Sunday, May 22, 2022

What Is The Brain Of The Cell

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How Brain Cells Communicate With Each Other

How do brain cells work?

Weighing in at only about three pounds, the brain is the most complicated part of the human body. As the organ responsible for intelligence, thoughts, sensations, memories, body movement, feelings and behavior, it has been studied and hypothesized for centuries. But, it is the last decade of research that has provided the most significant contributions to our understanding of how the brain functions. Even with these advancements, what we know so far is probably only a fraction of what we will, undoubtedly, discover in the future.

The human brain is believed to function in a complex chemical environment through various types of neurons and neurotransmitters. Neurons are brain cells, numbering in the billions, which are capable of instant communication with each other through chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. As we live our lives, brain cells are constantly receiving information about our environment. The brain then attempts to make an internal representation of our external world through complex chemical changes.

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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The Other Brain Cells

The structures within the brain are made up of about 100 billion neurons, as well as trillions of support cells called glia. Neurons may be the more important cells in the brain that relay messages about what you’re thinking, feeling, or doing. But they couldn’t do it without a little help from their friends, the glial cells.

How Might Understanding More About Neural Stem Cells Help Us To Treat Injury Or Diseases Of The Brain

Ridiculously Common Science Myths

Scientists are actively studying how neural stem cells can help to treat things such as stroke , spinal cord injury, and Parkinsons disease . Neural stem cells in the brain are really sensitive to change. For example, after a brain injury, neural stem cells will travel through the brain tissue right to the site of the injury. We know that this actually improves recovery , because when scientists prevent the stem cells from moving to the injury site, recovery is much worse . The mechanisms explaining how and why stem cells help recovery from brain injury are an important and active area of research. Neural stem cells are also affected in some brain diseases, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers. In these diseases, neural stem cells seem to have lower proliferation rates and are less likely to become fully developed and healthy neurons.

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The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

How Many Cells Are In The Brain

1 December 12

An “enchanted loom” is how Charles Sherrington described the interconnected net of cells that makes up our three-pound control center. Indeed, there is something almost magical in the notion that all our mental processes, from perception to memory to consciousness itself, can be described entirely by cellular activity in the brain.

The basic functional unit of the brain is the neuron, a special cell that sends electrochemical signals to other neurons and thereby creates those patterns that make up what we think of as the mind.

The complexity of the task requires a fairly inconceivable 100 billion neurons, interconnected via trillions of synapses. A single firing neuron might communicate to thousands of others in a single moment. No computer comes close to the complexity of these communicating bits of organic matter.

What’s more, for each neuron there are some 10 to 50 glial cells providing structural support, protection, resources and more.

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Structure And Function Of The Spine

The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.

Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.

Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.

Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.

Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.

Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.

Between the vertebrae are the discs .

Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.

What Cells Are In The Brain

Brain cells called astrocytes help neurons make the right connections

What cells are in the brain? The central nervous system is made up of two basic types of cells: neurons and glia & . Glia outnumber neurons in some parts of the brain, but neurons are the key players in the brain. Neurons are information messengers.

What are the four main types of cells in the brain? The four types of neuroglia found in the central nervous system are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes. The two types of neuroglia found in the peripheral nervous system are satellite cells and Schwann cells. Neurons are the other the other type of cell that comprise nervous tissue.

What are the three types of brain cells? The three types of glial cells are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells, known collectively as macroglia, and the smaller scavenger cells known as microglia. Glial stem cells are found in all parts of the adult brain.

What is the most common cell in the human brain? Star-shaped glia called astrocytes are the most abundant cell in the human brain. Young oligodendrocytes are glia that help insulate nerve cell axons in the brain. The blue cells are neurons.

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Scientists Discover A New Class Of Memory Cells In The Brain

An area in the brain’s temporal pole specializes in familiar face recognition.

Newswise Scientists have long searched in vain for a class of brain cells that could explain the visceral flash of recognition that we feel when we see a very familiar face, like that of our grandmothers. But the proposed “grandmother neuron”–a single cell at the crossroads of sensory perception and memory, capable of prioritizing an important face over the rabble–remained elusive.

Now, new research reveals a class of neurons in the brain’s temporal pole region that links face perception to long-term memory. It’s not quite the apocryphal grandmother neuron–rather than a single cell, it’s a population of cells that collectively remembers grandma’s face. The findings, published in Science, are the first to explain how our brains inculcate the faces of those we hold dear.

“When I was coming up in neuroscience, if you wanted to ridicule someone’s argument you would dismiss it as ‘just another grandmother neuron’–a hypothetical that could not exist,” says Winrich Freiwald, professor of neurosciences and behavior at The Rockefeller University.

“Now, in an obscure and understudied corner of the brain, we have found the closest thing to a grandmother neuron: cells capable of linking face perception to memory.”

Have I seen that face before?

A tapestry of grandmothers

“It’s a ‘grandmother face area’ of the brain,” Freiwald says.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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What Happens To The Brain In Alzheimer’s Disease

The healthy human brain contains tens of billions of neuronsspecialized cells that process and transmit information via electrical and chemical signals. They send messages between different parts of the brain, and from the brain to the muscles and organs of the body. Alzheimers disease disrupts this communication among neurons, resulting in loss of function and cell death.

What Kills Your Brain Cells

Your brain cell structure could influence obesity risk

Concussions, contusions, and even head banging can lead to the loss of large quantities of neurons. Amphetamine abuse, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine abuse, cigarettes and tobacco products, cocaine, ecstasy, inhalants, and methamphetamines can all negatively impact the brain and cause the death of its cells.

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How Neurons And Neurotransmitters Working Together

When a brain cell receives sensory information, it fires an electrical impulse that travels down the axon to the axon terminal where chemical messengers are stored. This triggers the release of these chemical messengers into the synaptic cleft, which is a small space between the sending neuron and the receiving neuron.

As the messenger makes its journey across the synaptic cleft, several things may happen:

  • The messenger may be degraded and knocked out of the picture by an enzyme before it reaches its target receptor.
  • The messenger may be transported back into the axon terminal through a reuptake mechanism and be deactivated or recycled for future use.
  • The messenger may bind to a receptor on a neighboring cell and complete the delivery of its message. The message may then be forwarded to the dendrites of other neighboring cells. But, if the receiving cell determines that no more of the neurotransmitters are needed, it will not forward the message. The messenger will then continue to try to find another receiver of its message until it is deactivated or returned to the axon terminal by the reuptake mechanism.
  • How Does The Brain Work

    The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

    Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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    New Method For Investigating Developmental Relationships Of Cells In The Brain

    by Max Planck Society

    Our brain is extremely complex, performing countless complicated processes that allow us to think, move and feel. This is only possible because of the enormous diversity of different cell types in the brain, each with a very specific function. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, together with an international team, investigated how this diversity arises. They established a method to analyze the developmental relationships of cell types in the mouse brain. Their results show that similarities in cell types are not a measure for the degree of relationship: Cells of similar cell types are often unrelated. Conversely, cells of very different types can share the same origin.

    Our body consists of hundreds of cell types, each with a very specific function. These cells can differ greatly in their propertieswhich can be clearly seen by comparing, for example, a blood cell to a skin cell. Nevertheless, each cell carries identical genetic information. The diversity is possible because cells do not use all of this information. Each cell type only activates the genes that it actually requires. This subset is then translated into RNA and proteins, resulting in a very specific cell type.

    Large variety in the brain

    Barcodes made of artificial DNA

    Different cell types from a single progenitor cell

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    Warming Up For A Memory

    Salk scientists identify new brain cells

    This conclusion wasnt clear from the beginning of the experiment. Right after the memory formed, there werent huge differences in how the engram cells expressed their genes. But the researchers did notice some structural changes to the cells chromatin: Certain regions of the DNA became more accessible, shifting so that chromatin proteins and other stretches of DNA werent covering them up. This made the genes in that DNA more accessible to enhancers, genetic elements that can increase the activation of genes.

    A few days later, the researchers spotted more alterations. The DNA had rearranged itself further so that many of these enhancers were closer to the specific genes they targeted. Nevertheless, there still werent dramatic changes in the way genes were expressed. I was really depressed at that time, said Asaf Marco, a postdoctoral associate at MIT and the lead author of the research. It didnt make sense at all.

    But when the mice were placed back in the environment where they originally formed this memory, a surge of gene expression followed. The structural changes to enhancers aligned with these activation patterns, leading to stronger connections between the neurons involved. Thats when Marco realized that the architectural changes to the chromatin were preparing the cells to reinforce the memories when they were recalled.

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    Does Everyone Have The Same Number Of Brain Cells

    Like with fingerprints, no two people have the same brain anatomy, a study has shown. This uniqueness is the result of a combination of genetic factors and individual life experiences. Like with fingerprints, no two people have the same brain anatomy, a study by researchers of the University of Zurich has shown.

    What Types Of Specialized Cells Do We Have In The Brain

    There are several types of specialized cells in the brain such as neurons , oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes . We call these cells specialized because they have different shapes and properties that are designed to allow these cells to perform specific functions. Neurons, with their projections called dendrites and axons, enable the different regions of our brain to communicate with one another and allow the brain to talk to the rest of the body, which enables us to move about and sense changes in our environment. Neurons transmit and receive information. Oligodendrocytes wrap around the neurons, providing support that enables the neurons to transmit this information quickly. Astrocytes support the nervous system by providing nutrition and regulating what can pass into the brain from the rest of the body.

    • Figure 2 – Neural stem cells are capable of self-renewing.
    • This means they can give rise to another stem cell. However, neural stem cells can also become neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes when treated with the proper growth factors.

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    Cerebrum The Cerebrum Is The Largest Part Of The Brain It Is Divided Into 2 Halves Called The Left And Right Cerebral Hemispheres The 2 Hemispheres Are Connected By A Bridge Of Nerve Fibres Called The Corpus Callosum The Right Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Left Side Of The Body The Left Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Right Side Of The Body The Cerebral Cortex Is The Outer Folded Part Of The Brain It Is Also Called The Grey Matter The Cerebral Cortex Is Mostly Made Up Of The Cell Bodies And Dendrites Of Nerve Cells Cell Bodies Contain The Nucleus And Other Main Parts Of The Cell Dendrites Are The Short Branching Fibres That Receive Signals From Other Nerve Cells The Inner Part Of The Cerebrum Is Called The White Matter It Is Mostly Made Up Of The Long Fibres Of A Nerve Cell That Send Signals To And From The Brain To The Rest Of The Body The Fatty Coating That Surrounds Axons Gives This Part Of The Brain A Whitish Appearance Each Hemisphere Is Divided Into 4 Sections Called Lobes These Include The Frontal Parietal Temporal And Occipital Lobes

    Each lobe has different functions:

    The frontal lobe controls movement, speech, behaviour, memory, emotions and intellectual functions, such as thought processes, reasoning, problem solving, decision-making and planning.

    The parietal lobe controls sensations, such as touch, pressure, pain and temperature. It also controls the understanding of size, shape and direction .

    The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory and emotions. The dominant temporal lobe also controls speech.

    The occipital lobe controls vision.

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