Wednesday, May 18, 2022

What Is Brain Computer Interface

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Convolutional Neural Network And Bci

Brain-Computer Interface – Mysteries of the Brain

CNN is a type of AI neural network based on visual cortex. It has the capacity to learn the appropriate features from the input data automatically by optimizing the weight parameters of each filter through the forward and backward propagation in order to minimize the classification mistake.

Human auditory cortex is arranged in hierarchical organization, similar to the visual cortex. In a hierarchical system, a series of brain regions performs different types of computation on sensory information as it flows through the system. Earlier regions or primary visual cortex, react to simple features such as color or direction. Later stages enable more complex tasks such as object recognition.

One advantage of using deep learning technique is that it requires minimal pre-processing since optimal settings are learned automatically. Regarding CNNs, feature extraction and classification are integrated into a single structure and optimized automatically. Moreover, fNIRS time series data of human subjects were input to the CNN. As the convolution is performed in the sliding show manner, the feature extraction process of CNN retains the temporal information of the time series data obtained by fNIRS.

However, one of the biggest issues in BCI reseach is the non-stationarity of brain signals. This issue makes it difficult for a classifier to find realiable patterns in the signals, resulting in bad classifying performances.

Does Emotiv Offer Brain

EMOTIV offers brain-computer interface devices that can be paired with its brain-computer interface software called EmotivBCI. EmotivBCI can be used directly to implement a BCI within a computer. It can also pair with the free open-source platform NodeRed, which interfaces BCI outputs to many compatible external hardware devices to implement direct mental control over real-world equipment. EmotivBCI and NodeRed allow developers to build BCI applications. EMOTIVs brain-computer interface devices include the EMOTIV Insight and the EMOTIV EPOC X EEG headsets.

What Is A Brain

Systems that allow humans to control or communicate with technology using only the electrical signals in the brains or muscles are fast becoming mainstream. Here’s what you need to know.

What is a brain-computer interface? It can’t be what it sounds like, surely? Yep, brain-computer interfaces are precisely what they sound like — systems that connect up the human brain to external technology.

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Basic Design Of A Bci System For Assistive Technology Control

In BCIs using visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli, a computer selects stimuli to be presented to the user via a presentation device , and the user’s reactions produce brain signals. In self-driven BCIs, the user spontaneously produces brain signals the left-hand portion of the figure does not apply in these systems. In either case, the brain signals are processed and digitized by signal acquisition hardware and sent to the computer for analysis. If the computer has sufficient evidence to infer the user’s intent, it sends a control command to the AT software or device. If not, it initiates the presentation of additional stimuli to the user, or, in the case of self-driven BCIs, awaits additional information from the user. In many systems, the user simultaneously receives input from the stimulus presentation device and feedback from the AT.

In the video below, Betts Peters, M.A., C.C.C.-S.L.P., discusses Brain-Computer Interfaces.

Bcis That Use Ecog Activity

Brain Computer Interface Virtual Reality with EEG signals

ECoG activity is recorded from the cortical surface, and thus it requires the implantation of a subdural or epidural electrode array. ECoG records signals of higher amplitude than EEG and offers superior spatial resolution and spectral bandwidth. In addition to the lower-frequency activity that dominates the EEG, ECoG includes higher-frequency activity up to 200 Hz and possibly higher. Gamma activity is important because it exhibits very precise functional localization is highly correlated with specific aspects of motor, language, and cognitive function and is linked to the firing rates of individual neurons and to blood-oxygen leveldependent signals detected by fMRI.

Individual finger, hand, and arm movements have been decoded successfully from ECoG. ECoG-based BCIs have controlled 1- or 2-dimensional cursor movements using motor or sensory imagery or working memory . An ECoG-based BCI can enable users to control a prosthetic hand or to select characters using motor-imagery or the P300 event-related potential. Most recently, ECoG signals measured over speech cortex during overt or imagined phoneme and word articulation were used for online cursor control and were also accurately decoded off-line for potential application to direct speech synthesis.

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So You Don’t Need Surgery To Use A Bci

You may have heard of implantable, or invasive BCIs – these systems involve surgically implanting sensors directly onto the surface of the brain. These systems also measure the electrical activity of neurons, but because the electrical activity doesn’t have to travel through bone, skin and hair to get to the sensor, the recorded activity is much stronger. Invasive BCIs are being studied because these stronger signals could potentially allow us to develop more accurate or complex BCI systems than those that record signals from outside of the scalp, like EEG-based BCIs.

On the other hand, non-invasive BCIs, including those that use EEG, do not require surgery. They are perfectly safe and do not cause any pain . Our program focuses on non-invasive EEG-based BCI systems.

Neuralink: From Pigs To Monkeys To Humans

Lets first look at Neuralink, the company that made headlines with the monkey controlling a game of Ping Pong. It is truly amazing to see a monkey playing games just with its thoughts and to be very good at it. I have covered Neuralink before, in one of my recent Tech Journals by The Digital Speaker.

The vision of Neuralink is to develop ultra-high bandwidth brain-machine interfaces to connect humans and computers to survive the upcoming age of AI. Elon Musk believes that our only way to stand a chance when super-intelligent AI arrives is to merge with AI, hence Neuralinks mission statement: if you can’t beat them, join them.

They have made remarkable progress. In the summer of 2020, they demonstrated three pigs with a surgically implanted Neuralink, recording their everyday brain activities like smelling and moving. Only a year later, they showed Pager playing games with its mind.

Pager had the coin-sized link disc installed in its brain via a surgical robot, connecting thousands of micro threads from the chip to specific neurons to record the brain patterns. After a lot of training, it could play the game simply by thinking about its actions. If this is what a monkey can achieve with an internal BCI, imagine what humans can do when our brains are connected to computers. It also immediately raises a plethora of ethical considerations, which I will cover below.

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Neuroergonomics And Smart Environment

Health science alone has not taken the advantages of BCI technology. Places like smart homes, offices and transportation have utilized the BCI methods for safety, luxury and even normal living.

  • BSLEACS Brain computer interface-based Smart Living Environmental Auto-adjustment Control System monitors the human mood and adapts to surrounding as per the mental state. Combination of healthcare and brain computer applications can be successful in controlling the mental state.
  • Users Cognitive state is assessed to identify fatigue and production hours as one of the features of EEG. The stress level of a doctor during the surgery also can be identified and alerted.
  • In the transportation field Cognitive state of drivers can be studied for drowsiness, alcoholism and fatigue with the help of both ECG and EEG signals. Solutions like Stimulation methods and alertness are considered after the detailed study.

What Is The Brain

Lecture 1.1 What is a Brain Computer Interface?

A Brain-computer interface is a system or simply a machine that connected with our brain with a computer. It is useful to get information from our brain and shows on the computer or machine. Actually, it is useful for mind communication. In short Brain-computer interface allows controlling devices or machines using mind. Its awesome isnt it. so lets see how brain-computer interface works?

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Real World Noninvasive Bcis

Noninvasive BCIs are wearable technology, not unlike a Fitbit, except they pick up a brain signal instead of a pulse or body movement. Nurable made news when in 2017, it introduced the first BCI virtual reality video game. Players wear a VR helmet with integrated brain-computer interface tech. Perhaps too appropriately, the game Awakening lets the gamer play as a telekinetic child who picks things up with the power of their mind and moves them around to escape captivity in a dystopian future. The play style may be ominous, but there are real-world applications that are far less sinister. In conjunction with large BCI compatible machines on a construction site might allow workers to stay out of harms way while accomplishing tasks beyond normal human abilities. Meltin MMI has a similar concept using wearable sensors. However, this company is working to connect human minds with separate mechanical bodies. The initial project only involved a hand, but the possibilities are endless. Someday, tech like this might allow you to walk on the surface of an uninhabitable world using a robot body you control with a device from home.

Brain Computer Interface Technology

There are two types of BCI based on the electrodes used for measuring the brain activity: non-invasive BCI where the electrodes are placed on the scalp , and invasive Brain computer interface where the electrodes are directly attached on human brain .

Brain computer interfaces using EEG technology have been widely used to establish portable synchronous and asynchronous control and communication. Non-invasive EEG-based BCIs can be classified as evoked or spontaneous. An evoked BCI exploits a strong characteristic of the EEG, the so-called evoked potential, which reflects the immediate automatic responses of the brain to some external stimuli. Spontaneous BCIs are based on the analysis of EEG phenomena associated with various aspects of brain function related to mental tasks carried out by the BCI user at their own will. These BCIs have been developed based on some brain features such as evoked potentials or based on slow potential shifts and variations of rhythmic activity .

In addition, a closed-loop BCI system using visual and proprioceptive feedback with real-time modulation and communication can be used not only for interacting with the external environment, but also as a biofeedback platform to enhance the cognitive abilities of elderly patients and provide better therapeutic effects. This closed-loop interaction between the participants brain responses and the stimuli is thought to induce cerebral plasticity and thereby facilitate rehabilitation.

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Bonus: Brain Chip Holdings

This company isnt building BCI technology despite the name. However, its innovative neural network is based on the human brain could lead to future advances in the sector. If you are looking for a similar stock that is building computers that act like brains, instead of those that integrate with them directly, this could be the one your portfolio needs.

What Are These Brain

Global Brain

For Zaza Zuilhof, It depends who you ask and whether or not you are willing to undergo surgery. For the purpose of this thought-experiment, lets assume that healthy people will only use non-invasive BCIs, which dont require surgery. In that case, there are currently two main technologies, fMRI and EEG. The first requires a massive machine, but the second, with consumer headsets like Emotiv and Neurosky, has actually become available to a more general audience.

However, BCI can also be a promising interaction tool for healthy people, with several potential applications in the field of multimedia, VR or video games among many other potential applications.

Davide Valeriani said that The EEG hardware is totally safe for the user, but records very noisy signals. Also, research labs have been mainly focused on using it to understand the brain and to propose innovative applications without any follow-up in commercial products, so far but it will change.

Musks company is the latest. Its neural lace technology involves implanting electrodes in the brain to measure signals. This would allow getting neural signals of much better quality than EEG but it requires surgery. Recently, he stated that brain-computer interfaces are needed to confirm humans supremacy over artificial intelligence.

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What Are The Barriers To The Development Of Brain

The prospects of using BCI technology are enormous, and we may not even understand the extent of its full potential. But some issues are blocking progress in this field. Check out this short video to learn about some of the possibilities and the challenges facing BCIs:

While EEG is noninvasive, some advanced applications may require implanted sensors that directly interface with neurons. The technology to do this, however, is not yet fully developed, and many technical issues need to be resolved to advance to this level.

Some people are also objecting to BCI use based on ethical grounds. They fear that if the human brain can be connected to a machine, then it may not take long until others can hack into and take control of someone elses mind.

Nature And Needs Of Bci Research And Development

BCI research and development is a multidisciplinary effort. It requires neuroscience, engineering, applied mathematics, computer science, psychology, and rehabilitation. The need to select useful brain signals, to record them reliably, to analyze them appropriately in real-time, to control devices that provide functions valuable for those with severe disabilities, to manage the intricate short-term and long-term adaptive interactions between user and system, and to integrate BCI applications into the daily lives of their users means that the expertise and efforts of all these disciplines are essential for success. Thus, each BCI research group must incorporate all the essential disciplines, or groups with different expertise must collaborate closely. Collaborative studies are being facilitated by the widespread adoption of the general-purpose BCI software platform BCI2000, which can readily accommodate a wide variety of different signals, processing methods, applications, operating protocols, and hardware . Productive collaborations have also been encouraged by recent meetings drawing BCI researchers from all relevant disciplines and from all over the world, by numerous symposia and collections of BCI research presentations at larger general meetings, and by publication of extensive sets of peer-reviewed BCI articles.

Eran Klein, in, 2020

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Hardware And Edge Computing

BCI applications have the constraint of operating in real-time, as with typing or playing a game. Having more than one-second latency from thought to action would create an unacceptable user experience since the interaction would be laggy and inconsistent .

Sending raw EEG data to a remote inference server to then decode it into a concrete action and return the response to the BCI device would introduce such latency. Furthermore, sending sensitive data such as your brain activity introduces privacy concerns.

Recent progress in AI chips development can solve these problems. Giants such as Nvidia and Google are betting big on building smaller and more powerful chips that are optimized for inference at the edge. This in turn can enable BCI devices to run offline and avoid the need to send data, eliminating the latency issues associated with it.

Why Does It Matter

Brain Computer Interface

According to Davide Valeriani, Post-doctoral Researcher in Brain-Computer Interfaces at the University of Essex, The combination of humans and technology could be more powerful than artificial intelligence. For example, when we make decisions based on a combination of perception and reasoning, neurotechnologies could be used to improve our perception. This could help us in situations such when seeing a very blurry image from a security camera and having to decide whether to intervene or not.

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Neurograins Could Be The Next Brain

A team at Brown University has developed a system that uses dozens of silicon microchips to record and transmit brain activity to a computer. Dubbed neurograins, the chipseach about the size of a grain of saltare designed to be sprinkled across the brains surface or throughout its tissue to collect neural signals from more areas than currently possible with other brain implants.

Each grain has enough micro-electronics stuffed into it so that, when embedded in neural tissue, it can listen to neuronal activity on the one hand, and then can also transmit it as a tiny little radio to the outside world, says lead author Arto Nurmikko, a neuroengineer at Brown who led the development of the neurograins. The system, known as a brain-computer interface, is described in a paper published August 12 in Nature Electronics.

The team implanted the system in a rat, performing a craniotomy to place 48 of the neurograins on the cerebral cortexthe outer layer of the brainarranging the microchips to cover most of the motor and sensory areas. A thin, thumbprint-sized patch that attached to the scalp acted as the external communications hub, receiving signals from the neurograins like a miniature cell phone tower, processing them, and charging the chips wirelessly.

Several of the silicon microchips known as neurograins.

Physiologic Signals Used By Bcis

In principle, any type of brain signal could be used to control a BCI system. The most commonly studied signals are the electrical signals produced mainly by neuronal postsynaptic membrane polarity changes that occur because of activation of voltage-gated or ion-gated channels. The scalp EEG, first described by Hans Berger in 1929, is largely a measure of these signals. Most of the early BCI work used scalp-recorded EEG signals, which have the advantages of being easy, safe, and inexpensive to acquire. The main disadvantage of scalp recordings is that the electrical signals are significantly attenuated in the process of passing through the dura, skull, and scalp. Thus, important information may be lost. The problem is not simply theoretical: epileptologists have long known that some seizures that are clearly identifiable during intracranial recordings are not seen on scalp EEG. Given this possible limitation, recent BCI work has also explored ways of recording intracranially.

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