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What Does Lead Do To The Brain

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Is It Really That Bad

What Does Lead Poisoning Do To Your Brain?

;Lead is a chemical toxicant, which can cause major damage especially in developing brains. Newborns and young children have the greatest health risks and will suffer lifelong problems both intellectually and physically following exposure to the toxin. Studies show that lead exposure leads to reduced IQ in children, and this reduction in IQ carries on into adulthood. It also causes attention deficit disorders and has been linked to both Parkinsons disease and, more recently, Alzheimers. There is consistent literature demonstrating that children are at risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems following even mild exposure. Lead poisoning during childhood undoubtedly poses a significant threat to healthy development.

It is important to note that all levels of lead exposure have adverse effects on the central nervous system. Evidence suggests that if this exposure happens early in life, it can cause neurodegeneration later in life. Like some other types of brain injury, chronic low-level lead exposure is difficult to diagnose. Slightly elevated blood-lead levels often do not produce specific signs or symptoms, and few physicians think to test for toxicity because exposure is generally perceived to be a rarity. Lead has been called a silent toxin in much the same way that traumatic brain injury has been referred to as the silent epidemic.

What Is Lead Poisoning

Lead poisoning is caused by the accumulation of lead in the body. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Small children are more vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can cause seizures, unconsciousness and even death.

Lead circulates and reaches the brain, liver, kidney and bones. It accumulates in the teeth and bones over time. During pregnancy, if theres a high lead content in the bones, the fetus may be affected.

Lead exposure at any level is harmful, which can be prevented.

Behavior Emotions And Social Function

Because childhood abuse, neglect, and trauma change;brain structure and chemical function, maltreatment can also affect the way children behave, regulate emotion and function socially. These potential effects include:

  • Being constantly on alert and unable to relax, no matter the situation
  • Feeling fearful most or all of the time
  • Finding social situations more challenging
  • Learning deficits
  • Not hitting developmental milestones in a timely fashion
  • A tendency to develop depression or an anxiety disorder
  • A weakened ability to process positive feedback

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Dependence On Lead Intake P

Throughout this section, the calcium intake is kept fixed ), as well as all other system parameters . The parameter p was allowed to increase from small to large. The overall calcium intake was specifically fixed to a large enough value so that c remains larger than p throughout this analysis, as common sense and biology would suggest.

The overall effect observed in all compartments ) was that the lead content XPb generally increases, and the calcium XCa content generally decreases with increasing lead intake p. This is not surprising, given the competitive lead/calcium mechanism on which our model relies. This is consistent with empirical observations of the dependence of blood lead concentrations on lead concentration in drinking water, as illustrated by Moore et al. in a 20 year old adult male with life long exposure, and by Sherlock et al., in a 30 year old female during a 10 year long exposure period. The gray curve in our right panel is also in line, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the continuous time simulations performed by OFlaherty based on this data . With the unit conversion of mg/m3=mg/l, the behavior also matches data and simulations by OFlaherty in subjects exposed to long-term air contamination, as shown in Williams et al. for a 30 year old male exposed to air lead for 10 years, as well as for a group of 30 subjects with long term exposure, .

Figure 3

Structural Brain Changes And Cognition In Response To Resistance Training

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In response to resistance training over an intervention period of 52âweeks , a reduction in whole brain volume , a reduction in cortical white matter atrophy , and a reduction in white matter lesions were observed in comparison to training with balance or toning exercises. The reduction in whole brain volume is surprising because, in general, âmoreâ is often associated with âbetterâ. However, it is assumed that the reduction in whole brain volume is perhaps caused by the improvement of certain brain pathologies, in particular the removal of amyloid plaques and shifts in cerebral fluids , which, in turn, might positively influence brain health. This view is supported by the recent findings of Yoon et al. , who observed a relationship between brain amyloid-β levels and hand grip strength . The removal of amyloid plaques could be one possible neurobiological mechanism explaining the observed improvements in executive functions because accumulation of amyloid-β plaque is commonly linked to worsened domain-specific cognitive functions , and neurological diseases such as Alzheimerâs disease .

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How Do You Diagnose Cognitive Problems

Ask your doctor to check your cognition each year. You should also tell them if you notice any cognitive changes.

If the doctor sees a change or if youre struggling with work or school, youll need a detailed cognitive evaluation from a neuropsychologist. These are doctors who specialize in behavioral changes caused by disease or trauma. You might also see a speech-language pathologist and occupational therapist for testing.

Its important that these health care professionals have experience working with people with MS. This helps them choose the right tests and interpret them.

The evaluation includes a variety of tests. They check different parts of your cognitive function, like your processing speed, memory, problem-solving, and more. The whole process can take several hours.

How Dishonesty Can Affect Mental Health

Do you remember the last day you did not tell a lie all day? Most of us cant remember a day without at least a white lie, we often think there is no harm in telling lies for a good cause. You may be surprised to learn the after-effects of telling lies and dishonesty and reconsider your beliefs.

Lying can lead to stress, unhappiness, and damaged mental health. Researchers say honesty is indeed the best policy, as frequent lying can lead to headaches, sore throat, and feelings of sadness.

Anita Kelly, Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, conducted a study on 110 adults. She spent 10 weeks with the participants, urging half of the participants not to lie throughout the study period while the remaining half were not given any specific instructions. All participants knew they would be required to keep track of how many lies or fibs they told each day. They each take a lie detector test every week and answer a questionnaire regarding their mental and physical health as well as the quality of their relationships.

Besides this research, lying has been linked to increased production of stress hormones, faster heartbeat, increased perspiration, and increased blood pressure. Excess stress caused reduces white blood cells which can result in increased back pain, stress headaches, menstrual problems, and fertility issues.

As time passes you may get angry at the person you lied to, which is not really anger, but a sense of guilt for telling a lie.

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How To Manage Cognitive Changes

Right now, there arent any drugs to treat cognitive changes in MS. If you have a relapsing kind of MS, your doctor may prescribe a treatment called disease-modifying therapy to prevent more lesions.

Or the doctor could recommend cognitive rehabilitation. These are sessions where you do different activities to help you live life with your cognitive changes. They can help boost your memory, concentration, or spatial skills.

You might have these sessions at a clinic or hospital. Or you may meet with individual health care professionals, like neuropsychologists, occupational therapists, and speech pathologists. It usually involves hourly sessions for several weeks or months.

Cognitive rehabilitation often focuses on:

Retraining exercises. These mental exercises are meant to improve attention, concentration, and more. One promising example is the modified Story Memory Technique, a 10-session program that uses computer software to boost verbal learning and memory.

Compensatory strategies.These moves can help make up for some of your cognitive changes. They include tried and true tips that will jog your memory, help you manage time, and keep you organized.

How Do Neurons Work

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Each neuron is made up of three main parts: the cell body , the axon, and the dendrites. Neurons communicate with each other using electrochemical signals. In other words, certain chemicals in the body known as ions have an electrical charge. Ions move in and out of the neuron across the cell membrane and affect the electrical charge of the neuron.

When a neuron is at rest, the cell body, or soma, of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside of the neuron. A neuron at rest has a negative charge of approximately -70 millivolts of electricity. However, when a stimulus comes along , it causes the neuron to take in more positive ions, and the neuron becomes more positively charged. Once the neuron reaches a certain threshold of approximately -55mV, an event known as an action potential occurs and causes the neuron to fire. The action potential travels down the axon where it reaches the axon terminal.

At the axon terminal, electrical signals are converted into chemical signals that travel between neurons across a small gap called the synapse. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters cross the synapse and attach to receptors on the dendrites of nearby neurons. Dendrites are branch-like projections that carry impulses received from neighboring neurons to the soma

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Brain Responses To Orgasms And Rhythmic Music Dance Are Comparable

Interestingly, Safron also identified similarities between orgasms and reflex seizures, noting that both of these experiences can be triggered by rhythmic stimulation that induces rhythmic activity in the brain.

Additionally, the researcher found that the way the brain reacts to rhythmic sexual stimulation is comparable to the way it responds to rhythmic music and dance.

although obvious in retrospect, I wasnt expecting to find that sexual activity was so similar to music and dance, not just in the nature of the experiences, but also in that evolutionarily, rhythm-keeping ability may serve as a test of fitness for potential mates, says Safron.

He adds that rhythmic music and dance have served as a key part of mating for hundreds of millions of years, and his findings are consistent with this fact.

Safron says much more work needs to be done to fully understand the neurophysiological effects of orgasms, but he hopes his study paves the way for such research.

Before this paper, we knew what lit up in the brain when people had orgasms, and we knew a lot about the hormonal and neurochemical factors in non-human animals, but we didnt really know why sex and orgasm feel the way they do, he says. This paper provides a level of mechanistic detail that was previously lacking.

How Does Lead Enter And Affect The Brain

Lead is a true poison that has no necessary role in the body. Because it looks like a lot like calcium, an essential player in brain chemistry, lead can sneak into the otherwise well-protected brain. Lead then disrupts the movement and storage of calcium inside cells, increasing cell stress, which can lead to the death of neurons and other brain cells.

Lead also hijacks calciums roles in the brain, including communication between neurons. When a neuron is activated, calcium enters the neuron and stimulates the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters carry the activation signal from this first neuron across a small gap to the next neuron, thus passing the signal. This process repeats until the signal reaches its target.

By mimicking calcium, lead fundamentally changes how neurons pass these signals, as shown in the figure below. First, lead competes with calcium movement into a neuron when lead is present, less calcium can enter the neuron. As a result, the neuron releases less neurotransmitter, sending a weaker signal to the following neuron. Lead can also cause spontaneous neurotransmitter release in non-activated neurons, so later neurons receive inappropriate signals . Neurotransmitter signaling is especially important for learning and memory, and lead exposure impairs these processes.

Figure 1:

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Treatment For Xanax Abuse And Addiction

Many effects of Xanax addiction, including short-term memory loss, are treatable and can get better in time. Although some mental effects of Xanax abuse can in some cases be permanent, the brain is also a complex organ that is capable of healing with proper treatment.

The first step for many people seeking help for Xanax abuse is to enter a medical detox program. Although Xanax withdrawal is rarely deadly on its own, it can be dangerous to undergo without medical support. Medical detox services are commonly integrated into inpatient addiction programs to help patients safely withdraw from moderate to severe drug dependence.

Inpatient programs also offer other effective services such as dual-diagnosis programs and behavioral therapy. These can be helpful during the recovery process to help patients learn coping strategies for dealing with their triggers and working through other emotional struggles.

Recovery from Xanax addiction is possible, and youre not alone. Contact us today to find the right treatment program for you or a loved one today.

This page does not provide medical advice.

Limitations And Future Work

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The main limitation of the model is its phenomenological nature. We consider the construction of such a model as a first important step towards further developments. Our conclusions can be interpreted as a proof of principle that a nonlinear model based on the lead/calcium competitive dynamics can provide explanations and candidate mechanisms underlying the effects of lead toxicity on neural function and cognition. The advantage of such a model relies primarily in reproducing and predicting behavior which could not be explained by existing models . After this important conceptual setup, the next step should be to step away from the phenomenology, and consider more carefully the biophysical underpinnings of lead inter-compartmental transition.

As for any model, some compromise needed to be reached in the amount of detail to be included. In this first modeling stage, some aspects were oversimplified, in order to obtain a clear, baseline behavior, which can be later enriched with more detail. Further elaborating these aspects may substantially improve the model and bring forth its clinical potential. Future iterations of this model should aim to construct data-driven functional dependences and parameters.

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Age Dependence And Effects In Children

The toxic effects of lead have been overwhelmingly observed in children. Some of the health effects that have been associated with lead exposure in children are similar with those observed in adults at higher exposures. However, childrens susceptibility and response may qualitatively and quantitatively differ from those encountered in adults, due to their specific physiology and behavior, which can influence both exposure and processing. The effects depend on developmental age (which influences pharmacokinetics and metabolism,. Typically, the peak of the vulnerability and disruptive effects occurs during critical periods of structural and functional development.

Health effects include anemia, renal alterations, impaired metabolism of vitamin D,, growth retardation, delayed puberty. Exposure to lead during childhood is also well-known to result in neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood and may not be evident until a later stage of development . Delays or impairment in neurological and neurobehavioral development have been noted even at very low doses, and include encelopathy, lower cognitive performance,, neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and antisocial behavior.

Several models of lead pharmacokinetics in children have been developed,,,. We considered these models when incorporating dependence on age in our own mathematical model.

Search Strategy And Process

In accordance with the guidelines for systematic reviews , two independent researchers conducted a systematic literature search on the 25th of April 2019 across the following six electronic databases : PubMed , Scopus , Web of Science , PsycInfo , SportDiscus , and the Cochrane Library . The following terms were used as search strings:

  • âstrength exerciseâ OR âstrength trainingâ OR âresistance exerciseâ OR âresistance trainingâ OR âweight exerciseâ OR âweight trainingâ OR âweight liftingâ OR âweight bearingâ OR âelastic bandâ OR toning OR calisthenics OR âfunctional trainingâ

  • mental OR neuropsychological OR brain OR cogniti* OR neurocogni* OR executive OR attention OR memory OR âresponse timeâ OR âreaction timeâ OR accuracy OR error OR inhibition OR visual OR spatial OR visuospatial OR processing OR recall OR learning OR language OR oddball OR âtask switchingâ OR âproblem solvingâ OR Flanker OR Stroop OR Sternberg OR âTrail Makingâ OR âTower of Londonâ OR âTower of Hanoiâ OR âWisconsin Card Sortingâ OR âSimon taskâ

Afterwards, the results of the systematic search were loaded into a citation manager , which was used for further analyses and for removing duplicates .

Fig. 2

Flow chart with information about the search, screening, and selection processes that led to the identification of relevant articles included in this systematic review

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How Rhythmic Stimulation Can Induce A Sexual Trance

To reach his findings, Safron analyzed an abundance of studies and literature that have investigated the brain and bodys response to sexual stimulation.

He used the information to create a model that sheds light on how rhythmic sexual activity affects rhythmic activity in the brain.

Safron explains that rhythmic sexual stimulation if intense enough and if it lasts long enough can boost neural oscillations at correlating frequencies, a process called neural entrainment.

This process may be responsible for what Safron describes as a sexual trance, where sole focus is on the immediate sensation experienced.

The idea that sexual experiences can be like trance states is in some ways ancient. Turns out this idea is supported by modern understandings of neuroscience.

In theory, this could change the way people view their sexuality. Sex is a source of pleasurable sensations and emotional connection, but beyond that, its actually an altered state of consciousness.

Adam Safron, Ph.D.

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