Sunday, May 22, 2022

What Does A Brain Cell Look Like

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This Is What The Brain Of A Stroke Survivor Looks Like

This is what brain cell conversations look like

Strokes are the fifth highest cause of death in the U.S., killing almost 130,000 Americans every year. More than 795,000 Americans suffer a stroke every year. For over half of those Americans, it’s their first.

87% of all strokes are ischemic, which means that blood flow to the brain is blocked, causing the cells to die and the brain tissue to become irrevocably damaged.

While everyone is at risk from suffering a stroke, drug users that use stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetime are at a higher risk of ischemic strokes. This is because these stimulants can induce hypertension and other vascular toxicity, which can lead to strokes.

The collapsed area of the brain in the image below is an infarct . Though this stroke survivor died of other causes, it’s possible to see that the damage to the brain may have given rise to the classic symptoms of a stroke: immobility, inability to feel, loss of vision, loss of hearing, and speech and cognitive problems.

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What Does Brain Cancer Feel Like

  • The constant agony that is more horrible after waking up in the morning and shows signs of improvement within a couple of hours.
  • Migraine persevering, no headache.
  • Can be attached for lifting.
  • It could be latent, dependent on the area of the tumor.
  • Can be combined with the piracy, the training or an adjustment in the position of the body.
  • Not reacting as a rule care standard of a migraine.
  • It may be related to new neurological problems.

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Dementia: What Does The Brain Look Like

A few MRI scoring systems contribute to grading the severity of dementia which will in turn guide management of the disease. Examples of scoring systems include the Global Cortical Atrophy scale, Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy scale, Koedam score for parietal lobe atrophy and Fazekas scale for white matter lesions/ vascular disease.

Dementia however, is not diagnosed based on imaging alone. It is diagnosed based on a combination of tests, ranging from a clinical history, assessment on mental ability such as memory and communication, lab tests and scans. Scans are utilised in this aspect mainly to i) exclude a structural/ surgical cause and ii) grade brain changes in dementia.

Symptoms of dementia vary, depending on stage of the disease. Early symptoms of dementia are memory loss, being confused about time and place, mood changes and difficulty carrying out simple, usual daily tasks. At this stage, the disease is termed mild cognitive impairment. As the disease progresses, these symptoms worsen and the term dementia is used. Symptoms of dementia proper and advanced dementia are regular forgetfulness, difficulty finding the right words, difficulty with numbers and handling money, mobility issues, becoming more withdrawn or anxious, bladder or bowel incontinence, amongst others.

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What Does A Neuron Look Like

A useful analogy is to think of a neuron as a tree. A neuron has three main parts: dendrites, an axon, and a cell body or soma , which can be represented as the branches, roots and trunk of a tree, respectively. A dendrite is where a neuron receives input from other cells. Dendrites branch as they move towards their tips, just like tree branches do, and they even have leaf-like structures on them called spines.

The axon is the output structure of the neuron when a neuron wants to talk to another neuron, it sends an electrical message called an action potential throughout the entire axon. The soma is where the nucleus lies, where the neurons DNA is housed, and where proteins are made to be transported throughout the axon and dendrites.

The tree-like structure of a neuron. Dendritic spines are small structures that receive inputs from the axons of other neurons. Bottom-right image: a segment of dendrite from which spines branch off, like leaves off a tree branch. Note the very small size .

There are different types of neurons, both in the brain and the spinal cord. They are generally divided according to where they orginate, where they project to and which neurotransmitters they use.

My Cancer Story: From Loss To Learning

Newfound brain cells linked to high blood pressure ...

I became interested in the potential healing power of guided visualizations following the deaths of my parents both from cancer. My dad passed away when I was 12 from a brain tumor, and when I was 25 my mom died from stomach cancer. Could a more wholesome approach to their physical and emotional health have changed things? I dont know the answer to this question, but I have to admit that its a big reason why my focus is in self-healing and using the other 95% of your brain.

Driven by these immense losses, I dove into research about cancer and the various treatments currently available. Combined with my own experiences with infertility, I kept returning to the idea that meditation and guided visualization offered the potential to improve both ailments.

Based on my own experiences and those of many, many women I have worked with over the past 10 years through Circle + Bloom, I have come to believe strongly that you can change your body with your thoughts.

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What Makes Human Brain Cells Unique

New findings reveal distinctive electrical properties of human neurons that may give us a boost in computing power

Spanish neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal revolutionized the study of the brain when he observed neurons for the first time. His investigations, now more than 100 years old, revealed intricate details of nerve cells in many different animals, including humansrootlike dendrites attached to bulbous cell bodies, from which extend long, slender axons.

Cajals examinations also revealed dendrites were much longer in humans than in rodents and other animals, even other non-human primates. A new study, published this week in Cell, shows that in people these antennalike projections also have distinct electrical properties that may help explain how the brain processes arriving information.

Scientists have been meticulously studying dendrites in the decades since Cajals initial observations. Still, the only thing we really knew about human dendrites was their anatomy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology neuroscientist says. There was a lot of potential for human dendrites to be doing something different because of their length, but there was no published work, as far as I know, on their actual electrical properties.

Cholesterol Is Key To Learning And Memory

The brain has a higher cholesterol content than any other organ. In fact, about 25% of the bodys cholesterol resides within the brain. The brain is highly dependent on cholesterol, but its cholesterol metabolism is unique. Because the blood-brain barrier prevents brain cells from taking up cholesterol from the blood, the brain must produce its own cholesterol. The brains cholesterol is much more stable than the cholesterol in other organs, but when it breaks down, it is recycled into new cholesterol right in the brain.

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Are Neuropeptides Similar To Hormones

Release of neuropeptides by the dendrites of neurons is very similar to the release of hormones elsewhere in your body. Hormones are the chemical messengers released by glands and transported by the blood to distant target cells. So, hormones can stimulate cells that are located far away from the glands where they are produced. There are many different hormones, and they have lots of different functions in the body. For example, prolactin, another hormone released from the pituitary gland, travels to a mothers breast where it stimulates the production of milk for breastfeeding. This process of wireless signaling by hormones is like the signaling by neuropeptides within the brainso neuropeptides could be called brain hormones.

How Visualization Can Affect Your Body

What Learning Looks Like in the Brain

Youve probably heard of the placebo effect. Essentially, its a cure that originates in the mind. When a person takes what they think is a real drug to alleviate various symptoms, the results can be exactly the same whether that pill was a real pharmaceutical or a simple sugar pill. This tells is that the mind is a very powerful organ in the body.

Related to the placebo effect is the power of visualization. If you picture a juicy piece of fruit in your mind, your mouth will begin to salivate. Your mind has the ability to affect physical responses in your body.

Combined with meditation and relaxation exercises, visualization can help you lower stress and feel a sense of empowerment. You are an active participant in your life and body, and the way it experiences the world. You cannot control everything, but you can control how you respond to your diagnosis and experience.

The positive effects of visualization can release of endorphins, or happy chemicals, in your system that can help boost your immune system.

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Brain Cell Differences Could Be Key To Learning In Humans And Ai

06 October 2021

Neural networks identifying hand gestures

Imperial researchers have found that variability between brain cells might speed up learning and improve the performance of the brain and future AI.

The new study found that by tweaking the electrical properties of individual cells in simulations of brain networks, the networks learned faster than simulations with identical cells.

Having a diversity of neurons in both brains and AI…could boost learning.Nicolas PerezDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

They also found that the networks needed fewer of the tweaked cells to get the same results, and that the method is less energy intensive than models with identical cells.

The authors say that their findings could teach us about why our brains are so good at learning, and might also help us to build better artificially intelligent systems, such as digital assistants that can recognise voices and faces, or self-driving car technology.

First author Nicolas Perez, a PhD student at Imperial College Londons Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, said: The brain needs to be energy efficient while still being able to excel at solving complex tasks. Our work suggests that having a diversity of neurons in both brains and AI fulfils both these requirements and could boost learning.

The research is published in Nature Communications.

Does Size Really Matter

While size is loosely linked to brain function, a large brain does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of intelligence. The more important factor for approximating intelligence is how much of the body the brain takes up, or our brain-to-body mass ratio. We can see the brain and body mass of some animals displayed in the graph below. The species above the trend line have higher brain-to-body mass ratios, and are typically thought to be more intelligent than the species with smaller ratios below the line.

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Your Brain Is Mostly Fat

Consisting of minimum 60% fat, your brain is the fattiest organ in your body. This is why healthy fats, such as omega-3s and omega-6s, are vital for brain and overall body health. Healthy fat helps stabilize the cell walls in the brain. It can also reduce inflammation and helps the immune system function properly.

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Brain Cells For Socializing

How and Why Do Brain Cells Die?

Does an obscure nerve cell help explain what gorillas, elephants, whalesand peoplehave in common?

Ingfei Chen

There was little chance of missing the elephant in the room. About a dozen years after Simba died at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, a half-inch slab of her yellowish, wrinkled, basketball-size brain was laid out before John Allman, a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Preserved in formaldehyde, it looked like half a pancake, frozen solid on a misting bed of dry ice. Allman carefully sliced it using the laboratory equivalent of a deli meat cutter. Taking well over an hour, he carved off 136 paper-thin sections.

Allman was searching for a peculiar kind of brain cell that he suspects is a key to how the African elephantlike a human beingmanages to stay attuned to the ever-shifting nuances of social interplay. These spindle-shaped brain cells, called von Economo neuronsnamed for the man who first described themare found only in human beings, great apes and a handful of other notably gregarious creatures. Allman, 66, compares the brains of people and other animals to gain insight into the evolution of human behavior.

Yet de Waal also cautions that “until someone establishes the exact function of those cells, it remains a story, basically.”

Point taken. But it’s hard not to be seduced by Allman’s theory when some of the most compelling evidence comes not from the animal pathology lab but from the medical clinic.

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A New Resource Adds To Our Understanding Of The Brain

Neuroscience got its start more than 100 years ago when Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi began depicting what brain cellsneuronsactually looked like. The two shared the 1906 Nobel Prize for their efforts. Succeeding generations have taken advantage of technological advances to add depth and detail to our picture of neurons. This week, the team of investigators at the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle released the first installment of human cells in its cell types database, thereby zooming in a little further to reveal a new level of intricacy and complexity in the tiny units that underlie your every thought, movement, and spoken word.

Neurons are the elementary units of the brain. Each consists of a cell body , axons for sending signals, and dendrites for receiving them. Altogether, there are about 84 billion of neurons, which link together to form roughly 100 trillion connections. Those connectionselectrical pulses traveling across synapses from one cell to the next to the nextmake up the circuits that result in brain function.

If we really want to understand the details of what gives us our particular functions and cognitive abilities, or If we really want to understand human disease, says Lein, theres no substitute but to actually understand the details of the real system itself.

Loss Of Neuronal Connections And Cell Death

In Alzheimers disease, as neurons are injured and die throughout the brain, connections between networks of neurons may break down, and many brain regions begin to shrink. By the final stages of Alzheimers, this processcalled brain atrophyis widespread, causing significant loss of brain volume.

Learn more about Alzheimers disease from MedlinePlus.

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How Do Brains Work

Research has shown how nerve cells function, passing electrical and chemical information at speeds up to 400 kilometres per hour. The scientific community has a good understanding of how these brain cells, or neurons, function on an individual level, passing signals from one neuron to the next. The big picture, however, is a mystery we havent fully solved yetdeciphering how these neurons coordinate by the millions to receive and send information simultaneously and linking all the bodys systems and organs to function as one unit. So, if you have brains on the brain, maybe neurological research is for you! There are countless mysteries in the animal brain just waiting to be solved.

What Goes On In The Teenage Brain

What does the brain look like?

The human brain is made up of many interconnected parts. Each of them has its own function. Different things you dosuch as seeing, moving, smelling, feeling, or thinkingare run by different parts of the brain. And these different parts need to communicate with each other to coordinate their actions.

During childhood, each part of your brain is more focused on developing than on communicating with other parts. But at puberty, the focus shifts. The brain begins to improve its communication system.

What changes in the teenage brain help this communication system? Scientists think its the accumulation of a white, fatty substance called myelin. Brain cells whose wiry extensions are wrapped in myelin communicate information faster and more frequently than cells without myelin. They are also better at coordinating with other brain cells. Myelinated cells form the brains white matter. White matter expands during the teenage years. This could explain why teenagers are so good at adapting and learning.

Illustration – Text Version

Parts of a neuron including the axon terminals, axon, myelin sheaths, Schwanns cells, Nodes of Ranvier, cell body, nucleus and dendrites.

Did you know?

Some of the myelinated axons in your brain can transmit information at speeds of over 400 kilometres per hour!

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Neurons Building Blocks Of The Brain

The average adult human brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons. What is a neuron? Neurons are the brains messengers, sending information all over your body. Chemical and electrical signals are sent and received between neurons in the brain and throughout the nervous system to muscles and tissues. These signals tell your body what to do.

There are three classes of neurons:

  • Sensory neurons transmit sensory information from organs, such as the eyes and ears, to the brain.
  • Motor neurons send information from brain cells to muscles throughout the body. Motor neurons are also in charge of voluntary muscle movements like speaking.
  • Interneurons are all of the other neurons that dont fit into sensory or motor categories.

What Happens When A Senior Cat Gets Confused

Youve probably already noticed an increase in catnaps, another indication that your cat is getting a little older. Like most senior animals, aging cats can develop dementia, and from this point on, your cat is at increased risk. It is harder for him to learn new things and adjust to change now, and he may get confused more easily.

Brain tumors are a possibility for older cats who show signs of dementia. Tumors can lead to seizures and collapse, but all kinds of abnormal behavior such as incoordination or reacting to invisible objects are suspect, too.

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Signs Of Dying In The Elderly With Dementia

Dementia is a general term for a chronic or persistent decline in mental processes including memory loss, impaired reasoning, and personality changes. Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of all cases of dementia. It is also the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, and over 5 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimers disease.

Alzheimers disease and most progressive dementias do not have a cure. While the disease inevitably worsens over time, that timeline can vary greatly from one patient to the next.

Caring for a loved one can be challenging and stressful, as the individuals personality changes and cognitive function declines. They may even stop recognizing their nearest and dearest friends and relatives. As dementia progresses, the individual will require more and more care. As a family caregiver, its important to be able to recognize the signs of dying in elderly with dementia. Hospice can help by offering care wherever the individual resides, providing physical, emotional and spiritual care to the patient and support their family.

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