Friday, September 30, 2022

What Does The Pons Do In The Brain

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Pons And Medulla Oblongata

Pons and medulla oblongata together with midbrain and thalamus are part of the brainstem, which is located in the posterior part of the brain. It is a region of transition between central and peripheral nervous system, containing cell nuclei of majority of cranial nerves from which they are emerging to the spinal cord. The pons and medulla developmentally originate from the third vesicle of neural tube . Hox genes orchestrate the segmented organization of spinal cord, pons and medulla and are not expressed in other parts of the brain. Pons facilitates connections between medulla and cerebellum, as well as into the thalamus. Medulla receives inputs from pyramidal tracts originating from the cerebral cortex. These nerves are involved in control of the motoric functions. An important function of pons and medulla is the autonomous control of the body’s vital functions. For example the cardiovascular centers receive sensory inputs from the heart and blood vessels via the vagus nerve and modulates heart rate and blood pressure. A complex network between antagonistic respiratory centers regulates the pattern and rate of the respiratory cycle of inhalation and exhalation.

Figure 1. Schematic drawing of the human brain, indicating the location of pons and medulla from a coronal perspective or sagittal view.

– parabrachial n.

How Brain Stem Injuries Happen

Brain stem injuries can occur in a variety of ways from a brain stem injury car accident, to slipping and falling. A brain stem injury resulting from a car accident can even occur through whiplash. Slipping and falling can result in blunt force trauma to a persons head, which can lead to the hemorrhaging mentioned above. One of the most common causes of brain stem injury are Las Vegas motorcycle accidents.

If you have been involved in an accident and have suffered an injury to your brain stem, it is vital that you consult with an attorney. Brain stem injuries are often the most devasting injuries a person can suffer because the care the person will need after the accident is expensive and may be needed for the rest of the victims life.

Furthermore, the injury may take away a persons ability to work. Please contact Las Vegas personal injury attorney firm Valiente Mott for a free consultation today if you have been involved in an accident involving an injury to your brain stem.

Valiente Mott is a Las Vegas personal injury attorney firm specializing in representing accident victims. Contact us today to learn more about how we can help you in your case!

What Does The Brain Do

The brain controls what we think and feel, how we learn and remember, and the way we move and talk. But it also controls things were less aware of like the beating of our hearts and the digestion of our food.

Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the bodys functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

What Does The Left Side Of The Brain Control

The left side of the brain is generally dominant for language and other logical tasks. This side of the brain is also used for math or various calculations, according to the University of Washington. The left side of the brain also controls muscles on the right side of the body. Sensory information from the bodys right side crosses over to the left side of the brain.

The ability to form words primarily lies in the left hemisphere, states the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Both hemispheres are divided into sections, or lobes, which specialize in different functions. The Brocas area, which is found on the left frontal lobe, enables thoughts to be transformed into words.

The left hemisphere of around 95 percent of right-handed individuals and 60 to 70 percent of left-handed persons is dominant for language, explains the University of Washington. The two specific areas of the brain that are important for language are named the Brocas area and Wernickes area.

As most of the signals from the brain to the body and vice versa cross over when reaching the brain, both left and right hemispheres control the opposite side of the body, notes the NINDS. Thus, when the left hemisphere is damaged, the right part of the body is affected. For instance, a stroke in the left hemisphere usually leaves the right arm and leg paralyzed.

Bontogeny Of Noradrenergic Innervation

File:Diagram showing the brain stem which includes the ...

The pons and the tegmental part of the medulla are the main regions where NE is synthesized. The main region of synthesis of noradrenergic neurons is the locus coeruleus, as this center possesses about half of the noradrenergic neurons of the brain. NE axonal arbors project upward from the pons and medulla into diverse regions including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and caudally to the spinal cord.9

G.P. Singh, in, 2017

The Pons Serves As A Communication Center For The Brain

The main function of the pons in your brainis serving as a relay center for many important messages that must go between different areas of the brain. It aids in many vital functions of the brain by transmitting signals between the forebrain and the cerebellum. If the pons was not functioning properly, these messages might not go through, and these functions could not be carried out.

The same is true of sensory information passing between the right and left hemispheres of the brain. These messages use the nerve fibers in the pons as a conduit, making the structure a key part of sensory function as well.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

Organization Of The Pons

The pons consists of a) the basilar pons in the front , and b) the pontine tegmentum in the back . The basilar pons and the pontine tegmentum contain nuclei and tracts. The basilar pons contains a complex combination of tracts and nuclei . The pontine tegmentum is made up of cranial nerves which serve the head and neck, associated nuclei, the reticular formation , and tracts . 

Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms

Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the  effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.

The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a full list of the secondary effects of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.

Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:

The Ascending And Descending Fiber Pathways Of The Pons

The mammalian pons typically houses several distinct large and small fiber pathways, some of which are clearly evident in basic anatomical preparation and some of which need either specialized immunostaining or hodological studies to reveal. Despite this, the general pattern across mammals is quite similar and varies mostly in accordance with specific specializations of the different species, be they sensory or motor specializations. The rostral border of the pons is demarcated by the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle . From this decussation, the fibers coalesce to form a distinctive arc in a position dorsolateral to the pontine tegmentum. The superior cerebellar peduncle maintains this location within the pons to the level of the trigeminal motor nucleus, where it shifts dorsally to invest into the white matter of the cerebellum. In all mammals, the largest cerebellar peduncle is the middle cerebellar peduncle and the axons making up this structure arise from the ventral pontine nucleus. These invest into the cerebellar white matter from the lateral and ventral aspects of the pons.

Sumit Sarkar, … Jennifer L. Walters, in, 2018

Neurotransmitter Systems In Pons And Medulla Oblongata


Noradrenalin belongs to the monoamine family of neurotransmitters. It is a hormone and neurotransmitter that increases body arousal and reaches high levels during stress . The locus coeruleus located near the 4th ventricle, is the major site of Noradrenalin synthesis in the brain. The LC neurons have projections to all regions of the brain, modulating the arousal state of the brain. Example enzymes involved in noradrenalin synthesis and noradrenalin transport can be found below.

What Controls The Bodys Balance

In addition to the cerebellum, two crucial structures in maintaining balance are the inner ear and the vestibular cranial nerves.

Located in the inner ear, the vestibular system provides your brain with the necessary information for motion, head position, and spatial orientation.

It also plays a role in your motor functions that are involved in keeping your balance, stabilizing your head and body during movement, and also helps maintain your posture.

The vestibular system absolutely essential for your bodys equilibrium, thus making it a vital part aiding you in balance.

Damage to any part of the brain related to balance isnt inherently life-threatening, however, it can result in a jerky, and uncoordinated movements if the damage is severe.

Parts Of The Hindbrain

What Does the Pons Do?

The hindbrain is located at the back of the head and looks like an extension of the spinal cord. It containsthe medulla, pons, and cerebellum.

The medulla controls the automatic processes of theautonomic nervous system, such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate.

The pons serves to connect the brain and spinal cord, and the medulla, pons, and midbrain together are knownas the brainstem.


The pons comes from the Latin word for bridge, named so, as it essentially forms a bridge from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex.

The pons is situated right underneath the midbrain and serves as the coordination center for signals which flow between the two cerebral hemispheres and spinal cord.

This structure is most strongly associated with many autonomic functions such as breathing, taste, sleeping, and circuits that generate respiratory rhythms.

The pons is also involved in analyzing sensory data and is the site where auditory information enters the brain.

Within the pons are four types of cranial nerves – these are nerves which help control head muscles and receive sensory information from the head:

The pons also contains cell groups which are responsible for transferring signals from the cerebrum to the cerebellum.

Some of these cell groups are part of the reticular formation which is a network of neurons extending throughout the brainstem with a job to regulate alertness, sleep, and wakefulness.


Components Of The Brainstem

The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.

Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.

The medulla oblongata  is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake cycles, alertness, and temperature regulation.

The pons lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum. It also has tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.

Pontine Stroke Recovery Time

As you can see, stroke rehabilitation revolves around rewiring the brain, and massed practice is very powerful for healing.

Its impossible to estimate your stroke recovery timeline because every stroke is different and therefore each person will take different amounts of time to heal.

There are some general patterns that can help give you an idea of what to expect after a stroke, though.

Typically, if the stroke was small, you can recover within about 6 months. If the stroke was , then recovery can take years.

Again, every stroke is different so its possible to have a very fast recovery from a massive pontine stroke just as its possible to recover slowly from a minor stroke.

Instead of focusing on how long things will take, focus on the steps you can take to maximize recovery, such as massed practice.

Function Of Pons In The Brain

Kate Broome

The Pons serves a specific function in the brain; it sorts and relays messages between different sections of the brain. Specifically, the Pons relays messages between the cortex in the brain and the cerebellum.

Our brain is absolutely incredible and is what ultimately makes humans human. All the parts of the brain are extremely important, but the Pons stands out just a little more than some of the other parts. Check out this guide to learn all about the Pons.

The chief function of the body is to carry the brain around. Thomas A. Edison

The Pons Function: Your Bridge To A Good Nights Sleep

A good nights sleep is essential to living a superhero life.

Jim Kwik

Mental and physical exercises are only part of the process to ensure the longevity of your brain. To give your brain a boost and improve your mental function, you also need to get a good nights sleep.

The most refreshing sleep is deep sleep, and you cant achieve it without the pons. The pons is the upper section of the brain stem that plays an important role in many essential processes.

In this article, well examine the main pons function and explain how this small structure helps your whole body function properly.

What Is The Work Of Pons In Brain

Located above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain, the pons is an important part of the brain stem.

Measuring just under an inch, the pons connects the thinking part of your brain to the part of your brain that regulates movement , thus allowing them to function in sync.

In combination with the medulla oblongata, the pons also connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord and ensures that nerve impulses can travel freely through your whole body. Simply put, the pons acts as a bridge in your nervous system, so its no surprise that its name means bridge in Latin.

Apart from connecting different parts of the nervous system, the pons is also home to some essential cranial nerve nuclei. Thanks to this, it plays a part in sensory and motor functions of the face, hearing, and eye movement. The pons is also partially responsible for voluntary movements, as well as balance.

Did You Remember To Breathe

I’m sure you know that your heart is a pretty large structure: about the size of your fist. Your lungs are obviously even bigger in size. But did you know that the speed at which your heart beats and your lungs breathe are in large part controlled by areas of your brain sometimes as small as a thumbtack?

Amazing, isn’t it? A tiny little area in your brain is what gives you the ability to breathe and enjoy life. These little areas are located in two important areas of your brain stem, known as the pons and medulla oblongata. We’ll also learn about their structure and function, including chemoreceptors, pH sensing, and breathing rate.

Not only do these areas control your heart and lungs, but they also monitor your blood pressure and the acidity of your blood in order to adjust your breathing rate automatically. Your brain essentially has autopilot zones, which allow you to focus on things, like studying for an exam, watching television, or texting a friend, without having to worry about remembering to breathe.

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Hindbrain: Parts Function And Location

The brain and its parts can be divided into three main categories: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.

The forebrain is the largest region which contains the entire cerebrum as well as several structures nestled within it.The midbrain is the most forward portion of the brainstem and is associated primarily with motor movement, audition, and visual processing.

The hindbrain is located at the lower back part of the brain and includes most of the brainstem , and the cerebellum.

The hindbrain is also known as the rhombencephalon and is one of the most crucial parts of the central nervous system as it connects the brain to the spinal cord, so messages are able to be sent from the brain, down the spinal cord, to the rest of the body.

The hindbrain is essentially an extension of the spinal cord, with tracts of axons running through the spinal cord to the hindbrain, to which is integrates the incoming sensory information and coordinates motor responses.

The hindbrain√Ęs chief role is in coordinating the vital functions of our bodies such as breathing and heart rate. Therefore, the hindbrain is important for survival.

Another main function of the hindbrain is the organization of motor reflexes, mostly controlled by the cerebellum structure. Similarly, the hindbrain is responsible for sleep activity and wakefulness.

What Are The Functions Of The Left Brain


The left side of the brain handles logic and reasoning.

The human is divided into two hemispheres the left brain hemisphere and the right brain hemisphere with each one controlling different modes of thinking. While the right side controls intuition and feelings, the left side of the brain is responsible for logical thinking. It is where the ability to analyze concepts, ideas, and facts often comes from. Through the left brain, individuals learn to communicate, do math problems, remember details and events, and formulate strategies. Another one of its functions is acting as a storage place for names, and all the information gleaned from daily life.

Damage to the brains left hemisphere can affect the crucial Brocas and Wernickes areas.

As the area responsible for logical thinking, the left side of the brain allows individuals to know the consequences of each action, no matter how big or small. It gives people the capability to understand how things work and the things needed to make those things work, thus giving them the ability to conduct scientific experiments. Anything that deals with logic and common sense is all processed in the left brain. Essentially, this side of the brain is all about details and the information on what to do with those details.

Those with left brain injuries may need to learn to write with their left hand. Want to save up to 30% on your monthly bills? This tool helps you do just that.

Nerve Tracts That Pass Through The Pons

There are four major nerve tracts that pass through the pons to control the sensory, autonomic, and voluntary functions of the body.

Corticospinal Tract

The corticospinal tract , also known as the pyramidal tract, comprises part of the descending nerve tracts that emerge from the pons into the spinal cord and into the peripheral nervous system. There are about 1 million nerve fibers that make up the CST, each of the transmitting neuronal information at speeds of 60m/s!

The CST travels through the corona radiata and posterior limb of the internal capsule to terminate in the brainstem. Once it reaches the brainstem, one of the structures it passes through, of course, is the pons. The CST controls many motor functions including spinal reflexes, and the most notable of the voluntary movements are the voluntary distal movements.

Corticobulbar Tract

This is a descending neuronal pathway responsible for innervating several of the cranial nerves, controlling the muscles in the face, tongue, jaw, and pharynx.

The cranial nerves that are supplied by the corticobulbar tract include the trigeminal nerve , facial nerve , accessory nerve , and the hypoglossal nerve .

Medial Lemniscus Tract

The nerve tract is part of a greater pathway called the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway, which is responsible for the transmission of sensory information related to fine tactile sensation, detection of vibrations, and proprioception .

Spinothalamic Tract

The Brains Pons And Its Function

Just like the thalamus is a relay station, well, so is the Pons. The Pons is one of the most interesting parts of the brain because it serves multiple purposes. It serves as a relay station for the cerebellum and the cerebrum, it is an origin point for different nerves, and it has a massive role in involuntary functions. Lets go over those roles:

Increase Pixel Dimensions Of Mri Of Brain

Another potential advancement which is not getting much attention is to increase the pixel size of the scan to 1024 by 768, from what is typically something more equivalent to 360 pixels by 240 This type of resolution is now common when scanning for tumors. Why not brain injury? The failure to ask for a higher resolution images if partially because of priorities.  Tumors are thought to be more dangerous than hemosiderin.  But the fundamental reason a more focused and higher resolution scan isnt asked for is that few neurologists or neuroradiologists have thought about the advantages to aiming a telescopic image.  Shouldnt such higher processing power be directed at the frontal lobes? Wouldnt those particularly vulnerable undersides of the frontal lobes and get a closer look? What about the lower brain structures and at the brain stem, areas that are difficult to image conventionally?

With all tailored protocols, there is always a cost benefit analysis. A tailored MRI protocol costs more. A tailored MRI protocol costs requires more attention from the neuroradiologist.   A tailored MRI protocol also extends the amount of time that the patient must stay in the scanner. Time in a scanner can be unpleasant and exceedingly boring. Faster scanning times are eliminating some of that disadvantage. The ultimate answer as to why these more tailored protocols arent done is that no one is demanding it.

What Happens If There Is Damage To The Pons

Since the main function of the pons is to connect different parts of your nervous system, any damage to it would disrupt that connection and cause serious complications as a result. These can include sleep disturbances, sensory problems, and impaired voluntary movement control among others.

If one of the arteries that deliver blood to the pons becomes clogged, your brain could stop receiving the oxygen it needs to maintain its normal processes.

Commonly referred to as lacunar stroke, this condition could limit your movement, cause difficulty while speaking, and result in loss of memory. In more severe cases, it could even have a fatal outcome.

The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator Device

The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator is an authorized medical device in the United States. The PoNS device is indicated for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild-to-moderate symptoms from multiple sclerosis and is to be used as an adjunct to a supervised therapeutic exercise program in patients 22 years of age and over by prescription only.

PoNS is an authorized medical device commercially available in Canada intended for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild and moderate symptoms from MS and is to be used in conjunction with physical therapy. The device is also intended for use as a short term treatment of chronic balance deficit due to mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury and is to be used in conjunction with physical therapy in Canada. In the US, PoNS is authorized and indicated for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild to moderate symptoms from multiple sclerosis and is to be used as an adjunct to a supervised therapeutic exercise program in patients 22 years of age and over by prescription only. PoNS is currently under review for market authorization by the AUS TGA; PoNS is not commercially available in Australia or other markets.

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