Wednesday, May 25, 2022

What Is The Back Of The Brain Called

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Are Brain Tumors Cancerous

2-Minute Neuroscience: Lobes and Landmarks of the Brain Surface (Lateral View)

Many brain tumors are cancerous. For example, more than half of all gliomas diagnosed in adults are glioblastomas, a very aggressive form of brain cancer. Ependymomas and oligodendrogliomas also are types of brain tumors that may be malignant. But not all brain tumors are cancerous. Many meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas and pituitary tumors are benign. Thats why its important to get a thorough and accurate diagnosis of a brain tumor. Its also important to understand that even benign tumors can damage brain tissue and cause side effects, such as headaches, fatigue and double or blurred vision. So even if a brain tumor is not cancerous, receiving timely and appropriate treatment may be critical to your overall health.

What Are The Three Lobes Of The Cerebellum

The cerebellum’s hemispheres are each divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are split up by two fissures , called the primary fissure and the posterolateral fissure.

The three lobes of the Cerebellum, where purple is the anterior lobe, green is the posterior lobe and orange is the Flocculonodular lobe./Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

Unlike the cerebral cortex, there are no clear separation of functions in the cerebellar cortex. The best way to identify the tasks are by the information each section processes.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The anterior lobe and the vermis together are known as the spinocerebellum. The spinocerebellum helps regulate muscle tone and body movement. It’s also responsible for our sense of our body’s position in relation to our surroundings, and in relation to other parts of our body . This area receives input from our spinal cord, auditory and visual systems.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The posterior lobe is called the cerebrocerebellum. This area is responsible for planning movements that are about to happen, managing sensory information to determine action and motor learning. It receives information from the cerebral cortex .

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And How Do They Fit Into The Brain Structure

The three main parts of the brain are split amongst three regions developed during the embryonic period: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Together, these regions act as a useful map to understanding the various parts of the brain’s structure and functions.

The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain serve as regions that make finding the various parts of the brain easier./ BruceBlaus/Wikimedia Commons

To better understand the roles of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain within the brain, check out the short video below:

Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Your Brain &  Nervous System

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

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What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter

The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.

Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.

Types Of Brain Cancer

Astrocytomas, which are the most common CNS tumor, arise anywhere in the brain or spinal cord, and develop from small, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. In adults, astrocytomas most often occur in the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum uses sensory information to tell us whats going on around us and how the body should respond. The cerebrum also controls speech, movement and emotions, as well as reading, thinking and learning.

Brain stem gliomas are a type of astrocytoma that forms in the brain stem, which controls many vital functions, such as body temperature, blood pressure, breathing, hunger and thirst. The brain stem also transmits all the signals to the body from the brain. The brain stem is in the lowest part of the brain and connects the brain and spinal cord. Tumors in this area can be difficult to treat. Most brain stem gliomas are high-grade astrocytomas.

Glioblastoma multiforme, also known as glioblastoma, GBM or grade 4 astrocytoma, is a fast-growing, aggressive type of CNS tumor that forms on the supportive tissue of the brain. Glioblastoma is the most common grade 4 brain cancer. Glioblastomas may appear in any lobe of the brain, but they develop more commonly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Glioblastomas usually affect adults.

Aside from astrocytomas, there are a number of different primary brain tumors and other nervous system tumors that form from glial cells. They include:

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Structure And Function Of The Spine

The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.

Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.

Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.

Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.

Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.

Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.

Between the vertebrae are the discs .

Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.

What Is A Chiari Malformation

How Brain Works Animation: Human Brain Structure & Function Video -Brain Lobes: Anatomy & Physiology

Chiari malformation is a condition that causes brain tissue to settle into the spinal canal. It develops where your skull and neck come together when part of the skull is either too small or misshapen, part of the brain can settle into the foramen magnum. The foramen magnum is a large opening at the bottom of your skull. Nerves from the brain go through it and into the spinal canal, joining the spinal cord.

Chiari malformation is a condition that causes brain tissue to settle into the spinal canal. Photo Source: 123RF.com.

The brain shouldn’t press through the foramen magnum there should only be nerves in there. If the brain does press into the foramen magnum, that’s a Chiari malformation.

You can visualize a Chiari malformation by thinking about a funnel. The foramen magnum is the skinny part at the bottom, and above that is where the brain should rest. With a Chiari malformation, though, the brain goes into the skinny part of the funnel.

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About The Brain And Spinal Cord

Together, the brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. This complex system is part of everything we do. It controls the things we choose to dolike walk and talkand the things our body does automaticallylike breathe and digest food. The central nervous system is also involved with our sensesseeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling as well as our emotions, thoughts, and memory.

The brain is a soft, spongy mass of nerve cells and supportive tissue. It has three major parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The parts work together, but each has special functions.

The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, fills most of the upper skull. It has two halves called the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what’s going on around us and tells our body how to respond. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body. This part of the brain also controls speech and emotions as well as reading, thinking, and learning.

The cerebellum, under the cerebrum at the back of the brain, controls balance and complex actions like walking and talking.

The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord. It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most basic body functions, such as body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing.

The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

  • Breathing
  • Sensory relay
  • Hunger

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The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

The Brain And Spinal Cord

Brain Anatomy

The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system . The CNS is made of different types of tissues and cells which can develop into different types of tumours.

To understand tumours of the CNS it helps to know about the:

  • parts of the brain and spinal cord
  • types of cells and tissues

What are the different parts of the brain and what do they do?

The brain controls everything we do and how our body functions.

It sends electrical messages along the spinal cord and the nerve fibres to all the parts of our body. The nerve fibres also bring electrical messages back to the brain. The different areas of the brain control the different parts of our body.

The largest part of the brain is called the cerebrum or forebrain. The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres: the left and the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere controls the right part of our body. And the right hemisphere controls the left part. Each hemisphere is further divided into 4 lobes.

The frontal lobe controls our speech, problem solving, movement, personality and sensations. The temporal lobe is where we process sounds and where our memories are stored. The parietal lobe is where touch, temperature and pain is processed. It is where we recognise objects and process information when people speak to us. The occipital lobe processes what we see.

For more information about the brain, and cancers that affect the brain or spinal cord go to cruk.org/about-brain-tumours

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The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers

Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.

Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.

What Are Some Types Of Brain Surgery

These are some of the most common operations involving the brain or areas around it. Some of the explanations below are derived from information obtained from the National Cancer Institute.

Some brain cancer patients are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, which may include use of a Gamma Knife, but this is not a surgery in the common understanding of the term, and the âknifeâ is not actually a knife. Radiosurgery is an external radiation treatment that does not involve an incision. Special equipment, like the brand-name Gamma Knife, precisely delivers a high dose of radiation that targets tumors or other lesions, minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain

Understanding the brain & spinal cord connection in the nervous system

The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:

  • Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.

  • Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.

  • Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.

More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:

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Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

What Type Of Anesthesia Will Be Used For My Surgery

General anesthesia is frequently used and is especially important for high-precision tumor removal because you must remain absolutely still. Under general anesthesia, you will be unconscious throughout the operation.

Some surgeries are done under monitored anesthesia care or sedation. You receive medicines to relax you and block pain, but you remain either conscious or in an unconscious state from which the team can easily wake you when necessary during surgery. This allows for direct feedback from you, which can be extremely important. This is often referred to as âawakeâ surgery and is discussed in more detail below.

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Tissues Covering The Brain

Within the skull, the brain is covered by three layers of tissue called the meninges.

No computer has yet come close to matching the capabilities of the human brain. However, this sophistication comes with a price. The brain needs constant nourishment. It demands an extremely large amount and continuous flow of blood and oxygenabout 25% of the blood flow from the heart. The overall energy consumption of the brain does not change much over time, but certain areas of the brain, use more energy during periods of increased activity . A loss of blood flow to the brain for more than about 10 seconds can cause a loss of consciousness.

Lack of oxygen or abnormally low sugar levels in the blood can result in less energy for the brain and can seriously injure the brain within 4 minutes. However, the brain is defended by several mechanisms that can work to prevent these problems. For example, if blood flow to the brain decreases, the brain immediately signals the heart to beat faster and more forcefully, and thus to pump more blood. If the sugar level in the blood becomes too low, the brain signals the adrenal glands Overview of the Adrenal Glands The body has two adrenal glands, one near the top of each kidney. They are endocrine glands, which secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Each adrenal gland has two parts. Medulla: The inner… read more to release epinephrine , which stimulates the liver to release stored sugar.

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