Wednesday, August 17, 2022

What Does A Lesion On The Brain Mean

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Low Density Renal Masses Should Not Be Dismissed As Benign

Does it matter where a brain lesion is located in the brain?

The guidelines say that if the density of a mass on the kidney is less than 20 Hounsfield units it has a strong likelihood of being a cyst, and that is what most radiologists go by, said Robert G. Uzzo, MD, MBA, FACS, chair of the Department of Surgical Oncology at Fox Chase. In this study, we found a lot of patients who had gotten a scan and were told not to worry because the lesion was likely a cyst. But, in fact, it was cancer.

PHILADELPHIA A new imaging study from researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center has found that many small renal lesions found accidentally during imaging examinations and classified as benign may actually be cancers.

The guidelines say that if the density of a mass on the kidney is less than 20 Hounsfield units it has a strong likelihood of being a cyst, and that is what most radiologists go by, said Robert G. Uzzo, MD, MBA, FACS, chair of the Department of Surgical Oncology at Fox Chase. In this study, we found a lot of patients who had gotten a scan and were told not to worry because the lesion was likely a cyst. But, in fact, it was cancer.

According to Uzzo, many scans conducted to examine patients for a nonspecific abdominal or gastrointestinal complaint are done without contrast dye. If a lesion is found on the kidney, radiologists will often measure the density of it using HU, which measures the radiodensity of objects. If the lesion is under 20 units, it is designated as a renal cyst, which are largely benign.

What Is A Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the brain. The anatomy of the brain is very complex, with different parts responsible for different nervous system functions. Brain tumors can develop in any part of the brain or skull, including its protective lining, the underside of the brain , the brainstem, the sinuses and the nasal cavity, and many other areas. There are more than 120 different types of tumors that can develop in the brain, depending on what tissue they arise from.

Rare Types Of Kidney Cancer

Rare kidney cancers occur most frequently in children, teenagers, and young adults.

Papillary renal cell carcinoma

  • 15% of all renal cell carcinomas
  • Tumor located in the kidney tubes
  • Type 1 PRCC is more common and grows slowly
  • Type 2 PRCC is more aggressive and grows more quickly

Translocation renal cell carcinoma

  • Accounts for 1% to 5% of all renal cell carcinomas and 20% of childhood caces
  • Tumor located in the kidney
  • In children, TRCC usually grows slowly often without any symptoms
  • In adults, TRCC tends to be agressive and fast-growing

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What Is The Difference Between A Brain Lesion And A Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a specific type of brain lesion. A lesion describes any area of damaged tissue. All tumors are lesions, but not all lesions are tumors. Other brain lesions can be caused by stroke, injury, encephalitis and arteriovenous malformation.

What is the difference between a brain tumor and a brain lesion?

Symptoms Of Kidney Cancer

Brain Tumor Signs and Symptoms

In many cases, there are no obvious symptoms at first and kidney cancer may only be found during tests for another condition or reason.

If there are symptoms, they can include:

  • blood in your pee you may notice your pee is darker than usual or reddish in colour
  • a persistent pain in your lower back or side, just below your ribs
  • a lump or swelling in your side

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Do White Matter Lesions Cause Any Problems

Very often, white matter lesions dont cause any noticeable problems for the individual. Sometimes, white matter disease, particularly when it is severe, can interfere with the way the brain works and the processes that it controls, including thinking and walking. This is because the nerve signals cant get through as normal.

Epilepsy Classification And Pediatric Epilepsies

Morbidity and mortality risk can be ameliorated by successful treatment of epilepsy in childhood, but a thorough evaluation of the patient’s specific pediatric epilepsy type, its electrographic signatures, imaging, and neuropsychological characterization is mandatory. In what follows, we consider some of these common characteristics in childhood epilepsy and the management approach taken.

A number of different epilepsy syndromes are present in childhood some are often regarded as easily managed and usually outgrown, whereas others are designated as epileptic encephalopathies with more devastating outcomes. Some of the childhood-onset epilepsies have been widely regarded as being treatable with surgery. For others, most notably those associated with developmental delays or genetic abnormalities, surgery has only recently been considered as a possible treatment option. For the purposes of this chapter, we will first address those often treated with surgery, followed by those that have historically not been candidates because of associated comorbidities but may be candidates for palliative surgery.


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What Areas The Types Of Brain Lesions

Before we can move on to know the different types of brain lesions we need to know a little about the normal anatomy of human brain. Human brain is an organ present in skull, everyone knows this much.

Structurally human brain is made upon of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons act as the structural and functional units of human brain. These units exchange information among each other, process and integrate this information and help us make decisions leading to voluntary and involuntary actions.

These cells, in turn, are made of two major components: the cells bodies meant for processing information and cell fibers meant for carrying electrical impulses. Glial cells on the other hand are supporting structures in the brain. These cells provide neuronal cells with support, nutrition and a proper environment meant for proper functioning. These cells also consist of cell bodies and cell fibers.

All these cells are so arranged in the brain that all the cell fibers lie in one part and the cell bodies lie in the other.

So structurally brain can be divided into two distinct areas: The white matter that contains all the neuronal fibers and gray matter that contains all the cells bodies. Here we toss the structural classification of brain lesions.

This is the functional classification of human brain.

Frontal lobe is mostly concerned with planning of movements and their execution.

Temporal lobe is associated with controlling activities like hearing and speech.

Kidney Tumor With Suspicion Of Spread

What does it feel like to have more than 50 brain lesions with Multiple Sclerosis?

You may have been told that the kidney cancer has spread. This could be to lymph nodes, the lungs, liver, bone, or even the vena cava â the largest vein in your body.

About 1/3 of patients find that the cancer has spread even without any symptoms.

For those with symptoms, you may have experienced abdominal or back pain, blood in the urine, bone pain, seizures, or even bad headaches. After a full evaluation of the extent of spread a treatment plan should be formulated.

This can get quite complicated and a multidisciplinary team who specialize in kidney cancer would be best to help with this. It is important that an urologist and medical oncologist collaborate in constructing an optimal plan for your care. This multidisciplinary approach is most important for cancers with a high suspicion of spread! This is because today there are numerous options and combinations for patients with metastatic kidney cancer.

These options can include:

  • Surgery In certain settings, removal of the kidney even when the cancer has already spread has been shown to improve survival. This can often be done laparoscopically so the patient can recover rapidly and promptly receive additional therapy.

  • Immunotherapy IL-2 can be a good option for some patients and can deliver excellent results for some patients. Interferon-alpha is another option.

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    What Is A Renal Mass And What Is A Localized Renal Tumor

    The word renal means kidney. The words tumor and mass mean abnormal growths in the body. A renal mass, or tumor, is an abnormal growth in the kidney. Some renal masses are benign and some are malignant .

    One in four renal masses are benign. Smaller masses are more likely to be benign. Larger masses are more likely to be cancerous. Some tumors can be slow to grow while some can be aggressive. Aggressive tumors form, grow and spread very quickly.

    Most diagnosed kidney growths are small and localized masses. Localized means that the tumor has not spread out from where it first started. Around 40% of kidney cancers are localized renal masses. Masses may be solid or cystic . Most cystic masses are benign.

    What do we Know about Kidney Cancers?

    Kidney and renal pelvis cancers are the 11th leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Kidney cancer is 8th on the list of the 10 most common types of cancer. Almost all of the kidney cancers in the U.S. are renal cell carcinomas . These cancers form in the lining of the small tubes in the kidney.

    Doctors are able to diagnose kidney cancer earlier because of better testing. Kidney cancer is more common in men than women. More men than women die from the disease. Kidney cancer is more common in African Americans, American Indians and Alaskan Native people. You can get kidney cancer at any age. But, it is more common in older people .

    Types of Renal Tumors

    Where are the Kidneys and What are they for?

    Is It Possible To Prevent Brain Lesions

    In some instances, certain brain lesions can be prevented, though not all types can be completely prevented. For some brain lesion types, reducing various risk factors can lessen the chances the brain lesions will develop however, if they do, there are sometimes ways to slow the progression of symptoms. Each type of brain lesion varies somewhat in its prevention. The following list, though not entirely comprehensive, provides readers with the various types of brain lesions, and recognized preventive measures.

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    What Is A Spinal Lesion Symptoms And Treatment

    It can be overwhelming at the best of times to understand and comprehend scientific jargon from doctors and other medical professionals. Some words are ingrained into us with certain negative connotations, such as tumors, lesions, and cancers. These terms are generally known in modern culture, even if most people don’t know much about their specifics.

    Knowing what a doctor means can be a difficult task, and some doctors may be better than others at breaking diagnoses down into bite size, and most importantly, understandable chunks. This article will look into what doctors mean by spinal lesions.

    What Are The Causes Of Kidney Lesions

    Rare Types Of Brain Tumors

    Kidney lesions are commonly caused by cancers, infections, or nephrosis. These lesions are defined as areas of the kidney where anomalous tissues exist. Whether or not the lesions are cancerous or benign, they may be a serious condition and require attention. Symptoms of kidney lesions may include swelling due to water retention, blood in the urine, and lower back pain. A majority of people, however, do not experience any outward symptoms until lesions have been present for a long time, if at all.

    Possible causes of kidney spots or kidney lesions are chronic infections, which lead to damage or scarring. This results in the obstruction of the kidneys drainage system and interferes with normal function. Similarly, a kidney spot could be due to inflammation, surgery or any irregularities in kidney-related activities.

    Renal cell carcinoma, or hypernephroma, is a common kidney cancer in which lesions and other cancerous cells develop in the tubes of the kidney. These lesions can multiply, grow, and spread until the person feels intense discomfort. If the cancer is detected at an early stage, surgery and other treatments can be deployed to combat it. Unfortunately, this cancer may go without symptoms and remain completely undetected for months or even years and is sometimes only found when its too late.

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    The Report Says The Small Vessel Disease Is Mild Moderate Or Severe What Does This Mean

    This refers to how many white matter lesions there are and whether they are becoming joined up, or confluent. Very often, people wont notice any symptoms even if the small vessel disease is severe, but it is wise to ensure that any possible underlying causes are identified to try to prevent the situation getting worse.

    How Is Angiomyolipoma Of Kidney Diagnosed

    It is important to note that a majority of tumors are sporadic, while a minority of the cases is associated with a syndrome . The diagnosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may involve the following tests and procedures:

    • Complete physical exam with evaluation of medical history: If angiomyolipoma is associated with tuberous sclerosis then, the signs and symptoms of tuberous sclerosis may be noted. This can also help the healthcare provider to suspect the condition
    • Plain X-ray of the abdomen
    • CT or CAT scan with contrast of the abdomen usually shows a well-defined mass. This radiological procedure creates detailed 3-dimensional images of structures inside the body
    • MRI scans of the abdomen: Magnetic resonance imaging uses a magnetic field to create high-quality pictures of certain parts of the body, such as tissues, muscles, nerves, and bones. These high-quality pictures may reveal the presence of the tumor
    • Ultrasound scan of the abdomen
    • Urine analysis to check for the presence of blood cells
    • Kidney function test
    • Intravenous pyelogram : A dye is injected into the blood vessels and the image of kidney structure is obtained
    • Vascular angiographic studies of the tumor

    Note: CT, MRI scans of the affected kidney can usually help diagnose angiomyolipoma in the kidneys. An ultrasound imaging or CT scan studies can reveal the presence of the tumor due to its high-fat content pattern.

    Invasive diagnostic procedures such as:

    Tissue biopsy:

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    What Does It Mean When A Lesion Is Enhancing


    Then, what does an enhancement on an MRI mean?

    Enhancement‘ refers to a process by which lesions revealed on a breast MRI image increases in contrast at a specific rate over a given short-time interval, which indicates increased vascularity to the area.

    Secondly, what causes ring lesions? With the introduction of HIV/AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and fungal infections such as cryptococcosis or histoplasmosis are increasingly associated with ring enhancement as well. Other causes for ringenhancement are primary brain tumors, metastases, brain abscesses, granulomas, resolving hematomas, and infarcts .

    In respect to this, what does an active lesion mean?

    Active lesions are those that are new or getting bigger. The contrast images also show areas of permanent damage called âblack holes.â Following a diagnosis of MS, some doctors will use MRI to monitor MS if troubling new symptoms appear, or after the person begins a new treatment.

    What can a lesion on the brain mean?

    A lesion is an area of tissue that has been damaged through injury or disease. So a brain lesion is an area of injury or disease within the brain. That’s because there are many types of brain lesions. They can range from small to large, from few to many, from relatively harmless to life threatening.

    Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy

    Primary Brain Tumors | What Are They and How Do They Form?

    Laser Thermal Ablation is a newer technique that some centers are using to treat smaller tumors particularly in areas that may be more difficult to reach using previous open surgery procedures. This involves placing a tiny catheter within the lesion, possibly completing a biopsy, then using laser to thermally ablate the lesion. This technique is only more recently used in brain tumor treatments, therefore the long term efficacy has not been established.

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    Uncovering The Hidden Side Of Brain Lesions

      Much of our existing knowledge about the workings of the healthy brain comes from studying patients who have suffered brain injuries, for example, due to a stroke. However, despite this, we still have little idea of the impact which brain damage has on the networks of neuronal connections across the whole brain which underlie key cognitive functions. Dr Michel Thiebaut de Schotten and colleagues at the ICM Institute in Paris have developed a software package called BCBtoolkit which can help researchers and clinicians understand the effects of brain damage on brain connections. In future, this could help evolve our understanding of higher brain processes, as well as helping neurologists to predict whether a patient will recover or not from a stroke or other brain injuries.

      Brain lesions are areas of abnormal tissue that have been damaged due to injury or disease, which can range from being relatively harmless to life-threatening. Clinicians typically identify them as unusual dark or light spots on CT or MRI scans which are different from ordinary brain tissue.

      How do brain lesions impact brain function? Traditionally, if a patient has a lesion in a certain part of their brain, and displays a particular set of symptoms, such as reduced spatial awareness or impaired language production, neurologists deduce that these symptoms are a direct result of functional changes in the visibly damaged area.


      Research Objectives



      Deterrence And Patient Education

      Patients with vascular risk factors should be identified early and counseled on lifestyle changes as well as control of comorbid conditions. Self-monitoring of blood pressure and blood sugar, dietary modifications, weight reduction, and improving physical fitness has proven to decrease the progression of white matter lesions. Involvement in cognitively complex leisure activity to improve cognitive reserve has been associated with a protective effect on cognitive functioning and late-life depression in patients with WMLs.

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      Multiple Sclerosis Lesion: Definition

      A lesion in multiple sclerosis is defined as an area of focal hyperintensity on a T2-weighted or a proton density -weighted sequence. Typical multiple sclerosis lesions are round to ovoid in shape and range from a few millimetres to more than one or two centimetres in diameter. Generally, they should be at least 3 mm in their long axis to satisfy diagnostic criteria, although the topography should also be taken into consideration, for instance, a lesion < 3 mm located in the floor of the fourth ventricle should be considered abnormal, as lesions and flow-related artefacts rarely occur in this location. Lesions should be visible on at least two consecutive slices to exclude artefacts or small hyperintensities, although in acquisitions with higher slice thickness , smaller lesions may be visible on a single slice.

      Multiple sclerosis lesions typically develop in both hemispheres, but their distribution is often mildly asymmetric in the early stages. While lesions can occur in any CNS region, relative to other disorders that cause white matter lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions tend to affect specific white matter regions, such as the periventricular and juxtacortical white matter, the corpus callosum, infratentorial areas and the spinal cord . How involvement of these areas should be assessed to evaluate dissemination in space in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis will be discussed in the following sections.

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