The Segmental Origin Of The Cerebellum
The cerebellum is an outgrowth of the dorsalmost alar plate of the caudal isthmus and the first rhombomere . It is therefore an integral part of the prepontine hindbrain, contradicting the old assumption that it forms a developmental unit with the pons. The vermis of the cerebellum is mainly derived from the rhombic lip of the isthmic alar plate, and the hemisphere of the cerebellum is mainly derived from the rhombic lip of the r1 alar plate, as demonstrated by experimental fate mapping and recent progeny analysis .
Neurons And Glial Cells
The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.
Problems With Traditional Brain Stem Nomenclature
When the traditional nomenclature of the brain stem is tested against the new understanding of brain stem organization based on developmental gene expression, five major areas of misinterpretation become apparent. These are the true identity of the pons, the existence of the isthmus, the true definition of the midbrain without diencephalic and hindbrain additions, the location of the substantia nigra and VTA , and the segmental origin of the cerebellum.
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Rehabilitation For Brain Stem Stroke Patients
After the initial stay in the hospital, many stroke survivors spend time in inpatient rehabilitation, where they participate in 3-4 hours of therapy per day.
During this time, a team of therapists work with survivors to regain lost functions.
For instance, if a stroke survivor struggles with loss of sensation , an occupational therapist can help them with sensory retraining. This therapy helps retrain the brain to process sensation.
If the survivor struggles with locked-in syndrome, therapists can help the survivor accomplish passive range-of-motion exercises to help stimulate the brain and encourage recovery.
One of the overarching goals during rehabilitation is to spark neuroplasticity: the brains ability to rewire itself. Although its impossible to revive dead areas in the brain, neuroplasticity allows new areas of the brain to take on lost function.
It takes hard work and consistency, because neuroplasticity is activated through massed practice. This involves practicing the skills you want to improve on a regular basis.
This means that, after discharge from inpatient therapy, its imperative that stroke survivors continue with rehabilitation both at home and at outpatient therapy.
Sometimes it helps to learn from the experiences of other brain stem stroke survivors to see how they were affected and how they recovered. Recovery is highly unique, so keep this in mind when reading other survivors stories.
Time For Radical Changes In Brain Stem Nomenclatureapplying The Lessons From Developmental Gene Patterns
- 1School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
- 2Neuroscience Research Australia, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
- 3Department of Human Anatomy and IMIB-Arrixaca Institute, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
The traditional subdivision of the brain stem into midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata is based purely on the external appearance of the human brain stem. There is an urgent need to update the names of brain stem structures to be consistent with the discovery of rhomobomeric segmentation based on gene expression. The most important mistakes are the belief that the pons occupies the upper half of the hindbrain, the failure to recognize the isthmus as the first segment of the hindbrain, and the mistaken inclusion of diencephalic structures in the midbrain. The new nomenclature will apply to all mammals. This essay recommends a new brain stem nomenclature based on developmental gene expression, progeny analysis, and fate mapping. In addition, we have made comment on the names given to a number of internal brain stem structures and have offered alternatives where necessary.
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How Many Regions Make Up The Brain Stem
Stem cells can implanted to repair/improve Human Brains, not just mice.
Exercise increases the number of neural stem cells in rodent’s brains, enhancing their regenerative capacity
We can grow tiny mini-brains from stem cells acquired from skin cells these mini-brains can replace animal testing and are cheaper too!
Captive bolt pistol – “a penetrating stunner is typically used since it destroys the cerebrum while leaving the brain stem intact this results in a more consistently reliable stun, and ensures the animal’s heart continues to beat during the bleeding process.”
A musician, Chris Sands who had been hiccuping for three years finally cured when a doctor removed a tumour on his brain stem
Monoaminergic Nuclei In The Brain Stem
Monoamine groups in the brain stem were first demonstrated by Dahlström and Fuxe using the method of formalin vapor-induced fluorescence. The original description of the anatomy of these groups was further developed by Fuxe et al. and Hökfelt et al. and many subsequent publications by this group. The fluorescent cell groups were originally given arbitrary names , and these alphanumeric titles do not provide information concerning the function of the different groups. Because of this, we recommend following the nomenclature adopted by Paxinos et al. in their atlas of the marmoset brain, and subsequently adopted in atlases of the rat brain and mouse brain . Paxinos et al. named dopamine groups with the prefix DA, noradrenalin groups with the prefix NA, and adrenaline groups with the prefix Ad. However, we have retained the name of locus coeruleus for the previously named A6 group, and the name supralemniscal nucleus for the B9 serotonin group. Similarly, we have retained the names retrorubral field , substantia nigra compact part , and ventral tegmental area for the dopamine groups previously defined as A8, A9, and A10 .
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What Are The Parts Of The Brainstem
Your brainstem consists of three parts:
- Midbrain: The top part of the brainstem is crucial for regulating eye movements.
- Pons: The middle portion of the brainstem coordinates facial movements, hearing and balance.
- Medulla oblongata: The bottom part of the brainstem helps regulate your breathing, heart rhythms, blood pressure and swallowing.
Your brainstem also contains your reticular activating system . The RAS is a network of neurons . Your RAS controls your sleep and wake cycles. It also helps you stay alert and attentive to your surroundings.
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Can You Recover From A Brain Stem Injury
Damage to some parts of the brain can be managed, however, brain stem injuries can be very difficult to and fatal to your overall health. It can even potentially cause permanent damage.
Thats because the brain stem connects your brain to all other parts of your body. Without a brain stem, that connection would be lost and your body cant function.
Injuries to the brain stem can affect your personality and even paralyze you. Since this is a very sensitive part of the brain, today treatment is limited and very expensive.
Its not about mental intelligence, its about mental fitness.
Jim Kwik, Author of Mindvalleys Superbrain Program
Brain stem treatment
Its not all bad news when it comes to treating brain stem injuries. As long as the injury is diagnosed early enough, it can be in many cases highly treatable.
Depending on the nature of the injury of course, and what areas of the body are affected, specific exercises and therapy can help strengthen the brain stems function.
Like any other muscle in your body, your brain including the brain stem grows and develops with regular exercise. This includes both actual physical exercise and brain workouts. Together, they stimulate the generation of new neurons and help keep your brain young and active.
How do you keep your brain healthy and sharp?
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Components Of The Brainstem
The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.
Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake cycles, alertness, and temperature regulation.
The pons lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum. It also has tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.
Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
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What Is The Brain Stem And What Does It Do
The brain stem is the oldest, most primitive part of the human brain. This tube-shaped region is about three inches long and made up entirely out of nervous tissue.
The brain stem forms a bridge between the brain and the spinal cord and plays the most vital role of all. Despite its small size, the brain stem is one of the most important parts of your brain and body.
Its responsible for many vital functions. Breathing, swallowing, and digestion only to name a few. Your whole body and the rest of your brain all rely on a healthy brain stem function.
To get an understanding of how important its role really is, consider this analogy
A flower and all its petals, small branches and leaves represent your brain, body and its vital organs. The main stem and roots represent your brain stem. If you cut the flower off of the main stem, it will start to shrivel away and die.
Thats how important it is!
In this article, we will take a closer look at the structure, function, and importance of the brain stem.
Brainstem Structure And Function
The brainstem can be subdivided anatomically into the diencephalon , mesencephalon , ventral metencephalon , and myelencephalon . Functionally, the diencephalon is more similar to the telencephalon than to the rest of the brainstem, and it should be considered part of the forebrain . Therefore in this chapter brainstem is used generally to refer to the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The brainstem has several different functions, including generation and control of locomotion , motor and sensory control of the head , and maintenance of consciousness . Additionally, the brainstem is responsible for basic functions such as control of cardiac function, respiratory function, sleep, hunger, and thirst. Cranial nerves are associated with each part of the brainstem: the optic nerve with the thalamus the oculomotor and trochlear nerves with the midbrain the trigeminal nerve with the pons and the abducent , facial , vestibulocochlear , glossopharyngeal , vagus , spinal accessory , and hypoglossal nerves with the medulla.
Gastone G. Celesia, in, 2015
Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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The Interfascicular Trigeminal Nucleus
This nucleus had previously been named the tensor tympani part of the motor trigeminal nucleus in rodent brain atlases , because it was thought to be a subset of small motor neurons of the motor trigeminal nucleus innervating the tensor tympani muscle. However, the neurons forming the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus were labeled following injection of retrograde tracer in the cerebellum, and the labeled neurons were found to be choline acetyltransferase negative, proving that they are not motor neurons . In addition, the cells of the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus are strongly labeled in mice via Wnt1Cre and Atoh1CreER lineage fate mappinga feature common to the major precerebellar nuclei that arise from the rhombic lip and that issue mossy fibers .
How Your Brain Works
Lower animals, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, dont do much thinking, but instead concern themselves with the everyday business of gathering food, eating, drinking, sleeping, reproducing and defending themselves.
These are instinctual processes . Therefore, their brains are organized along the major centers that control these functions.
We humans perform these functions as well, and so have a reptilian brain built into us. That means we have the same parts of the brain found in reptiles, namely the brain stem and the cerebellum.
Ready to learn about the lower brain? Well discuss that on the next page.
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How To Shoot Your Brain Stem
Scientists are using stem cells to grow so-called “mini brains” inside of rat bodies, meaning we are perilously close to a rats of NIMH situation.
Stem cells from a fetus can be transferred to the mother and survive in the Hippocampus: a part of the brain involved in memory formation.
A Sonic hedgehog, a protein named after Sonic the Hedgehog. It is responsible for the division of adult stem cells, and mutations can cause cancer, underdeveloped hemispheres of the brain, and growing organs backwards in the body.
This is our collection of basic interesting facts about Brain Stem. The fact lists are intended for research in school, for college students or just to feed your brain with new realities. Possible use cases are in quizzes, differences, riddles, homework facts legend, cover facts, and many more. Whatever your case, learn the truth of the matter why is Brain Stem so important!
Recommended Brain Stem Nomenclature For Different Levels Of Learning
The clinical usage of pons and medulla oblongata is primarily based upon the external view of the human hindbrain and is commonly represented in medical student textbooks . Figure 5 proposes different levels of nomenclature for the hindbrain required at different levels of education. It is structured such that the lowest level of the nomenclatural understanding is compatible with the more complex picture allowing a student to build on their initial simpler but already partly updated understanding of the brain stem as they progress into medical school and beyond.
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What Changes After Birth
The developing brain engages in an intricate dance with its outside environment and is a sponge for information. During early development, 700 to 1,000 new neural connections are formed every second.
These early connections are the fundamental groundwork and precursors for more sophisticated connections later on. Although it is very important for new neurons to form long-lasting connections, it is equally important to trim away unnecessary connections. This process, known as synaptic pruning, allows only very important and useful connections to remain, while unused links between neurons are removed. Synaptic pruning occurs a great deal in early childhood, but also occurs during adolescence and adulthood.
Not only are connections between neurons regulated, but the actual number of neurons is also regulated by something known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Embryonic development gives rise to an overproduction of neurons. Although still not completely understood, apoptosis during this time occurs in response to both environmental and genetic factors.
Radiosurgery For Surgically Inaccessible Tumors
Brainstem metastases account for 35% of intracranial metastases and are rarely accessible by surgery . The presence of a brainstem metastasis traditionally portends a poor prognosis, with median overall survival rates of 46 months . Tumors within the brainstem are more likely to present symptomatically, including progressive weakness, diplopia, gait difficulties, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
James L. Bernat, in, 2013
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What Brain Stem Controls
A clinical trial in 2016 held at Stanford University School of Medicine found that injecting modified human stem cells directly into the brains of chronic stroke patients can re-enable patients to walk.
It’s possible to be declared brain-dead falsely because most physicians look at the brain stem, which controls heart and lung functions, but not the cortex, which coordinates consciousness
A baby was born with only a brain stem and almost no brain . By age three, his brain had grown to almost 80% he size of a normal human brain. He now enjoys playing Mario Kart.
A chicken named Mike lived for 18 months with no head. When cutting the head off for dinner, the axe missed his jugular and most of his brain stem, allowing him to retain most of his basic motor and reflex functions
The analogy about frogs not jumping out of water that is slowly raised to boiling stems from a 19th-century experiment demonstrating just that … but the frog previously had its brain removed.
In 1945 a farmer chopped off a chicken’s head, missed the jugular vein, a clot formed and some of the brain stem survived, providing basic homeostasis functions. Mike the headless chicken toured in sideshows for 18 months and earned the farmer $4,500/ month at the peak of his popularity
Conjoined twins who share a brain stem. When one is tickled, the other jumps, and putting a pacifier in the mouth of one could cause the other to stop crying. There is evidence that the twins can even see through each other’s eyes.