Monday, September 26, 2022

What Does The Front Of The Brain Control

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What Does The Left Frontal Lobe Of The Brain Do

Collectively , the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that is home to our emotional regulation centre and controls our personality.

Explanation:

The left side of the brain controls movement related to language. It is specifically the key in movement , all language function, decision making and emotional regulation.

The frontal lobe is the same part of the brain that is responsible for executive functions such as planning for the future , judgement and decision making skills , attention span and inhibition,

The anatomy of the brain is well defined , however it’s key to understand to shut down all but the left frontal lobe is not possible. It’s important to understand the complexity of the brain and the fact that all associated neuronal structures work in conjunction.

Damage To The Frontal Lobes

As the frontal lobes are situated at the front of the brain and are large in size, this makes them more susceptible to damage. This area is the most common for traumatic brain injuries, with damage to this region causing a variety of symptoms.

Below is a list of symptoms that may occur if an individual has experienced damage within their frontal lobe:

  • Paralysis
  • Impaired judgment
  • Reduced creativity

Damage to Brocaâs area, in particular, has been shown to affect the ability to speak, understand language, and to produce coherent sentences. 

 One of the most famous case studies associated with frontal lobe damage is the case of Phineas Gage. He was a railway construction worker who suffered an unfortunate accident when a metal rod impaled his brain in the frontal region. 

Gage survived this accident but was said to have experienced some personality changes because of the trauma. Before the accident, Gage was described as a âwell-balancedâ and a smart, energetic person. 

After his accident, he was described as being child-like in his intellectual capacities and had a loss of social inhibition . 

This case study implies that the frontal lobes are essential to our personalities, intelligence, and social skills.As well as trauma to the head being a cause of damage to the frontal lobes, there are many other causes that can lead to damage. 

Other tests worth noting as finger tapping tests, to test for motor skill ability, and the Token Test, which tests for language skills. 

Memory And Attention Problems

Frontal lobe injuries can greatly affect a persons ability to pay attention, and can even make it difficult for them to form long-term memories.

Treatment:

The best way to treat these conditions involves engaging neuroplasticity through cognitive rehabilitation exercises that focus on improving attention and memory skills.

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

What Does The Front Part Of Your Brain Control

Lab Practical 3 (The brain, muscles and nervous system ...

In the front of your brain is your cerebrum. Your cerebrumcontrols memory, thinking, and learning. It also receives andinterprets from the five senses.

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Vision

The brain consists of four main segments called lobes. The frontal lobe up front, the parietal lobe on top, the temporal lobe on bottom and the occipital lobe pulling up the rear. All of our senses, thoughts and actions start in one of these lobes.

Most visual functions are controlled in the occipital lobe, a small section of the brain near the back of the skull. But processing eyesight is no simple task, so other parts of the brain have to pitch in too.

Independance Motivation And Hope

My son Sharat suffered a severe traumatic brain injury 23 years ago leaving him with Aphasia and right sided weakness from his vision,hearing to his limbs. The lockdown in June was a great challenge for him as his caregivers stopped coming, no gym workouts and no outings for a coffee.

Being his mother and primary carer I feared that this was a hotbed for depression. I scoured the net and chanced upon FlintRehab. As there was a trial period it was safe for us to risk getting it across to Auckland.

His OT checked it out and felt that it was ideal. I can honestly second this.

He enjoys working on it and now after three months can do it on his own. His left hand helps his right hand. The FitMi video explains and shows him what to do, it gives him marks and applauds him too!!

He has to use both sides of his brain. The caregivers are OT students who returned enjoy working on it with him.

In three months there motivation built up in him with a drive to use his right hand. There is definitely a slight improvement in his right hand.

This encourages him as well as the caregivers to try harder.His overall mood is upbeat. He enjoys it, so much so, that it doesnt matter if his caregiver is away.

FitMi is a blessing.

Is Brain Injury A Mental Illness

According to a study being presented at the 2018 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition, these injuries have long-term consequences; researchers found children who experience traumatic brain injury are at higher risk of developing headache, depression, and mental or intellectual disorders up to …/span>

The Cerebrum And Cerebral Cortex

The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is covered in a thick layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex. Interior to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex is the white matter portion of the cerebrum. The white color comes from the layer of insulation called myelin that is on the neurons in this part of the brain.

The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres that are joined by a band of nerves which allow communication between the two halves. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.

Step 4 Prepare For Ambiguous Loss

This one isnt technically speaking a direct effect of frontal lobe brain damage, but it is something many experience after a brain injury.

Ambiguous loss refers to a loss that occurs without closure or any of the typical markers that accompany grief.

The term was coined by psychologist Pauline Boss who described it as a physical presence but psychological absence such as in cases of dementia or Alzheimers disease.

It also frequently accompanies traumatic brain injury, especially frontal lobe damage.

Because frontal lobe damage often results in personality changes, the people closest to the injured person may feel like they have lost their loved one, when in fact they have just changed.

This can lead to a complex blend of grief and guilt; grief for the loss of the person they once knew, and guilt for feeling that way when that person is still alive.

Ambiguous loss can also affect the person with the injury, especially when they have accepted or adapted to their new way of life.

Unresolved ambiguous grief leads to emotional problems and makes it difficult to move forward with recovery.

Resolving the feelings associated with ambiguous loss is an important step that allows both you and your loved ones to finally move forward.

Language And Spatial Abilities

There are also functions that are predominantly controlled by the left frontal lobe or the right frontal lobe. Along with the neighboring parietal and temporal lobes, the dominant frontal lobe is involved in language, rational, quantitative, and logical thinking, and analytical reasoning.

The right frontal lobe is involved with creativity, imagination, intuition, curiosity, musical and artistic ability.

How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain

When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .

When light enters the eye through the pupil, it strikes photoreceptor cells in the retina called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, color and fine details.

When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.

This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.

Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.

All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.

The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.

STILL HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR BRAIN AND VISION? Talk to an eye doctor near you to schedule an appointment.

Schedule an exam

The Lobes Of The Brain

What part of the brain controls vision?

Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal. The frontal lobes are the largest sections of the brain and make up the front portion of the cerebrum. The frontal lobes are the main thought processing center and control reasoning, problem solving, decision making, language and personality traits.

The temporal lobes are found on the sides of the brain, just above the ears. This part of the brain is responsible for short-term memory, understanding speech and recognizing sounds. Together with the frontal lobes, they identify and process smells.

The back portion of the cerebrum are the occipital lobes, which control vision. Lying interior to the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes are the parietal lobes. The parietals are the sensory processing center of the brain and are responsible for spoken language and learning.

Understanding Frontal Lobe Damage Treatment And Recovery

    Frontal lobe damage can cause a variety of symptoms. These can range from impaired muscle movements to advanced cognitive functions including personality changes.

    This article will discuss important facts about frontal lobe damage recovery, as well as how can frontal lobe damage can repair itself.

    Lets start by explaining what the frontal lobe is.

    Development Of The Prefrontal Cortex

    The brain develops in a back to front pattern, and the prefrontal cortex is the last portion of the brain to fully develop. This does not mean that children do not have functional prefrontal cortices. Rather, they do not develop the complex decision-making and planning skills adults have until they are older.

    During adolescence, the brains network of neurons develops many more synapses. These connections increase communication between parts of the brain and allow the individual to learn complex skills. However, this growth may happen unevenly.

    For example, most fifteen-year-olds can assess hypothetical risk as well as adults. However, a teens prefrontal cortex has not grown many connections with the limbic system yet. In other words, the part of the brain that provides self-control cant communicate well with the part of the brain that controls the fight or flight response. Thus, the same fifteen-year-old may act rashly under stress, even if they technically know better.

    Experience plays a role in the development of the prefrontal cortex. Teens exposed to a variety of stimuli and challenges may mature more quickly. However, most neurologists agree that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed until around the age of 25.

    Brain Structure And Function

    The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:

    This image is from:http://www.neuroskills.com/brain-injury/brain-function.php

    Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead; the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.

    Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears; the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.

    What Is The Prefrontal Cortex And What Does It Do

    Watch this 2-Minute Neuroscience video to learn more about the prefrontal cortex.

    The prefrontal cortex makes up over 10% of the volume of the brain, and thus is involved in many functionsmore than can be summarized in a short article. There is one category of cognition, however, that the prefrontal cortex is probably best known for: executive function.

    The term executive function is defined slightly differently depending on where you find the definition. In general, executive functions focus on controlling short-sighted, reflexive behaviors to take part in things like planning, decision-making, problem-solving, self-control, and acting with long-term goals in mind. They are higher-level cognitive processes that people tend to display greater proficiency in than other animalsthus you could argue they are some of the functions that truly help to make human cognition unique.

    Patients who suffer damage confined to the prefrontal cortex often display normal movement, sensory perception, and even intelligence. But they frequently experience deficits in executive functions, along with personality changes, abnormalities in emotional responses, and general difficulty functioning in their daily lives.

    Phineas Gage holding the rod/tamping iron that was blasted through his skull and brain.

    Brain Map Frontal Lobes

    The frontal lobes are located directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobes are the largest lobes in the human brain and they are also the most common region of injury in traumatic brain injury. The frontal lobes are important for voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions. Executive functions refer to a collection of cognitive skills including the capacity to plan, organise, initiate, self-monitor and control ones responses in order to achieve a goal. The frontal lobes are considered our behaviour and emotional control centre and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms.

    Damage to the frontal lobes can result in:

    • Loss of simple movement of various body parts
    • Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks, such as making coffee
    • Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others
    • Inability to express language
    • Loss of flexibility in thinking and persistence of a single idea or behaviour
    • Inability to focus on a task and to filter out distractions
    • Mood fluctuations
    • Difficulty inhibiting or controlling a response or impulse
    • Reduced motivation, initiation and persistence on activities
    • Reduced awareness/insight into difficulties

    Where Is The Frontal Lobe Located

    Neuroscientists have traditionally divided the brain’s cerebrum into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The cerebrum is the newest part of the brain to have evolved, and houses most higher functions, such as conscious thought, morality, memory, and the ability to learn through memorization, deduction, and other complex processes. The frontal lobe plays a key role in this complex set of cognitive functions.

    Named for its location, the frontal lobe is situated toward the front of the cerebrum, just behind the forehead and under the frontal skull bones. It sits atop the temporal lobe, in front of the parietal lobe, and apart from the occipital lobe, with portions of the limbic systemsometimes called the limbic lobe crossing all four brain lobes, including the frontal lobe.

    The central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes, with the lateral sulcus separating the frontal and temporal lobes.

    The Parietal And Temporal Lobes

    We cant talk about the occipital lobe without giving a little credit to these two. While the occipital lobe carries most of the visual burden, its the parietal and temporal lobes that help us make sense of what were seeing.

    The parietal lobe plays a big role in visuospatial cognition, our ability to recognize and adapt to the physical space around us. This includes abilities like depth perception, navigation and movement.

    When you want to change the channel on TV, youre first using the occipital lobe to see the remote. But the parietal lobes visuospatial recognition is used to gauge how much distance is between you and the remote an important detail once you decide to reach for it.

    The temporal lobe controls memory; it assigns meaning to the images we see. After the occipital lobe registers the image of the TV remote, structures in the temporal lobe subconsciously remind us that the remote is used to change the channel, that it needs to be pointed at the TV, and which button we need to press to get to the channel were seeking.

    The frontal lobe is usually not considered to be directly involved with vision, but scientists dont think it should be left out completely. According to the Georgia Institute of Technology, new research actually suggests it might play a role in vision after all.

    The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

    The emotion centre is the oldest part of the human brain ...

    The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

    You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

    The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

    What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

    Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

    Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

    Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

    Frontal Lobe Function Location In Brain & Damage

    The frontal lobe is located behind the forehead, at the front of the brain. These lobes are part of the cerebral cortex and is the largest brain structure. 

    The frontal lobeâs main functions are associated typically with âhigherâ cognitive functions, including decision-making, problem-solving, thought and attention.

    It contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement; the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning; and Brocaâs Area, which is essential for language production

    Parts Of Prefrontal Cortex

    The prefrontal cortex is located at the very front of the brain. It is part of the brains wrinkled outer layer called the cortex. In adults, the prefrontal cortex takes up nearly a third of this outer layer.

    There are competing theories about how best to categorize the parts of the prefrontal cortex. The brain is very interconnected, both physically and functionally. It is difficult to point to a specific part of the brain and say that this section alone controls a certain ability.

    In general, though, the prefrontal cortex can be divided into three parts according to which functions they serve.

  • The medial prefrontal cortex contributes to attention and motivation. It can be thought of as a metaphorical start button, allowing people to begin an activity when it is time to do so. Lesions in this area cause people to become apathetic and unfocused. They may have trouble acting spontaneously or initiating speech. They could also have trouble concentrating on a task once it has started.
  • Lastly, the lateral prefrontal cortex allows people to create and execute plans. This region also helps individuals organize actions in a certain sequence, such as when a person needs to follow a recipe. Injuries to this region can interfere with peoples abilities to switch between tasks, recall where an instruction came from, or adapt to changes in rules.
  • References:

  • Hathaway, W. R., & Newton, B. W. . Neuroanatomy, prefrontal cortex. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499919
  • Frontal Lobe Tbi And Treatment

    As we noted above, not everyone will experience the same symptoms after a frontal lobe TBI injury. Aside from the uniqueness of the injury itself, theres another factor that influences symptom expression and severity your age. Since your brain is still developing into your 20s, injuries during this crucial time could be even more severe.

    Some of the more common symptoms someone might experience during a frontal lobe injury include:

    • Changes in behavior
    • Inability to understand or comprehend
    • Loss of empathic reasoning
    • Impaired judgment
    • Loss of coordination or balance

    Treating frontal lobe injuries arent easy, because everyone responds differently. The key is for both the patient and their family to have patience. Full recovery can take weeks, months, years or may never occur, so you need to be patient and take pride in the progress being made. It also may not be easy. For individuals with minor injuries, rest may be the best option, but for individuals with severe front lobe injuries, they may need to relearn a number of social skills. Behaviors and emotions may be different, but its important to work with your friends and family members to give them the best chance at a full recovery.

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    Functions Of The Frontal Lobe

    The frontal lobe plays a key role in future planning, including self-management and decision-making.

    People with frontal lobe damage often struggle with gathering information, remembering previous experiences, and making decisions based on this input.

    Some of the many other functions the frontal lobe plays in daily functions include:

    One of the most infamous frontal lobe injuries happened to railroad worker Phineas Gage.

    Gage survived after a railroad spike impaled a portion of his frontal lobe. Though Gage survived, he lost his eye and much of his personality.

    Gages personality dramatically changed, and the once mild-mannered worker struggled to stick to even simple plans. He became aggressive in speech and demeanor and had little impulse control.

    Much of what we know about the frontal lobe comes from case reports on Gage. Those have been called into question since, however. Little is known for sure about Gages personality before his accident, and many stories about him may be exaggerated or false.

    The case demonstrates a larger point about the brain, which is that our understanding of it is constantly evolving. Hence, it is not possible to accurately predict the outcome of any given frontal lobe injury, and similar injuries may develop quite differently in each person.

    In general, however, damage to the frontal lobe due to a blow to the head, a stroke, growths, and diseases, can cause the following symptoms:

    • speech problems

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