What Are The Major Areas Of The Brain And What Do They Do
|The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain the outer part is called the cerebral cortex.||The cerebellum is about the size of a pear.||The brain stem is located at the bottom of the brain, above the neck, where it connects the brain to the spinal cord.|
|Divided into 2 parts called the right and left hemispheres.||Tucked under and behind the cerebrum.||Divided into three parts: Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain.|
|Responsible for: thinking, senses, producing and understanding language, memories, eating, emotions, body temperature, drinking, sleeping, hormones.||Controls muscle movement, balance, coordination.||Responsible for automatic survival functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and digestion, as well as reflexes such as sneezing, swallowing, and coughing.|
What Are Brain Lesions
Brain lesions are areas of the brain that have been damaged by disease, congenital malformation, trauma, or other causes. While the thought of brain damage may be rather frightening to many people, the severity of lesions actually varies considerably some are not a major cause for concern, while others can indicate the presence of a serious problem. They can vary in size and composition. Being diagnosed with a brain lesion, in other words, is not an immediate cause for panic.
These areas of injury are usually identified in a medical imaging study such as an MRI. Imaging studies of the brain are generally conducted when a neurologist suspects that a patient has experienced some type of brain damage. The study can reveal the location and size of the lesion, and sometimes it can be used to gather information about the nature of the injury, and its possible causes.
Some examples of brain lesions include abscesses, which are caused by infection in the brain, and arteriovenous malformations, clusters of veins which have grown abnormally. Lesions can also be caused by head injuries, strokes, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . Cancers in the brain also classically cause lesions.
What Are Dog Thoughts Like
Dogs have the same brain structures that produce emotions in humans. Much like a human toddler, a dog has the basic emotions: joy, fear, anger, disgust, excitement, contentment, distress, and even love. A dog does not have, and will not develop, more complex emotions, like guilt, pride, contempt, and shame, however.
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Disorders Caused By Larger Parasites
The anchor worm is a parasite that buries its head into the muscle tissue of a host fish. Despite the name, anchor worms are not worms, but crustaceans. These parasites can damage gill tissue. Pond fish are the most common hosts. The fish may scratch against objects to try to knock the parasite off. The parasite can easily be seen, appearing as whitish-green threads hanging off the red, inflamed skin of the fish. The parasite can be removed manually. Treatment is recommended to eliminate the parasite from the pond or aquarium.
Fish lice and leeches are parasites that attach themselves to a host fish, penetrate the skin, and feed on the blood. The fish scratch against objects to try to remove the lice. Lice look like small, clear disks that lie flat against the skin. Leeches are worm-like parasites that contract when touched. Treatment involves removing the parasites from the fish. The tank should be treated to kill any lice larvae that may be present. Leech infestations can be seasonal, but eggs may have been laid in the system, resulting in reinfection after the adult parasites have been eliminated. Treatment is usually recommended if the system has no contact with surface water.
Adding And Removing Genes To Understand Epilepsy
Dr Esguerra has been involved in a range of studies using zebrafish to investigate neurological diseases.
Prior to starting my group in Oslo, I co-led a study that used zebrafish to identify a new gene involved in fever-induced seizure susceptibility, which affects 2-4 per cent of all children and is also linked to epilepsy. When this gene is switched on it produces a protein called Syntaxin 1B, and forms part of a larger multi-protein complex essential for the release of neurotransmitters the chemical signals that nerve cells use to communicate with one another. We found that deleting this gene caused the same symptoms in fish as seen in humans, with spontaneous seizures that increased in severity when we simulated fever-like conditions, she says.
This indicated that faulty Syntaxin 1B might be involved in inducing seizures in humans an idea that was supported by other factors. Dr Esguerra continues:
The zebrafish and human Syntaxin 1B genes are almost identical in sequence. We were able to cure the Syntaxin 1B knockout zebrafish of their seizures by switching on production of human Syntaxin 1B in their cells. Conversely, when we introduced the Syntaxin 1B gene from one of our seizure patients into the knockout fish, this could not rescue the fever-sensitive epilepsy symptoms.
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One Strange Thing Is That An Octopus Doesnt Know Where Its Arm Is Unless It Can See It
The arm is sending signals about taste and texture but no details about location and orientation. In our bodies we have an ability called proprioception that lets us know where our arms are even if they are out of sight. We can scratch our backs with precision because we know where our hand is relative to our back.
Another interesting question about having eight arms covered with suckers how do they keep all those arms from sticking to each other and getting all tied up in knots? Especially when they dont know exactly where their arms are. Turns out that octopus skin secretes a chemical to keep the suckers from sticking to it. Sounds essential for avoiding a tangled mess!
Blue Whale Brain Size
Although the blue whale is the largest cetacean, the same does not happen with its brain. The tallest Blue Whale verified by scientists was 98 feet tall.
The more cognitive capacity the greater the number of neurons. But that does not depend on the size of the brain.
A real case is the Blue Whales. They have proportionally small brains, only about 6.92 kilograms , about 0.007% of their body weight, although with a highly convoluted cerebral cortex.
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What Does The Brain Look Like
Welcome to this course on understanding your brain!
My name is Betsy, and Im a recent neuroscience graduate with a burning desire to help enlighten others as to the workings of their mind.
Since youre here, Im assuming you already appreciate the magnificence of your brain and its role in directing your day-to-day life. But the brain is a tricky thing and for most people, understandably shrouded in mystery.
Throughout the next ten lessons, I aim to unravel some of this mystery, to shed some light onto the black box of the brain, revealing what is already understood and paving the path for you to explore what is still unknown.
Well start by building a mental picture of what were dealing with. If I ask you to imagine a human brain, what do you see? A walnut-looking lump of fleshy tissue? Thats a good start. Well begin there.
The cerebral cortex. What youre seeing when you picture a brain is the cerebral cortex, the largest and outermost layer of the brain. This layer houses all the functions that make us human: perception, language, decision making, analytical thinking, consciousness, and such. The two sides of the walnut are the left and right cerebral hemispheres, which are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Their roles are as follows:
frontal: cognition, working memory, control of movement
Can We Just Cut Open A Human Brain
With a large enough collection, it may be possible to draw parallels between brain microstructures and distinct human skills or behaviors. The Brain Observatory team has sectioned about a dozen brains already, and another handful of donors have already agreed to allow Annese to slice up their brains after their death.
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Why Is The Human Brain So Special
Neuroscientists have become used to a number of facts about the human brain: It has 100 billion neurons and 10- to 50-fold more glial cells it is the largest-than-expected for its body among primates and mammals in general, and therefore the most cognitively able it consumes an outstanding 20% of the total body …
What This Can Tell You About The Human Brain
Rafael Yuste, a neuroscientist from Columbia University, is the coauthor of a study on brain activity maps published last week in Science. This zebrafish work tells scientists that mapping brain activity for a vertebrate is possible. “It’s a very good start for the brain activity map.” John Donoghue, a neuroscientist from Brown University and an author on the same Science paper, is also pleased with the result: “This method is allowing us to view the collective activity of nearly an entire nervous system.”
One of the goals for brain-activity maps is to identify neuronal traffic routes, or circuits, and figure out what they do. This paper identifies two different groups of neurons in the zebrafish brain that appear to fire in a coordinated way, and that Ahrens and Keller think represent circuits. For example, they observed that neurons of the hindbrain and the spinal cord seemed to fire together, and the researchers hypothesize that the circuit might be involved in swimming.
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How Does The Brain Connect To The Rest Of The Body
You can’t understand what the brain does without knowing about the spinal cord. The spinal cord is an extension of the brain that runs down the middle of the back. The spinal cord is about 44 cm long in adults. It is protected by 33 bones called vertebrae. The brain and the spinal cord together are called the central nervous system. The central nervous system is one part of the nervous system. The rest, mostly nerves, is called the peripheral nervous system.
Do Goldfish Have Brains And How Intelligent Are They Really
You might be please to hear that the answer is yes goldfish do have brains.
This diagram shows the location of a goldfishs brain. As you can see, the brain is located at the top of the head, above the fishs eyes, at the front of its spine.
And not only do goldfish have brains, theyre actually quite intelligent animals.
Its myth that goldfish have bad memories. They can actually remember things for several months, at least.
Goldfish can also be trained to do tricks and behave in certain ways. For instance, pressing a button to get food. Goldfish wouldnt be able to do this if they didnt have a brain and at least a basic form of memory.
Goldfish are also socially intelligent. They are able to recognise and remember individuals including humans and they change their behavior around mates, potential mates and fish they know to be aggressive.
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Try This Exercise Program For Your Brain
Women’s Health, Hormone and Beauty Expert
Over the past decade, neuroscientists have discovered that adult brains are capable of adapting and developing new connections . By keeping your brain fit through regular mental exercises and brain challenges you can expand your capacity and prevent age-related loss of function .
What does an exercise program for your brain look like? Research supports partaking in brain games , word challenges such as crossword puzzles or Sudoku, card games like bridge and learning new skills . Challenge your brain every day.
Women are living longer than ever before. With a life expectancy of 86 years, women are outliving men and are facing unprecedented rates of health issues related to brain aging and disease. By the age of 70 years, women have a 1 in 7 chance of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and by 2050 there will be a doubling in the prevalence of the disease with an estimated 10 million women affected.
The following six pillars of Brain Healthy Living can get you started on your Brain Fitness.
Exercise your Brain
Feed your Brain
Protect your Frame
Keep Hormones in Balance
Sleep more, Stress less
New research has shown that women who have more social ties perform better on cognitive tests and have less depression. The social network becomes increasingly important for aging women who tend to outlive their male partners. Be sure to cherish your friends and stay connected to keep your brain firing on all cylinders.
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Beluga Moves To The Rhythm Of The Music
A charming piece of anecdotal evidence provides an additional clue to the cognitive abilities of a beluga whale.
A third report is that of a beluga whale that moved its head towards the music played outside its tank. According to neurobiologist Aniruddh Patel, dance, or the ability to perceive rhythms and synchronize body movements with what is heard. Itis the product of a complex set of processes. One that, until recently, was among the distinctive hallmarks of the exclusively human skills.
The act of dancing at a rhythm is surprisingly complex: it requires creating and responding to a model inside the head in relation to what is heard externally. Indicates the ability to predict and wait. It also indicates that belugas could be vocal learners, just like people. another indication of cognitive complexity.
There is still much we can learn from these whales. And these reports indicate the great cognitive capacity of their brains.
What Is Cognitive Enhancement What Does Onnit Alpha Brain Look Like
Cognitive improvement is the practice of using substances and/or treatments , electroconvulsive therapy ) to enhance cognitive function in healthy people.
A number of the substances and procedures utilized as cognitive enhancers today were initially established to treat neurological or psychiatric disorders, but are now being made the most of by healthy people who want to carry out better on memory tests, increase their alertness, concentration, and motivation, or perhaps enhance their imagination.
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Distribution Of Cells Originating From The 24 Hpf Mhb In The Adult Brain
The her5 transcription factor is known to be an early marker of the midbrain-hindbrain domain in zebrafish . Indeed, the zebrafish MHB is well established at 24 hours post-fertilization , and at this stage, her5 expression is restricted to the MHB . In sagittal sections, the her5 expression territory appears as a thin band, extending from dorsal to ventral. To follow the fate of these her5-expressing progenitors, we crossed two transgenic lines: Tg and Tg . We verified that the Cre expression is limited to the MHB at 24 hpf, recapitulating the her5 expression . Thus, after tamoxifen treatment at 24 hpf, cells expressing her5 and their progenies express mCherry, and we can interpret that all the mCherry-positive cells observed at later stages are derived from the MHB.
Nonetheless, there are significant differences between zebrafish and cichlid IL. The relative size of the IL is much larger in cichlid. This is obvious by comparing the IL with the caudal zone of the hypothalamus that is located medially. It is also clear that the proportion of the external zone in comparison with the ventricular zone is much larger in the cichlid IL.
Thus, the organization of the IL changes significantly between young and mature zebrafish brains and also between different species of teleosts. Note that in the cichlid brain, the relative size of the pallium is also much larger than in the zebrafish brain .
Which Dog Has The Highest Iq
Border Collie. As you may know, Border Collies are widely regarded as the most intelligent dog in the world. Poodle. Poodles are not only small and adorable but energetic too. German Shepherd. Are you familiar with why the German Shepherd is called an Alsation in the UK? Golden Retriever. Shetland Sheepdog. Doberman.
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Pinky And The Brain Funny Quotes
Pinky And The Brain is one of the most iconic animated shows that had fans laughing at the antics of the two scheming lab rats. Here is a list of some of the funniest quotes.
1. Uh, I think so, Brain, but where will we find a duck and a hose at this hour?
-Pinky, Pinky And The Brain.
2. The secondkhaki Kicky Sack sock plucker Ive sacked since the sixth sitting sheet slitter got sick.
-Mr. Sackett, Pinky And The Brain.
3. Hey, and dont forget Saturday mornings the big global Schmëerskhøvênathon for world peace.
-Bill Clinton, Pinky And The Brain.
4. No, Pinky. Never use two drops of the formula. It would cause a reaction on the molecular level that is completely unpredictable.
-Brain, Pinky And The Brain.
5. Uh, I think so, Brain, but balancing a family and a careeroooh, its all too much for me.
-Pinky, Pinky And The Brain.
6. Same thing we do every night, Pinky. Try to ditch Dudley Boore!
-Brain, Pinky And The Brain.
7. Oh, dont be silly, Brain. It would take all the fun out of life I derive my greatest pleasure from making you squirm.
-Snowball, Pinky And The Brain.
-Pinky, Pinky And The Brain.
9. I command you toHave a Merry Christmas everyone! Have a merry, merry Christmas! Joy to the world! Yes!
-Brain, Pinky And The Brain.
10. And they say them UFO things are just pie plateswell, they are pie plates. Alien pie plates
-Big Jake, Pinky And The Brain.