Friday, May 6, 2022

What Does The Back Of The Brain Control

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The Brain Is Flexible: Neuroplasticity

The control of some specific bodily functions, such as movement, vision, and hearing, is performed in specified areas of the cortex, and if these areas are damaged, the individual will likely lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For instance, if an infant suffers damage to facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he or she will never be able to recognize faces . On the other hand, the brain is not divided up in an entirely rigid way. The brains neurons have a remarkable capacity to reorganize and extend themselves to carry out particular functions in response to the needs of the organism and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and rewires existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers to the brains ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. Neuroplasticity enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.

Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate themselves as skin or blood vessels can, new evidence suggests that the brain can engage in neurogenesis, the forming of new neurons . These new neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate to other brain areas, where they form new connections with other neurons . This leaves open the possibility that someday scientists might be able to rebuild damaged brains by creating drugs that help grow neurons.

Where Do Emotions Come From

The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.

Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:

  • Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
  • Hippocampus. The helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
  • Amygdala. The helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
  • Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.

What Controls The Bodys Balance

In addition to the cerebellum, two crucial structures in maintaining balance are the inner ear and the vestibular cranial nerves.

Located in the inner ear, the vestibular system provides your brain with the necessary information for motion, head position, and spatial orientation.

It also plays a role in your motor functions that are involved in keeping your balance, stabilizing your head and body during movement, and also helps maintain your posture.

The vestibular system absolutely essential for your bodys equilibrium, thus making it a vital part aiding you in balance.

Damage to any part of the brain related to balance isnt inherently life-threatening, however, it can result in a jerky, and uncoordinated movements if the damage is severe.

Research Focus: Identifying The Unique Functions Of The Left And Right Hemispheres Using Split

We have seen that the left hemisphere of the brain primarily senses and controls the motor movements on the right side of the body, and vice versa. This fact provides an interesting way to study brain lateralization the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions. Gazzaniga, Bogen, and Sperry  studied a patient, known as W. J., who had undergone an operation to relieve severe seizures. In this surgery, the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres, known as the corpus callosum, is severed. As a result, the patient essentially becomes a person with two separate brains. Because the left and right hemispheres are separated, each hemisphere develops a mind of its own, with its own sensations, concepts, and motivations .

Although Gazzanigas research demonstrated that the brain is in fact lateralized, such that the two hemispheres specialize in different activities, this does not mean that when people behave in a certain way or perform a certain activity they are only using one hemisphere of their brains at a time. That would be drastically oversimplifying the concept of brain differences. We normally use both hemispheres at the same time, and the difference between the abilities of the two hemispheres is not absolute .

Show/hide Words To Know

MAshooq: Brain and Nervous System

Blood-brain barrier: a protective layer that surrounds the brain and controls what things can move into the area around the brain.

Circadian rhythm: the body’s natural clock that runs on roughly a 24 hour cycle. Many animals have a 24 hour cycle that includes sleeping, eating and doing work… 

CLSM: confocal laser scanning microscope makes high quality images of microscopic objects with extreme detail… 

Metabolism: what living things do to stay alive. This includes eating, drinking, breathing, and getting rid of wastes… 

Puberty: the change from child to adult where the body is able to reproduce.

Vertebra: any of the bones that make up the backbone.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

Ataxia Caused By Stroke

Stroke is a clot or bleed in any part of the brain. The cerebellum is a less common site for stroke than the cerebrum, but it can still occur there.

A clot or bleed in the cerebellum can cause the following:

  • ataxia
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Treating the stroke might resolve the ataxia. Occupational and physical therapy can help manage any permanent damage.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain

When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .

When light enters the eye through the , it strikes photoreceptor cells in the called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, and fine details.

When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.

This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.

Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.

All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.

The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.

STILL HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR BRAIN AND VISION? Talk to an eye doctor near you to schedule an appointment.

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What Are The Parts Of The Brain

Every second of every day the brain is collecting and sending out signals from and to the parts of your body. It keeps everything working even when we are sleeping at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this amazing control center. You can see each part and later learn what are involved with different tasks. 

What Does The Left Side Of The Brain Control

The left side of the brain is generally dominant for language and other logical tasks. This side of the brain is also used for math or various calculations, according to the University of Washington. The left side of the brain also controls muscles on the right side of the body. Sensory information from the bodys right side crosses over to the left side of the brain.

The ability to form words primarily lies in the left hemisphere, states the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Both hemispheres are divided into sections, or lobes, which specialize in different functions. The Brocas area, which is found on the left frontal lobe, enables thoughts to be transformed into words.

The left hemisphere of around 95 percent of right-handed individuals and 60 to 70 percent of left-handed persons is dominant for language, explains the University of Washington. The two specific areas of the brain that are important for language are named the Brocas area and Wernickes area.

As most of the signals from the brain to the body and vice versa cross over when reaching the brain, both left and right hemispheres control the opposite side of the body, notes the NINDS. Thus, when the left hemisphere is damaged, the right part of the body is affected. For instance, a stroke in the left hemisphere usually leaves the right arm and leg paralyzed.

The Parietal And Temporal Lobes

We cant talk about the occipital lobe without giving a little credit to these two. While the occipital lobe carries most of the visual burden, its the parietal and temporal lobes that help us make sense of what were seeing.

The parietal lobe plays a big role in visuospatial cognition, our ability to recognize and adapt to the physical space around us. This includes abilities like depth perception, navigation and movement.

When you want to change the channel on TV, youre first using the occipital lobe to see the remote. But the parietal lobes visuospatial recognition is used to gauge how much distance is between you and the remote an important detail once you decide to reach for it.

The temporal lobe controls memory; it assigns meaning to the images we see. After the occipital lobe registers the image of the TV remote, structures in the temporal lobe subconsciously remind us that the remote is used to change the channel, that it needs to be pointed at the TV, and which button we need to press to get to the channel were seeking.

The frontal lobe is usually not considered to be directly involved with vision, but scientists dont think it should be left out completely. According to the Georgia Institute of Technology, new research actually suggests it might play a role in vision after all.

Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

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The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms

Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the  effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.

The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a full list of the secondary effects of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.

Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:

What Does The Brain Do

The brain controls what we think and feel, how we learn and remember, and the way we move and talk. But it also controls things we’re less aware of like the beating of our hearts and the digestion of our food.

Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

Functions Of The Cortex

When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig  applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

What Parts Of The Brain Control The Parts Of Your Body

MayoClinic.com describes the brain as containing billions of nerve cells arranged in patterns that coordinate thought, emotion, behavior, movement and sensation. Each part of the brain is responsible for a specific function, and they all work together. The main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, limbic system, brain stem and pituitary gland

If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.

What Is A Stroke

A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .

During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.

Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through .This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.

The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.

Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Other Key Parts Of The Brain

Ventricular System The brain is not a solid organ. Instead, there are fluid-filled cavities within the brain called ventricles. The ventricles provide nourishment to the brain. The ventricular system produces and processes cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery substance flowing around the brain to cushion and protect it.

Cranial NervesThe brain also contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Each is responsible for specific body functions.

  • Olfactory nerve: Sense of smell
  • Optic nerve: Vision

Brain Lobes And Their Functions

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The brain is divided into four sections, known as lobes . The frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and temporal lobe have different locations and functions that support the responses and actions of the human body. Let’s start by identifying where each lobe is positioned in the brain.

Position of the Lobes

The frontal lobe is the emotional control center of the brain responsible for forming our personality and influencing out decisions. The frontal lobe is located at the front of the central sulcus where it receives information signals from other lobes of the brain.

The parietal lobe processes sensory information for cognitive purposes and helps coordinate spatial relations so we can make sense of the world around us. The parietal lobe resides in the middle section of the brain behind the central sulcus, above the occipital lobe.

The temporal lobe is located on the bottom of the brain below the lateral fissure. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting the sounds and the language we hear.

The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain behind the parietal and temporal lobes. The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for processing auditory information. 

Functions of the Lobes

The frontal lobe has many functions most of which center on regulating social behavior. Here are some of the important functions of the frontal lobe:

  • Visual-spatial processing
  • Movement and color recognition

What Do The Parts Of The Brain Control

Researchers study the parts of the brain and what each part does in order to understand where functions of the brain occur. Discoveries about brain anatomy assist medical professionals in diagnosing and treating brain disorders and tumors. There are three main divisions of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.

What Are The Functions Of The Left Brain

The left side of the brain handles logic and reasoning.

The human is divided into two hemispheres the left brain hemisphere and the right brain hemisphere with each one controlling different modes of thinking. While the right side controls intuition and feelings, the left side of the brain is responsible for logical thinking. It is where the ability to analyze concepts, ideas, and facts often comes from. Through the left brain, individuals learn to communicate, do math problems, remember details and events, and formulate strategies. Another one of its functions is acting as a storage place for names, and all the information gleaned from daily life.

Damage to the brain’s left hemisphere can affect the crucial Brocas and Wernickes areas.

As the area responsible for logical thinking, the left side of the brain allows individuals to know the consequences of each action, no matter how big or small. It gives people the capability to understand how things work and the things needed to make those things work, thus giving them the ability to conduct scientific experiments. Anything that deals with logic and common sense is all processed in the left brain. Essentially, this side of the brain is all about details and the information on what to do with those details.

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The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act

Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .

Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!

Parts Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

What Can Happen If Your Frontal Lobe Is Damaged

A famous case of frontal lobe damage is that of Phineas Gage. In 1848, Gage was injured in an explosion that caused a railroad spike to pierce his frontal lobe. The resulting injury caused drastic changes in Gages personality and behavior.

As weve learned, the frontal lobe is responsible for many different types of functions. Because of this, damage to the frontal lobe can cause a variety of different symptoms depending on the area thats affected.

Some potential symptoms of frontal lobe damage can include:

  • loss of movement, either partial or complete , on the opposite side of the body
  • difficulty performing tasks that require a sequence of movements
  • trouble with speech or language
  • poor planning or organization

Treatment for damage to the frontal lobe depends on whats caused the damage to occur. If you have frontal lobe damage, your treatment plan may include a team of several types of healthcare professionals.

Some examples of potential treatments for frontal lobe damage include:

In some cases, the cause of the frontal lobe damage may be permanent. One example of this is neurodegenerative diseases. In these cases, treatment may also involve medications.

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