Friday, May 13, 2022

What Is Congestion Of The Brain

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References

2- Trafton A. Fighting bacteria with mucus. MIT News. Nov 8, 2012. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://news.mit.edu/2012/fighting-bacteria-with-mucus

3- Centers for Disease Control. Allergies and Hay Fever. CDC. Page last reviewed: Mar 1, 2021. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/allergies.htm

4- Centers for Disease Control. Common Colds: Protect Yourself and Others. CDC. Page last reviewed: Oct 7, 2020. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html

5- Centers for Disease Control. Disease Burden of Influenza. Page last reviewed: Oct 5, 2020. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/burden/index.html

6- Shital K. What Is Sinusitis? WebMD. Jul 19, 2020. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://www.webmd.com/allergies/sinusitis-and-sinus-infection

7- Fahy JV, Dickey BF. Airway mucus function and dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2233-2247. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0910061

8- Harvard Letter. Dont let decongestants squeeze your heart. Harvard Health Publishing. Mar 2014. Accessed May 4, 2021.

Still More To Learn About Mind

Pasricha says research suggests that digestive-system activity may affect cognition , too. This is an area that needs more research, something we hope to do here at Johns Hopkins, he says.

Another area of interest: Discovering how signals from the digestive system affect metabolism, raising or reducing risk for health conditions like type 2 diabetes. This involves interactions between nerve signals, gut hormones and microbiotathe bacteria that live in the digestive system, Pasricha says.;

#TomorrowsDiscoveries: A Different Approach to Treating Psychiatric Disorders | Atsushi Kamiya, M.D.

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Did Bacterial Meningitis Cause Helen Kellers Deafblindness

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In 1882, Helen Keller was struck deaf and blind at age 19 months by a febrile illness that she said her doctors described as acute congestion of the stomach and brain. Historical accounts of Kellers life have speculated that the illness was rubella, scarlet fever, encephalitis or meningitis, but the exact cause of her deafblindness remains a mystery.

According to a modern-day medical analysis of the case, bacterial meningitis is the likeliest culprit.

Writing in Clinical Infectious Diseases, R. Gilsdorf, MD, professor at the University of Michigan Medical School, suggested the longtime social reform advocate was infected with either Neisseria meningitidis or Haemophilus influenzae, another cause of meningitis. According to Gilsdorf, hearing loss is a common complication of bacterial meningitis, and loss of vision was occasionally seen in patients before 1940. Both were more common in younger children than in older children.

Fortunately, because of the widespread use of vaccines against H. influenzae and pneumoniae, along with the use of meningococcal vaccines in at-risk individuals, bacterial meningitis among children in the United States today is rare, Gilsdorf wrote.

Narrowing down the illnesses

Likely causes

Disclosure: Gilsdorf reports no relevant financial disclosures.

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Cerebral Congestion: Why Giving Your Brain A Break Improves Productivity

Eureka moment often strikes when a person is taking a break, relaxing, lying down, or walking. Nevertheless, the importance of recess or downtime remains unappreciated. But does being busy truly mean being productive? What about psychological congestion? Most people, earlier or later in life, have felt the burnout effect on their work, especially when their job demands high mental involvement.

Modern research seems to support the idea that our brain needs to take frequent breaks, similar to our muscles requirements during intensive physical activity. Even short periods of downtime may improve our capabilities to comprehend, think, imagine, be creative, and come up with new ideas. It seems that modern science has started to understand why Archimedes had his Eureka moment while taking a bath.

For centuries, the idea that doing nothing has something to do with creativity or better cognition was discarded as absurd. Research in the area was boosted with the invention of electroencephalography in the early 20th century. EEG studies revealed high activity in the brain even at rest. However, these signals were rejected, considered at best to be those being created to support basic functionalities of life like breathing, and at worst, merely random noise.

References

Axmacher, N., Elger, C. E., & Fell, J. . Ripples in the medial temporal lobe are relevant for human memory consolidation. Brain, 131, 1806â1817. doi:10.1093/brain/awn103

Other Causes Of Post Nasal Drip

Gross findings of the brain. A

Other causes of post nasal drip include:

  • Deviated Septum. This condition occurs when the wall between the nostrils is crooked or damaged and can prevent mucus from draining properly. This may result in post nasal drip.
  • Eating spicy foods. Chemicals in many spicy foods irritate the mucus membranes in the mouth, nose, throat and sinuses. This causes increased mucus production.
  • Medications. Certain medications are known to promote excessive mucus production. Mucus-producing medications include birth control pills and some blood pressure medications.
  • Pregnancy. The increased estrogen production of pregnancy triggers an increase in mucus production.
  • Acid reflux. This condition occurs when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. If it irritates the throat or lungs, it can cause extra mucus production.
  • Inflammatory diseases. Chronic bronchitis, COPD, cystic fibrosis, and other inflammatory diseases are known to promote excessive mucus production. This is because the lower airways produce extra mucus in response to this inflammation.7
  • Neurological inflammation. The brain is the control center of the body. Consequently, when theres a potential problem with the respiratory system, including the nose and throat, the brain tells the body to produce more mucus to prevent any damage. If this important organ is inflamed, however, the brain can trigger excess mucus production even when theres no real reason to do so.

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How Is Brain Swelling Diagnosed

The steps used by your doctor to diagnose brain swelling depend on the symptoms and the suspected cause. Common exams and tests used in the diagnosis include:

  • Head and neck exam
  • CT scan of the head to identify the extent and location of the swelling
  • MRI of the head to identify the extent and location of the swelling
  • Blood tests to check for causes of the swelling
  • Lumbar puncture

Does Post Nasal Drip Go Away By Itself

In most cases, post nasal drip will go away on its own, typically when the cause of excess mucus production goes away, i.e., when your cold leaves you, so does post nasal drip.

But if it doesnt clear up within 10 days, you should see your doctor. This is because long-lasting untreated post nasal drip can lead to sinus infections and other conditions.

Here are a few of the most common treatments for post nasal drip.

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Combined Types Of Cerebral Edema

Cytotoxic, osmotic, and vasogenic edema exist on a continuum. The mechanism of the cause of cerebral edema can often overlap between these types. In most instances, cytotoxic and vasogenic edema occur together. When the two edema types evolve simultaneously, the damage of one type reaches a limit and will bring about the other type of injury. For example, when cytotoxic edema occurs in the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, oncotic cell death contributes to loss of integrity of the blood-brain barrier and promotes the progression to vasogenic edema. When brain edema types are combined, there is typically a primary form and the edema type and context of the cause must be determined in order to start appropriate medical or surgical therapy. The use of specific MRI techniques has allowed for some differentiation between the mechanisms.

Congestion Of The Brain

Interventional Stroke Rounds – Venous Sinus Thrombosis

CONGESTION OF THE BRAIN.

of the brain is a term which is often used very loosely, and is probably applied to forms of illness. Writers who have dealt with the subject of disease in early life differ curiously in the importance they attach to the subject of cerebral hyperaemia, some attributing to it most of the convulsive diseases to which young children are liable ; others, as Valleix, asserting that this pathological condition is almost unknown in infancy.

toms are therefore supposed to indicate congestion of the brain ; but there is probably some deeper and less obvious cause of the impairment of function, for although this pathological condition may be invariably pres ent, it cannot be held to furnish a full and satisfactory explanation of the phenomena.

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What Are The Long

It’s common to have lingering effects from brain swelling. The problems you notice depend on the severity as well as the location of the injury. Symptoms may be noticed with any of the following:

  • Sleeping
  • Communication skills
  • Movement

Your health care team is available to help you deal with these challenges. While some problems may continue to diminish over time, others may require ongoing treatment.

Missing Observations: The Dose Of Aspirin

The dose of aspirin in stroke prevention was a hotly debated subject around 1990 , but the discussion has now died down. Current wisdom, in the form of meta-analysis, the highest echelon in the hierarchy of evidence-based medicine, professes overall, among 3,570 patients in three trials directly comparing aspirin >75 mg daily vs. aspirin <75 mg daily there was no significant difference between the different aspirin regimens. However, aspirin doses of <75 mg have been less widely assessed than doses of 75150 mg daily, so there remains uncertainty about whether such low doses are as effective as daily doses of >75 mg .

So uncertainty still remains but absence of proof is not the same as proof of absence. Indeed there are good reasons to believe that 30 mg of aspirin may be even more efficacious than higher doses in the prevention of ischaemic stroke and other major vascular events.

Fig.;2

The double action of acetylsalicylic acid. Transfer of the acetyl group to the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase permanently inactivates the enzyme. In platelets the enzyme catalyses the production of the pro-aggregation substance thromboxane A2, but in endothelial cells the end product is an anti-aggregation substance, prostacyclin. Endothelial cells can resynthesize cyclo-oxygenase, thanks to their nucleus, but platelets cannot. Adapted from van Gijn .

Fig.;3
Fig.;4

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How Can I Protect My Head

To protect the brain, keep these tips in mind as you go about your daily activities:

  • Use a helmet when biking, skating, playing contact sports, or performing other activities in which you might fall and hit your head.
  • Wear seat belts properly when driving or riding in vehicles.
  • Make sure you are doing all you can to control high blood pressure and heart disease.
  • Avoid smoking.

Whats The Treatment For A Brain Abscess

Human Brain, Meningeal Congestion

A brain abscess is a serious medical situation. A stay in the hospital will be required. Pressure due to swelling in the brain can lead to permanent brain damage.

If your abscess is deep inside your brain or its 2.5 centimeters or less, it will probably be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic medications will also be used to treat any underlying infections that may have been the cause of the brain abscess. Broad-spectrum antibiotics that kill a variety of different bacteria are the most commonly prescribed. You may need more than one type of antibiotic.

Surgery is often the next step if an abscess doesnt get smaller with the use of antibiotics. It may also be the preferred treatment for abscesses greater than 2.5 centimeters wide. Surgically removing an abscess usually involves opening the skull and draining the abscess. The fluid thats removed is normally sent to a lab to determine the cause of the infection. Knowing the cause of the infection will help your doctor find the most effective antibiotics. Surgery may also be necessary if antibiotics arent working, so that the organism causing the abscess can be determined to help guide the most effective treatment.

Surgery must be performed in the most severe cases when the abscess causes a dangerous buildup of pressure in the brain. Your doctor may recommend surgery as the best option in the following cases:

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How A Stuffy Nose Changes The Brain

When the brain can’t receive sensory messages through the nose, it adjusts to compensate for the lack of information, according to new research.

TUESDAY, August 14, 2012 While you confront congestion with tissues, rest, and a comfy pillow to ease your clogged head, your brain is busy compensating for the loss of your vital sense of smell, according to new research from Northwestern University in Chicago.

Temporarily losing the ability to smell is expected with colds and nasal allergies. This happens because molecules that carry aroma can’t get through mucus or swollen nasal passages to reach the brain.

Our sense of smell plays several vital roles: It helps us taste food, alerts us to dangers , and is generally tied to the part of the brain that processes emotion, memory, behavior, and learning, according to Keng Nei Wu, a PhD candidate in the neuroscience program at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

While there have been animal studies investigating what happens to the brains of mice and rats when they lose their sense of smell, Wu and her colleagues at Northwestern wanted to see what would happen in humans. Their findings, published in Nature Neuroscience, show that when the human brain stops receiving those sensory messages, it adjusts.

The Causes Of Congestion Or Hyperaemia Of The Brain

Active congestion is produced by any cause which occasions the flow of a large quantity of blood to the head. Passive congestion is occasioned by all causes which interfere with the return of the venous blood from the brain. Among the principal causes of active congestion may bo mentioned mental overwork, loss of sleep, excessive mental anxiety, and the use of alcoholic liquors, opium, quinine, belladonna, and various other drugs; also certain articles of , particularly excessive quantities of animal food, and stimulating condiments, as mustard. spices, pepper, etc. Overeating and eating too fast, by producing disorder of digestion, are frequent causes of active congestion of the brain. is also a frequent cause, not only by exciting a feverish condition of the circulation, but by occasioning severe straining at stool. Exposure to the rays of the sun in hot weather or to excessive heat at any time when fatigued, frequently produces most severe active congestion. Passive congestion is occasioned by any constriction about the neck, as a tight collar or cravat, by the pressure of the large thyroid gland as in goitre, by , and by many of the causes already mentioned. Both active and passive congestion are produced by the various forms of heart disease. Both active and passive congestion are frequently met with in cases of long-standing affections of the stomach, liver, lungs, and other internal organs. Uterine disease is a very frequent cause of cerebral congestion in women.

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What Causes Brain Swelling

Injury, other health problems, infections, tumors, and even high altitudes — any of these problems can cause brain swelling to occur. The following list explains different ways the brain can swell:

  • Tumors: Growths in the brain can cause swelling in several ways. As a tumor develops, it can press against other areas of the brain. Tumors in some parts of the brain may block cerebrospinal fluid from flowing out of the brain. New blood vessels growing in and near the tumor can leak and also lead to swelling.
  • High altitudes: Although researchers don’t know the exact causes, brain swelling is more likely to occur at altitudes above 4,900 feet. This type of brain edema is usually associated with severe acute mountain sickness or high-altitude cerebral edema .
  • Getting Rid Of Head Congestion

    Liver Congestion and Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome

    Youve got a head cold, your sinuses are filled with mucus that is not draining, and you are suffering from severe stuffiness. Your main focus is on how to stop head congestion. So, are there head congestion remedies you can use to loosen its hold on your head? As it turns out, quite a few home remedies and medical treatments could help clean out your sinuses and get you back to breathing normally.

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    Symptoms Of Post Nasal Drip

    The most common symptom of post nasal drip is the feeling of mucus running down your throat. Other symptoms include:

    • Sore, scratchy throat
    • Coughing, especially at night while youre trying to sleep
    • The need to clear your throat often
    • Frequent swallowing
    • Nausea or stomach upset due to swallowed mucus
    • Feeling a blockage or lump in your throat

    How Is A Brain Abscess Diagnosed

    Many of these symptoms closely resemble other diseases or health problems. Talk to your doctor immediately if you develop any of the symptoms. Youll likely need a neurological exam. This exam can reveal any increased pressure within the brain, which can occur from swelling. CT and MRI scans can also be used to diagnose a brain abscess.

    In some cases, your doctor may need to perform a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap. This involves the removal of a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid to test for any problems other than an infection. A lumbar puncture will not be performed if any significant brain swelling is suspected, as it can temporarily worsen the pressure inside the head. This is to avoid the risk of brain hematoma, or a ruptured blood vessel in the brain.

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    Johann Jakob Wepfer: Pioneer As Well As Child Of His Time

    Wepfer published 4 case histories of apoplexy in his famous 1658 book . In 1675, he published an addendum with 17 new and annotated examples . In 8 of 18 cases with sufficient details the cause of the apoplexy was traumatic . In his nosology, Wepfer followed the galenic tradition in defining apoplexy according to the clinical manifestations, independent of causation . In 3 of 10 patients with spontaneous apoplexy, postmortem examination of the brain showed clotted blood, either as rounded lesions in the brain parenchyma , the size of which Wepfer compared with specific eggs or nuts, or as a half-clotted substance between the dura and the arachnoid . In his case histories, Wepfer first described the patients with their names and ages, details about their profession and habits, past diseases and symptoms preceding their death. The findings on opening the head, often with an acknowledgement of the colleague who offered him the opportunity, are precise and full of anatomical details, disclosing an intimate knowledge of the structure of the brain.

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