the observed brain changes and any evidence of cognitive dysfunction.

How Do Doctors Detect Brain Lesions

Brain Lesions : Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis

In some instances, lesions or symptoms of lesions are detected during an exam, scan, or routine monitoring for an unrelated condition. Brain lesions appear as darker or lighter spots on a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Other times a person’s neurologic symptoms bring them to the doctors office.

Sometimes, these symptoms lead to a diagnosis of MS or clinically isolated syndrome. The findings from an MRI scan are vital diagnostic indicators. The type, size, and distribution of brain lesions in MS are also an important part of the McDonald diagnostic criteria. This is the set of criteria most frequently used to diagnose MS and monitor MS disease progression.

Diagnosing lesions in the brain may involve a neurologist taking a complete medical history, conducting a physical examination, and performing a detailed neurological exam. The doctor may use vibration or hot or cold objects to assess the ability to detect sensations. The doctor may pinch a persons cheek or other part of the body to check pain responses. These stimulus response tests may also help pinpoint the possible location of the lesion or lesions.

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How Does The Brain Work

The brain controls thoughts, memory, speech, movements of the limbs, and organ function. There are many parts to the brain, and each section has a specific role to play in the human body.

Four lobes make up the brain:

Frontal lobe – the largest of the four lobes, is responsible for the bodys motor skills, such as voluntary movement, language, and intellectual and behavioral functions. This area controls memory, intelligence, concentration, temper and personality.

Temporal lobe – located on each side of the brain at ear level, is important for hearing, memory and speech.

Parietal lobe – at the center of the brain, is where sensory information like heat, pressure and pain is received and interpreted.

Occipital lobe – found at the back of the brain, is primarily responsible for vision.

Is It Possible To Prevent Brain Lesions

In some instances, certain brain lesions can be prevented, though not all types can be completely prevented. For some brain lesion types, reducing various risk factors can lessen the chances the brain lesions will develop however, if they do, there are sometimes ways to slow the progression of symptoms. Each type of brain lesion varies somewhat in its prevention. The following list, though not entirely comprehensive, provides readers with the various types of brain lesions, and recognized preventive measures.

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Treating A Brain Abscess

A brain abscess is regarded as a medical emergency. Swelling caused by the abscess can disrupt the blood and oxygen supply to the brain. There’s also a risk of the abscess bursting .

If left untreated, a brain abscess can cause permanent brain damage and could be fatal.

A brain abscess is usually treated using a combination of:

  • medicines either antibiotics or antifungals
  • surgery either draining the pus through a hole in the skull or opening the skull and removing the abscess entirely

Treatment with antibiotics often begins before a diagnosis is confirmed, to reduce the risk of complications.

Complications Of Brain Lesions

My brain MRI showing white matter lesions caused by lupus ...

Brain lesions, if left untreated, can cause severe complications. They can expand to the other areas of the brain causing complete loss of brain functioning.

Loss of brain functioning decreases the quality of life causing paralysis, speech and hearing abnormalities. Involvement of the brain stem can interfere with the process of respiration and cardiac control leading to the death of the person. Bleeding lesions inside the brain can cause severe blood loss.

This can also cause circulatory shock and sudden death. Brain tumors can spread to other areas of the brain. If left untreated, brain tumors are the most lethal brain lesions having a much higher mortality rate.

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What Areas The Types Of Brain Lesions

Before we can move on to know the different types of brain lesions we need to know a little about the normal anatomy of human brain. Human brain is an organ present in skull, everyone knows this much.

Structurally human brain is made upon of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons act as the structural and functional units of human brain. These units exchange information among each other, process and integrate this information and help us make decisions leading to voluntary and involuntary actions.

These cells, in turn, are made of two major components: the cells bodies meant for processing information and cell fibers meant for carrying electrical impulses. Glial cells on the other hand are supporting structures in the brain. These cells provide neuronal cells with support, nutrition and a proper environment meant for proper functioning. These cells also consist of cell bodies and cell fibers.

All these cells are so arranged in the brain that all the cell fibers lie in one part and the cell bodies lie in the other.

So structurally brain can be divided into two distinct areas: The white matter that contains all the neuronal fibers and gray matter that contains all the cells bodies. Here we toss the structural classification of brain lesions.

This is the functional classification of human brain.

Frontal lobe is mostly concerned with planning of movements and their execution.

Temporal lobe is associated with controlling activities like hearing and speech.

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