Friday, May 13, 2022

What Does A Brain Look Like In Real Life

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An Adult Brain Weighs About 3 Pounds

Up close with a human brain – BBC News

The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brains weight, and the brain makes up about 2% of a humans body weight. The texture of the brain is like a firm jelly. The heaviest normal human brain weighed 4.43 pounds. It belonged to the Russian Writer Ivan Turgenev. And the smallest brain, just 2.41 pounds, belonged to a woman.

Commit To The Practice

In order to rewire your brain for the long term, you must practice visualization for at least six weeks for just five to 10 minutes a day.

If you’re busy during the day, try doing the practice before going to bed or first thing in the morning. Before you start the visualization process, ask yourself the questions below:

  • What is my unique talent?
  • Who will benefit?

How Social Reality Creates Physical Reality

Abstract categories are tremendously flexible. Consider the following three objects: a bottle of water, an elephant and a pistol. These objects do not look alike, feel alike, smell alike, or have any other obvious physical similarities. It turns out that they do share a physical function: they can all squirt water. So they form a category.

But they also share another function that, unlike water-squirting, is completely untethered from their physical nature. They are members of the category, things that would fail to pass through airport security. This purely abstract category is only based on function and is a product of human minds .

Purely abstract categories, in fact, drive many of your actions and experiences. When your brain makes guesses about the sense data around and within you, those guesses often form an abstract category based on function.

To explain a feeling of shortness of breath, your brain might construct a category containing physical exercise, a punch in the gut, surprise, lust and a hundred other potential causes that are all similar to the present moment, so it can whittle them down and act. Category construction is the process by which your brain figures out what something is, what to do about it, and how it should regulate your organs, hormones and immune system as it prepares for action.

Read more about the senses:

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Porn Warps & Twists Views About Sex

Researchers have repeatedly found that people who have seen a significant amount of porn are more likely to start having sex sooner and with more partners, and to engage in riskier kinds of sex, putting them at greater risk of getting sexually transmitted infections. In a study of popular porn videos, the number of sexual partners in a scene ranged from one to 19, and averaged at three. And the kinds of sex acts in porn are often degrading or violent. In a study of popular porn videos, 9 out of 10 scenes showed a woman being hit, beaten, or otherwise harmed, and the result was almost always the same they either seemed not to mind or looked happy about it.


Men who look at porn have been shown to be more likely to go to prostitutes, often looking for a chance to live out what theyve seen in porn. In one survey of former prostitutes, 80% said that customers had shown them images of porn to illustrate what they wanted to do. Porn is also linked to the global issue of sex trafficking. Porn is commonly made of victims of sex trafficking and put online or sold to distributors. These sex slaves are drugged, beaten, and forced into doing porn. For porn users at home, there is no way to know the dark origins of the porn theyre watching. Clicking porn is directly supporting the demand for sex trafficking.


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Your Brain Uses 20% Of The Oxygen And Blood In Your Body

Junior TAG 2016: What do real brains look like... we take ...

Your brain needs a constant supply of oxygen. As little as five minutes without oxygen can cause some brain cells to die, leading to severe brain damage. Also, the harder you think, the more oxygen and fuel your brain will use from your blood up to 50%.

Every minute, 750-1,000 milliliters of blood flows through the brain. This is enough to fill a bottle of wine or liter bottle of soda.

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Is This The Most Extraordinary Human Brain Ever Seen

ONCE you know what it is, this apparently innocuous picture of a blob assumes a terrible gravity. It is an adult human brain that is entirely smooth free of the ridges and folds so characteristic of our species most complex organ.

We can only imagine what life was like for this person. He or she was a resident of what is now North Texas State Hospital, a mental health facility, and died there in 1970, but thats all we know. While the jar containing the brain is labelled with a reference number, the microfilm containing the patients medical records has been lost.

Photographer Adam Voorhes spent a year trying to track down more information about this and nearly 100 other human brains held in a collection at the University of Texas, Austin, to no avail. The label on the jar states that the patient had agyria a lack of gyri and sulci, the ridges and folds formed by the normally wrinkled cerebral cortex. This rare condition, also known as lissencephaly, often leads to death before the age of 10. It can cause muscle spasms, seizures and, as it vastly reduces the surface area of this key part of the brain, a range of learning difficulties.

Earlier this year the University of Texas took delivery of an MRI scanner to document the structure of the brains in the collection in detail. While this might teach us more about the brain itself, the identity of the person who had this extraordinary brain and details of his or her life seem to be lost forever.

Medications To Maintain Mental Function In Alzheimer’s Disease

Several medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat symptoms of Alzheimers. Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are used to treat the symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimers. Donepezil, memantine, the rivastigmine patch, and a combination medication of memantine and donepezil are used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimers symptoms. All of these drugs work by regulating neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. They may help reduce symptoms and help with certain behavioral problems. However, these drugs dont change the underlying disease process. They are effective for some but not all people and may help only for a limited time.

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Camera Distortion Warps Your Proportions

Ever suspect that your forehead or nose looked larger in a particular picture than in real life?

More than likely, you were correct.

Camera distortion is ubiquitous in social media pictures especially selfies.

The most common cause of camera distortion is that the subject is too close to the lens.

Most photographers say that the type of lens used also has a lot to do with it, and wide-angle lenses are big offenders.

Were Not Seeing Reality Our Vision Runs 100 Milliseconds Behind The Real World

What does the brain look like?

Why are we seeing a story about the world a story and not the real deal? Its not because evolution made our minds flawed. Its actually an adaptation.

We dont have the necessary machinery, and we wouldnt even want it, to process carefully all of the amount of information that were constantly bombarded with, says Susana Martinez-Conde, a neuroscientist and illusion researcher at SUNY Downstate Medical Center.

Think about what it takes to perceive something move, like the objects in the above animations. Once light hits the retinas at the back of our eyeballs, its converted into an electrical signal that then has to travel to the visual processing system at the back of our brains. From there, the signal travels forward through our brains, constructing what we see and creating our perception of it. This process just takes time.

The dirty little secret about sensory systems is that theyre slow, theyre lagged, theyre not about whats happening right now but whats happening 50 milliseconds ago, or, in the case for vision, hundreds of milliseconds ago, says Adam Hantman, a neuroscientist at Howard Hughes Medical Institutes Janelia Research Campus.

If we relied solely on this outdated information, though, we wouldnt be able to hit baseballs with bats, or swat annoying flies away from our faces. Wed be less coordinated, and possibly get hurt more often.

Dont believe it? See for yourself. Heres a simple illusion that reveals our visual system is a bit lagged.

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Can You Combine These Drugs

Some people might be curious whether all of these limitless effects could be combined into a single treatment rather than be confined to single substances. So could you stack Modafinil, LSD, or Phenibut together all at once?

Well, you could, but you need to be extremely careful, as these are some of the most powerful nootropics currently known to man, much like the case in Limitless with NZT. In addition to the fact that certain neurotransmitters are affected to a high degree by each drug, there are possible interactions to consider, and many are unknown.

Certainly, if you wished to try a combination, you would want to reduce the dosage of each drug because most of the ones we listed act in a stimulating manner. Too much of anything stimulating inevitably leads to anxiety which is what we dont want from a limitless experience.

However, in theory, Phenibut would pair excellently with LSD as it would promote a positive outlook along with the enhanced flexibility your brain experiences. Also, the serotonergic nature of LSD doesnt clash with the primarily GABAergic nature of the Phenibut.

Just remember to keep yourself hydrated no matter what you do, as illustrated by a Longecity user who shared their experience being dehydrated while on a combination of Phenibut and Modafinil.

How Hungry Are Our Brains

Despite the fact that the human brain is not a very large organ, its functioning requires a whole lot of energy.

Although the brain weighs only 2 percent of the body , it alone uses 25 percent of all the energy that your body requires to run per day, Herculano-Houzel explained in a presentation.

And why does the brain need so much fuel? Based on studies of rat models, some scientists have hypothesized that, while most of this energy is expended on maintaining ongoing thought and bodily processes, some of it is probably invested in the upkeep of brain cells health.

But, according to some researchers, at first sight, the brain, seemingly inexplicably, uses up a lot of energy during what is known as the resting state, when it is not involved in any specific, targeted activities.

According to James Kozloski, Inactivity correlated networks appear even under anesthesia, and these areas have very high metabolic rates, tipping the brains energy budget toward a large investment in the organisms doing nothing, he writes.

But Kozloskis hypothesis is that no large amount of energy is spent for no reason so why does the brain seem to do it? In fact, he says, it doesnt.

Energy spent doing nothing, he says, is actually put toward assembling a map of accumulating information and experiences that we can fall back on when making decisions in our day-to-day lives.

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The Basics Of Alzheimers Disease

Scientists are conducting studies to learn more about plaques, tangles, and other biological features of Alzheimers disease. Advances in brain imaging techniques allow researchers to see the development and spread of abnormal amyloid and tau proteins in the living brain, as well as changes in brain structure and function. Scientists are also exploring the very earliest steps in the disease process by studying changes in the brain and body fluids that can be detected years before Alzheimers symptoms appear. Findings from these studies will help in understanding the causes of Alzheimers and make diagnosis easier.

One of the great mysteries of Alzheimers disease is why it largely affects older adults. Research on normal brain aging is exploring this question. For example, scientists are learning how age-related changes in the brain may harm neurons and affect other types of brain cells to contribute to Alzheimers damage. These age-related changes include atrophy of certain parts of the brain, inflammation, blood vessel damage, production of unstable molecules called free radicals, and mitochondrial dysfunction .

The Size Of The Human Brain

Science Of Making Memories: Part Of Your Hippocampus ...
  • In terms of weight, the average adult human brain weighs in at 1300 to 1400 grams or around 3 pounds.
  • In terms of length, the average brain is around 15 centimeters long.
  • For comparison, a newborn human baby’s brain weighs approximately 350 to 400 grams or three-quarters of a pound.
  • Men tend to have bigger brains than women. After taking overall body weight into account, men’s brains tend to be approximately 100 grams larger than women’s.
  • In women, parts of the frontal lobe and limbic cortex tend to be bigger than those of men.
  • In men, the parietal cortex and amygdala tend to be larger than those in women.
  • Neurons are the structures that serve as building blocks of the brain and nervous system. They transmit and carry information, allowing different parts of the brain to communicate with one another as well as allowing the brain to communicate with various parts of the body. Researchers currently estimate that there are around 86 billion neurons in the human brain.

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Cholesterol Is Key To Learning And Memory

The brain has a higher cholesterol content than any other organ. In fact, about 25% of the bodys cholesterol resides within the brain. The brain is highly dependent on cholesterol, but its cholesterol metabolism is unique. Because the blood-brain barrier prevents brain cells from taking up cholesterol from the blood, the brain must produce its own cholesterol. The brains cholesterol is much more stable than the cholesterol in other organs, but when it breaks down, it is recycled into new cholesterol right in the brain.

Virtual Reality Gone Really Wrong

Accelerometers in VR imitate the accelerometers we carry around with us in our heads. Any time we move our heads, sense organs in our inner earsthe vestibular systemprovide the brain with information about how our head is oriented in space. The vestibular system is crucial for helping us maintain balance, making sure we do not fall down, and letting us know if we are lying down or standing up. Building head-tracking into our friends VR headset will make the virtual environment convincing if we get it right. But if it goes wrong, then our friend could get something called cybersickness. Cybersickness happens in VR when a person feels disoriented and nauseous. It is like the kind of motion sickness you might get while trying to read a book in the backseat of a car. Interestingly, however, motion sickness and cybersickness are not quite the same thing. A closer look at the difference will help us understand how VR can be so successful at tricking the brain, sometimes in the wrong kinds of ways.

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Movement Matters A Lot In Person But Not At All In Photos

Your personality, the sound of your voice, and yes, how you move your face and body, act as a strong filter that heavily influence whether people find you attractive or not. But you miss all of this in photos.

Havent we all met someone for the first time after seeing them in a picture and thought, Thats not at all what I expected? Even when their physical features were presented accurately? It was the lack of movement at play.

Additionally, people often have awkward expressions in pictures that no one would have noticed in real life. Thats because we remember a cumulative average of facial expressions rather than each specific movement.

As a consequence, sometimes we get photos of ourselves that are much worse than what we really look like!

Remember the Beyonce Super Bowl pictures debacle of 2013, anyone?

Does It Replicate The Messy World Of Real Science

Dissecting Brains

A few years after the McCabe and Castel study was published, some psychologists at the University of Victoria in New Zealand, led by Robert Michael, were intrigued by the results and they were impressed by how frequently the paper had been cited by other researchers . They wanted to explore the brain image effect, so they started by simply replicating the original study.

In their first attempt at replication, the researchers recruited and tested people using an online site called Mechanical Turk. With 197 participants, they found no hint of an effect of the brain image on peoples judgments about the validity of the conclusions of the article they read. In a second replication study, they tested students from their university and again found no statistically significant effect. In this second attempt, the results were in the predicted direction , but the differences were not strong enough to be persuasive. They tried slight variations on instructions and people recruited, but across 10 different replication studies, only one produced a statistically significant effect.

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Brain Atrophy: Why Volume Loss Is A Concern

All people tend to lose brain volume as they age a process known as atrophy. But in people who have MS, this process typically happens much faster.

Its normal to lose 0.1 to 0.5 percent of brain volume each year as you age. However, in people with MS, this range is typically 0.5 to 1.35 percent, according to an article published in September 2016 in the journal Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. This greater atrophy may begin even before an MS diagnosis.

When nerve fibers die off in significant numbers due to an MS lesion, myelin is lost from the areas of the brain outside that lesion. Thats because nerve fibers can be very long, extending from one area of the brain to another. A lesion may affect only a small portion of a nerve fiber at first, but when the nerve fiber dies, myelin is lost from the entire length of that fiber beyond the lesion.

There are two main types of tissue in the brain: gray matter and white matter. Gray matter consists of the main bodies of nerve cells, while white matter consists of the nerve fibers that extend from these bodies. White matter gets its color from the myelin that surrounds nerve fibers. So when myelin is lost in areas outside lesions, it tends to cause atrophy of white matter.

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