Barriers To Political Participation
The barriers to political participation that people may face are similar to the barriers mentioned in other components of the CBR guidelines. In summary they include the following.
- Poverty poor people are mostly focused on survival activities their basic needs often need to be met first before they can participate, so they may have limited time or interest.
- Education without information and knowledge, meaningful participation in politics can be difficult.
- Social isolation there is a limited network to support and encourage political participation.
- Personal factors people may have limited confidence or motivation to participate.
- Stigma and discrimination majority groups may have prejudices, fears and discomfort towards people with disabilities and therefore may not support their participation.
- Lack of disability-friendly processes access barriers can make it difficult for people with disabilities to participate, e.g. inaccessible voting booths.
- Lack of role models in many countries or communities there are few examples of people with disabilities in high profile political positions.
- Legal barriers in many countries people with disabilities are not permitted to vote, e.g. people with mental health problems.
It is essential that CBR programmes are realistic about the level of participation that is practically possible for people with disabilities living in poor communities, and that activities are designed taking potential barriers into account.
Electoral Systems And Conflict In Divided Societies
Ben Reilly and Andrew Reynolds1
This work examines whether the choice of an electoral system in a culturally plural society can affect the potential for future violent conflict. We find that it can, but that there is no single electoral system that is likely to be best for all divided societies. We distinguish four basic strategies of electoral system design. The optimal choice for peacefully managing conflict depends on several identifiable factors specific to the country, including the way and degree to which ethnicity is politicized, the intensity of conflict, and the demographic and geographic distribution of ethnic groups. In addition, the electoral system that is most appropriate for initially ending internal conflict may not be the best one for longer-term conflict management. In short, while electoral systems can be powerful levers for shaping the content and practice of politics in divided societies, their design is highly sensitive to context. Consideration of the relationship between these variables and the operation of different electoral systems enables the development of contingent generalizations that can assist policy makers in the field of electoral system design.
Taking Into Account ‘international Standards’
Finally, the design of electoral systems today takes place in the context of a number of international covenants, treaties and other kinds of legal instruments affecting political issues.
While there is no single complete set of universally agreed international standards for elections, there is consensus that such standards include:
- the principles of free, fair and periodic elections that guarantee universal adult suffrage,
- the secrecy of the ballot and freedom from coercion, and
- a commitment to the principle of one person, one vote.
Moreover, while there is no legal stipulation that a particular kind ofelectoral system is preferable to another, there is an increasing recognition of the importance of issues that are affected by electoral systems, such as the fair representation of all citizens, the equality of women and men, the rights of minorities, special considerations for the disabled, and so on.
These are formalized in international legal instruments such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and in the various conventions and commitments concerning democratic elections made by regional organizations such as the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe , Organization of American States , Council of Europe and the Commonwealth.
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Call For Responses And Services Fit For Purpose
Services for survivors are essential services.
This means that shelters, hotlines, counseling and all support for survivors of gender-based violence need to be available for those in need, even during the coronavirus pandemic.
Every year, the 16 Days of Activism campaign calls for united, global action to end all forms of violence against women and girls.
This year the United Nations, together with our partners, are demanding four critical actions, summarized by our 2020 campaign theme: FUND, RESPOND, PREVENT, COLLECT.
Join us in calling on governments to bridge funding gaps to address violence against women and girls, ensure essential services for survivors of violence are maintained during this crisis, implement prevention measures, and invest in collecting the data necessary to adapt and improve life-saving services for women and girls.
What Do Economics And Political Science Tell Us
While it would be easy to say that all corruption is bad, the Bank must base its approach on evidence and analysis of corruption’s effects on development. The political sensitivity surrounding issues of governance underscores the need for such a foundation. In preparing this report, the Bank examined the conclusions drawn by economic researchers working on the topic, the perspectives of disciplines other than economics, and the evidence from the Bank’s operational work.
Economic research. The body of research addressing the economic effects of corruption has grown significantly in recent years. The research is both macroeconomic and microeconomic, theoretical and empirical. Its conclusions depend in part on what the researcher views as the bottom line: short-term economic efficiency in private markets, long-term dynamic efficiency and economic growth, equity and fairness, or political legitimacy.
To summarize, models purporting to show that corruption can have positive economic effects are usually looking only at static effects in the short run. In the long run, opportunities for bribery are likely to lead public officials to change the underlying rules of the game or their own behavior in the absence of bribes, and the results are likely to be costly in terms of economic efficiency, political legitimacy, and basic fairness.
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Hold Each Other Accountable
Violence can take many forms, including sexual harassment in the workplace and in public spaces.
Take a stand by calling it out when you see it: catcalling, inappropriate sexual comments and sexist jokes are never okay.
Create a safer environment for everyone by challenging your peers to reflect on their own behaviour and speaking up when someone crosses the line, or by enlisting the help of others if you dont feel safe.
As always, listen to survivors and make sure they have the support they need.
Ensure Cbr Personnel Develop Awareness Of The Political System
CBR programmes need to have a practical understanding of how the government works to enable them to build partnerships and influence change. They could develop this awareness by:
- identifying key legislation and policies that are related to disability and the development sectors
- researching the role of the government and the responsibilities of each department which department is responsible for what and who has the power to make decisions
- finding out about the political structure at the local level, how government decisions filter down to this level and if there is local power for decision-making
- meeting with political representatives regularly, including representatives of the opposition, regardless of personal affiliations CBR programmes need to be nonpartisan, i.e not subscribe to, or be thought to subscribe to a particular party or power-base.
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Successful Social Media Campaigns You Can Learn From
Did you know that 78% of businesses have dedicated teams for their social media? This is up from 67% five years ago, demonstrating that increasingly, organizations are acknowledging the power of social media to attract and engage customers.
The bad news? Webbiquity reports that 83% of customers have reported bad experiences with social media marketing. As a business owner, it’s clear that using social media marketing to your advantage is critical, but do you know how to maximize the impact of your social media marketing campaigns? Do you know what your goals should be, and how to achieve them? Whether you want to be or are already managing a social media strategy, you can to find out how to leverage your core skills to implement and oversee an effective digital strategy.
Weve done a bit of research on your behalf and well show you five successful campaigns that made waves across various social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. So whether your business is new to social media marketing, or somewhat of a seasoned veteran, these five campaigns can give you insight into running campaigns that consumers respond to.
Select A Target Audience
Anyone who gets involved in public health and development issues can make a difference. But, because the people who live in one community can have many different opinions and preferences, you can’t reach everyone with just one message. You will need to narrow your audience and decide whom you want to target. Whom do you want to reach? The general public? Policy makers? People who are undecided about your issues? People who don’t know about your issues? People who are affected? Different populations respond to different kinds of messages sometimes in subtle ways.
During a campaign to highlight the need for adult literacy education, co-sponsored by the U.S. government and several national media outlets, it became clear that different types of ads had different effects. Those that emphasized the problem and its results the number of people with literacy problems, the fact that they were usually stuck in the lowest-paying jobs, the problems their kids had in school inspired calls from people who wanted to volunteer. Ads that featured current or former learners talking about their success, and about how much better their lives were as a result of their participation in literacy programs, drew calls from people who wanted to sign up for classes.
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A Person Who Has Chosen A Difficult Path Must Deal With Cognitive Dissonance In Addition To Many Other Discomforts
Not surprisingly, John is miserable. No one likes to be miserable. In this type of situation, people can change their beliefs, their attitudes, or their behaviors. The last option, a change of behaviors, is not available to John. He has signed on to the military for four years, and he cannot legally leave.
If John keeps thinking about how miserable he is, it is going to be a very long four years. He will be in a constant state of cognitive dissonance. As an alternative to this misery, John can change his beliefs or attitudes. He can tell himself, I am becoming stronger, healthier, and sharper. I am learning discipline and how to defend myself and my country. What I am doing is really important. If this is his belief, he will realize that he is becoming stronger through his challenges. He then will feel better and not experience cognitive dissonance, which is an uncomfortable state. In other words, John is likely to rationalize his uncomfortable situation by adding positive thoughts and changing his attitude towards the misery he has committed to since his behavior cannot be altered due to the military contract.
Why Should You Engage In Media Advocacy
The media have been shown to be a primary source of health information, but be careful! The media can be the best friend or worst enemy of health promotion and community development workers. Reporters backgrounds vary, and, as much as journalists try to be objective, they have biases like everyone else. In addition, they have to be quick studies: you may have 20 years of experience working with street gangs, and they may have none, but they have to try to learn everything you know in a day or two. They have to depend on the information they find or are given, and theyre going to get some things wrong.
Journalists also try rightly to get all sides of the story. If you have opponents, theyre likely to speak to them as well as to you, and your opponents may be very persuasive. If you get on the wrong side of media people treat them with disrespect, dont tell them the truth, dont keep appointments or return phone calls theyll probably be less sympathetic to you and your issue than if they like and respect you. Their stories will reflect that…or simply not appear at all.
Despite the pitfalls, getting involved with the media can yield great benefits. Newspapers, television, and radio have access to different kinds of people and audiences. Your voice, and the voices of those youre concerned with, can be made many times louder and more convincing through media attention.
Some specific reasons for media advocacy are:
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Independent Candidates And Pr Systems
A common misconception is that independent candidates cannot run under proportional systems. This is not true, although most elections under List PR systems, will be carried out exclusively with candidates who belong to a political party. Under STV however, the very system is candidate centred and independent candidates are very common in elections in for example the Republic of Ireland.
Many times, an independent candidate will simply be treated as a one person party, presenting a list with only one name on it and will gain the seat if he or she receives enough votes in the election.
Holding Individual Representatives Accountable
Accountability at the individual level is the ability of the electorate to effectively check on those who, once elected, betray the promises they made during the campaign or demonstrate incompetence or idleness in office and throw the rascals out. Some systems emphasize the role of locally popular candidates, rather than on candidates nominated by a strong central party. Plurality/majority systems have traditionally been seen as maximizing the ability of voters to throw out unsatisfactory individual representatives. Again, this sometimes remains valid. However, the connection becomes tenuous where voters identify primarily with parties rather than candidates, as in the UK. At the same time, open and free list systems and STV are designed to allow voters to exercise candidate choice in the context of a proportional system.
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Treatment Of Opportunistic Infections And Secondary Prophylaxis
Even as the availability of antiretroviral therapy increases in many developingcountries, appropriate diagnosis and management of life-threateningopportunistic infections, including HIV-associated cancers, remain the mostimportant aspects of the care of patients with HIV disease. Opportunisticinfections usually begin five to seven years after infection andoccur progressively as uncontrolled HIV replication destroys the immune system. describes the cascade ofinfections that occur as the immune system is depleted. Opportunistic infectionsare typically caused by organisms that exist in the environment of the body and remain latent until HIVhas impaired the immune system.
Antiretroviral Drugs. Current antiretroviral drugs can be divided into three classes: Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptaseinhibitors were the first type of drugavailable to treat HIV infection in 1987. When HIV infects acell, it copies
Because of their higher manufacturing costs and their more recentintroduction into the market, protease inhibitors are more expensive thaneither nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or nonnucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors. They are also more difficult to manufacture,making them less attractive to generic manufacturers. Although thedifference is less marked, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors tendto cost less than nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Importance of Adherence to Prescribed Therapy
Laboratory Monitoring Of Immune Function To Guide Therapy
Laboratory monitoring determines when antiretroviral therapy should be initiatedand when it should be changed because of toxicity, lack of efficacy, orresistance. The optimal frequency and precision of monitoring depends onnumerous factors, principally the following:
- the expected rate of change of variables of interest
- the expected frequency of events, such as development of resistance,adherence failure, and side effects
- the relative cost of monitoring versus the cost of providingineffective treatment
- the magnitude of the secondary effects of monitoring .
WHO has suggested a pragmatic approach to monitoring, with inexpensive,easy-to-measure parameters for monitoring in low-incomecountries. More specialized markersânamely, CD4 count, viral load, andresistance genotypingâwould be restricted to sentinel sites andtertiary care services , at least initially.
Monitoring to Guide Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy
If laboratory monitoring is performed, its optimal frequency must bedetermined. The closer patients get to an antiretroviral therapy threshold,the more often they must be tested to detect a CD4 decline that falls withina specific CD4 range. As use of antiretroviral therapy expands in LMICs andas the costs of drugs fall relative to the costs of laboratory monitoring,collecting empirical data and constructing models to compare differentmonitoring strategies is becoming increasingly urgent.
Testing for Primary Resistance
Monitoring Response to Therapy
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Making Elections Accessible And Meaningful
Elections are all well and good, but they may mean little to people if it is difficult to vote or if at the end of the day their perception that their vote makes no difference to the way the country is governed. The ease of voting is determined by factors such as how complex the ballot paper is, how easy it is for the voter to get to a polling place, how up-to-date the electoral register is, and how confident the voter is that his or her ballot will be secret.
Electoral participationat least as a free choiceis also thought to increase when the outcome of elections, either at a national level or in the voters particular district, is likely to make a significant difference to the future direction of government. If you know that your preferred candidate has no chance of winning a seat in your particular district, what is the incentive to vote? In some electoral systems, the wasted votes can amount to a substantial proportion of the total national vote.
Lastly, the actual power of the body being elected helps determine whether its election has any meaning. Hollow elections in authoritarian systems which offer no genuine choice, where legislatures have little real influence on the formation of governments or on government policy, are far less important than elections to legislatures which actually have the power to determine central elements in peoples everyday lives.