Superior Middle And Inferior Temporal Gyri
The temporal lobe consists of three main gyri, the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, which are visible on the lateral surface and separated by superior and inferiortemporalsulci. The temporal lobes receive both auditory signals and visual signals, and as such are responsible for aspects of auditory and visual perception.
The transverse gyri of Heschl, also known as the primary auditory area , is located on the internal, superior part of the superior temporal gyrus, is a specialized region of cortex primarily responsible for the reception of auditory information. The secondary auditory area lies posterior to the primary auditory area in the superior temporal gyrus and receives impulses from the primary auditory area and thalamus. The posterior part of area 22 belongs to the Wernickes region in the dominant hemisphere, known as the sensory speech area of Wernicke. Unlike the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior temporal gyri are responsible for aspects of visual perception. The middle temporal gyrus is associated with the perception of movement within the visual field whereas the inferior temporal gyrus contains the fusiform face area , which is necessary for face recognition.
Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain
In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.
Brain Lobes And Their Functions
The brain is divided into four sections, known as lobes . The frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and temporal lobe have different locations and functions that support the responses and actions of the human body. Let’s start by identifying where each lobe is positioned in the brain.
Position of the Lobes
The frontal lobe is the emotional control center of the brain responsible for forming our personality and influencing out decisions. The frontal lobe is located at the front of the central sulcus where it receives information signals from other lobes of the brain.
The parietal lobe processes sensory information for cognitive purposes and helps coordinate spatial relations so we can make sense of the world around us. The parietal lobe resides in the middle section of the brain behind the central sulcus, above the occipital lobe.
The temporal lobe is located on the bottom of the brain below the lateral fissure. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting the sounds and the language we hear.
The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain behind the parietal and temporal lobes. The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for processing auditory information.
Functions of the Lobes
The frontal lobe has many functions most of which center on regulating social behavior. Here are some of the important functions of the frontal lobe:
- Visual-spatial processing
- Movement and color recognition
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Posterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Posterior cerebral artery syndrome occurs when there is obstruction of the blood flow through the calcarinebranch of the posterior cerebral artery. The calcarine branch supplies the visual cortex in the occipitallobe, the part of the brain necessary for sight.
Ischemic damage to this region can lead to a condition called contralateral homonymous hemianopia , which is the loss of vision in the contralateral visual field. For example, if calcarine branch of the left posterior cerebral artery is occluded, an affected individual will typically experience vision loss in the right visual field of each eye. In cases of temporal lobe ischemia, amnesia may result.
The presence of dual blood supply to parts of the occipital lobe means that certain regions of the visual field may be spared from damage when the posterior cerebral artery is occluded: this typically presents as macular sparing, or sparing of the central visual field.
Where You Reside A Break Down Of The Lobes Of The Brain
Ever wonder what makes you, wellyou! Your brain is where your mind and consciousness is thought to be located. Everything you are from your thoughts, memories, feelings, and behaviors are sitting in that magnificent brain of yours.
Before we jump on the topic of the lobes of the brain, well need to first get a grasp on just how much your mind has physical roots in your brain.
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The Case Of Phineas Gages Brain Injury
In 1848, a man named Phineas Gage was working on the railroad, tamping gunpowder into a blasting hole with an iron rod and accidentally ignited the gunpowder.
The explosion caused the rod to shoot through his left side of his face and through his head, destroying much of his brains left frontal lobe.
Amazingly after the accident, he stood up, walked over, and described what had happened all while being conscious.
The doctor that examined him at the time refused to believe that a rod had shot through his head until Gage coughed out what was described to be a teacupful amount of brain.
Surprisingly after a few months, he was healed up and moving around just fine. However, his friends reported that he was no longer like himself.
The old Gage was mild-mannered and pleasant. After the accident though, he became mean-spirited and vulgar, or as his friends and coworkers described him no longer Gage.
Your brain essentially encompasses everything about what makes you a person, from personality to your thinking. Phineas Gages story is an example of how much we are yet to understand our brains functions and capabilities.
The Four Cerebral Cortex Lobes Of The Brain
- B.A., Biology, Emory University
- A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College
The cerebral cortex is the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. The cortex is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. The cortex covers the outer portion of the cerebrum and cerebellum.
The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes. Each of these lobes is found in both the right and left hemispheres of the brain. The cortex encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain. It is the most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language. The cerebral cortex is also the most recent structure in the history of brain evolution.
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What Can Happen If Your Frontal Lobe Is Damaged
A famous case of frontal lobe damage is that of Phineas Gage. In 1848, Gage was injured in an explosion that caused a railroad spike to pierce his frontal lobe. The resulting injury caused drastic changes in Gages personality and behavior.
As weve learned, the frontal lobe is responsible for many different types of functions. Because of this, damage to the frontal lobe can cause a variety of different symptoms depending on the area thats affected.
Some potential symptoms of frontal lobe damage can include:
- loss of movement, either partial or complete , on the opposite side of the body
- difficulty performing tasks that require a sequence of movements
- trouble with speech or language
- poor planning or organization
Treatment for damage to the frontal lobe depends on whats caused the damage to occur. If you have frontal lobe damage, your treatment plan may include a team of several types of healthcare professionals.
Some examples of potential treatments for frontal lobe damage include:
In some cases, the cause of the frontal lobe damage may be permanent. One example of this is neurodegenerative diseases. In these cases, treatment may also involve medications.
Four Cerebral Cortex Lobes
- Parietal Lobes: These lobes are positioned posteriorly to the frontal lobes and above the occipital lobes. They are involved in receiving and processing of sensory information. The somatosensory cortex is found within the parietal lobes and is essential for processing touch sensations.
- Frontal Lobes: These lobes are positioned at the front-most region of the cerebral cortex. They are involved with movement, decision-making, problem-solving, and planning. The right frontal lobe controls activity on the left side of the body and the left frontal lobe controls activity on the right side.
- Occipital Lobes: Located just below the parietal lobes, the occipital lobes are the main center for visual processing. The visual information is sent to the parietal lobes and temporal lobes for further processing.
- Temporal Lobes: These lobes are located directly below the frontal and parietal lobes. They are involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language. Structures of the limbic system, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus are located within the temporal lobes.
In summary, the cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes that are responsible for processing and interpreting input from various sources and maintaining cognitive function. Sensory functions interpreted by the cerebral cortex include hearing, touch, and vision. Cognitive functions include thinking, perceiving, and understanding language.
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Get To Know The Lobes Of The Brain An Easy Guide
Containing an average of 86 billion neurons, the brain is one of the most complex and inexplicable organs in the human body. In this article, youll be learning about the major lobes of the brain and their respective functions.
Fun fact: Its not true that we use 10% of our brain. No study has ever claimed that. We actually lack the full knowledge of the brains capabilities and it keeps us from understanding its true potential.
Weve yet to uncover a deeper understanding of the brain, and in the future, we might be able to access some hidden brain functions.
So, lets uncover a bit of what we know today and learn about the lobes of the brain and their functions.
What Does The Left Frontal Lobe Of The Brain Do
Collectively , the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that is home to our emotional regulation centre and controls our personality.
The left side of the brain controls movement related to language. It is specifically the key in movement , all language function, decision making and emotional regulation.
The frontal lobe is the same part of the brain that is responsible for executive functions such as planning for the future , judgement and decision making skills , attention span and inhibition,
The anatomy of the brain is well defined , however it’s key to understand to shut down all but the left frontal lobe is not possible. It’s important to understand the complexity of the brain and the fact that all associated neuronal structures work in conjunction.
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Brain Damage Aphasias And Agnosias
Damage to the temporal lobe, and the left temporal lobe in particular, can be debilitating. Most often, you see this result in an inability to recall memories or information, but when certain regions of the dominant temporal lobe are damaged, such as Broca or Wernicke’s areas, a certain type of brain damage known as an aphasia or an agnosia can develop. These forms of brain damage result in an inability to process a specific type of information. For example, someone with Broca’s aphasia alone can understand language but will have trouble speaking their sentences will seem garbled, but will still carry meaning. Whereas an agnosia can result in someone being unable to recognize someone’s face, or can lead to them misinterpreting what a given object is. These forms of brain damage can be adapted to and lived with but are one of the many reasons it’s important to protect your head from harm.
Interesting Facts About Your Frontal Lobe
Check out some interesting facts about your frontal lobe:
- The frontal lobes are the largest of the lobes in your brain. Theyre located at the front of your brain. Its estimated they make up about one-third of your cerebrum.
- The frontal lobe of primates, particularly humans, is much larger than those of other species. You might say the frontal lobe is the most important area for our various human skills, such as reasoning and language.
- The frontal lobes are extensively connected with nerve pathways to other areas of the brain, reinforcing their importance in a vast array of functions. As such, damage to the frontal lobes may cause a ripple effect to other parts of the brain.
- Your frontal lobes are the last areas of your brain to mature. In some cases, they may not be fully developed
The Functions Of The Left Temporal Lobe
The temporal lobes of the brain may not seem like much at first glance: The thumb-shaped areas at the sides of your brain aren’t as large as the frontal or parietal lobes, and they aren’t referenced or discussed as often as the cerebellum positioned just below. However, these oft-overlooked lobes are one of the most important parts of your brain. Without them, you wouldn’t be able to remember reading this paragraph 15 minutes from now and without the left side of your temporal lobe, you wouldn’t be able to read it in the first place. This is because, in addition to a number of other critical mental functions, the temporal lobe controls language and memory. The left side in particular is home to a number of unique areas worth paying attention to.
The temporal lobes of the human brain are in charge of a wide variety of functions: The lobes control memory, sound processing and facial recognition, and temporal lobe damage has been known to impact a person’s personality in addition to impairing these functions. Left temporal lobe function in particular is critical for the understanding and use of language, as that lobe is home to Broca and Wernicke’s areas.
Occipital Lobe: Function Location And Structure
The Occipital Lobe helps with visual processing and mapping. It is located under the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobe near the back of the brain.
- Occipital Lobe
The occipital lobe is the seat of most of the brain’s visual cortex, allowing you not only to see and process stimuli from the external world, but also to assign meaning to and remember visual perceptions. Located just under the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe is the brain’s smallest lobe, but its functions are indispensable.
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What Does The Brain Do
Different parts of the brain receive and understand different messages from different parts of your body. The Brain is divided into two halves called Hemispheres. The Right Hemisphere works the left side of the body and the Left Hemisphere works the right side of the body. These two Hemispheres are joined together by a thick grouping of more than 200 million nerve fibres called the Corpus Callosum . These nerve fibres let messages pass from one side of the brain to the other.
Each Hemisphere of your brain has parts called Lobes. Each Lobe has different jobs that it does. The part of the Brain that makes our body parts move is called The Motor Cortex. It is found towards the back of the Frontal Lobe which is located at the front of your head. Different parts of the Motor Cortex of your Frontal Lobe move different parts of your body. Researchers have been able to map exactly which part of your brain moves each part of your body. They created a picture or a “Motor Map” of this which is called The Motor Cortex Homunculus to show us which part of our brain in the Motor Cortex is responsible for moving each part of our body.
Go to the ABIOS website Brain Map for more information about the what the Brain does.
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Broca And Wernicke’s Areas
Located at the front and middle of the left temporal lobe, respectively, Broca’s area and Wenicke’s area are the regions of the human brain that handle the formation and processing of language. Regardless of what language you’re using, these two regions allow you to form sentences, understand the meaning of what others are saying and pick up on verbal patterns. These regions are the reason why a left temporal lobe hemorrhage can leave a person unable to understand what someone is saying, or lead them to babble incoherently.
Do Different Brain Regions Control Different Functions
Doctors originally divided the brain into four separate regions for the sake of conveniently labeling anatomical functions. We now know that the lobes of the brain roughly correlate with a variety of functions. The temporal lobe, for instance, plays a key role in auditory processing, while the frontal lobe helps regulate attention and memory.
This doesn’t mean that brain regions control these functions. Many functions overlap across brain regions, and the functioning of one region often depends on another. Moreover, some research suggests that when there is damage to one region of the brain, other regions may compensate, suggesting that the brain is highly malleable.
This all means that the brain is an unpredictable organ. Much remains to be understood, and our understanding of which brain regions do what changes with each new brain study.
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