The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata
Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.
Where Is The Frontal Lobe And What Does It Do
Each section has specific functions:
- The hindbrain controls involuntary functions like respiration and heart rate.
- The midbrain is associated with coordination, alertness, vision, and hearing.
- The forebrain controls a range of social, emotional, and cognitive functions, as well as motor function and memory.
The forebrain includes a major part of the brain called the cerebrum. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex.
Each of the four lobes has specific functions. Damage to any one of them will cause problems with these functions. The sections below describe the main functions of the frontal lobe.
What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter
The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.
Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.
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Treatment Of Frontal Lobe Brain Injury
Strategies for treating frontal lobe damage are different depending on the cause. For example, an infection can be treated with antibiotics. Brain tumors can be surgically removed or treated with chemotherapy or radiation.
There is currently no cure for degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and dementia. Medication and lifestyle changes can help improve symptoms.
Is Ocd A Brain Disorder
Research suggests that OCD involves problems in communication between the front part of the brain and deeper structures of the brain. These brain structures use a neurotransmitter called serotonin. Pictures of the brain at work also show that, in some people, the brain circuits involved in OCD become more normal with either medications that affect serotonin levels or cognitive behavior therapy .
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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem
The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.
Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.
Main Parts of the Midbrain
Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.
Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The Cerebellar Peduncles
The Brainstem The Middle Of The Brain
The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. The brainstem is like the hard-drive of a computer. It is the main control panel for the body that passes messages back and forth between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts, the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
The brainstem controls vital functions of the body, including:
- Movement of the eyes and mouth
- Relaying sensory messages
What Are Some Important Structures In The Frontal Lobe
Most neuroscientists divide the frontal lobe into four distinct regions, each containing a number of vital structures. Those include:
- Medial frontal lobe: This region contains the cingulate gyrus, which is a part of the limbic system. It also contains the superior frontal gyrus, which research suggests plays a role in self-awareness.
- Lateral frontal lobe: This region contains the superior frontal gyrus, which aids in self-awareness, as well as the middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in language processing.
- Polar region: This region is home to the frontomarginal gyrus, as well as the transverse frontopolar gyri.
- The orbital frontal lobe contains a number of structures, including the anterior orbital gyrus, medial orbital gyrus, posterior orbital gyrus, and gyrus rectus. The orbital gyri is connected to the vagus nerve, an important part of the limbic system that coordinates and controls emotional and automatic reactions.
The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do
Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?
Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.
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What Is The Largest Part Of The Brain And What Is Its Function
Every day, were updating our internal map of reality. And its perhaps the biggest part of our brain which is doing most of this work.
The brain is the processor that allows our perception of the world. Its in a constant cycle of figuring things out. Every moment, your mind is processing data. Taking in new information. Mapping out reality. Understanding whats going on in the world.
Every day, in each moment, we consider whether or not its vital to update our internal map of reality. And its the largest part of the brain thats doing most of this work.
The Cerebrum: Front Part Of The Brain
The largest part of the brain, located in the front, is called the cerebrum. The cerebrum is responsible for:
The cerebrum is made up of the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The hemispheres are connected at the bottom and have a deep groove running between them. In general, the right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right. The right side is involved with creativity and artistic abilities. The left side is important for logic and rational thinking.
The cerebral hemispheres are divided into lobes . Each lobe is responsible for a variety of bodily functions. Frontal lobes are involved with personality, speech, and motor development. Temporal lobes are responsible for memory, language and speech function. Parietal lobes are involved with sensation, while the occipital lobes are the primary vision centers.
The surface of the cerebrum appears wrinkled and is made up of deep grooves and bumps or folds . The outer part of the cerebrum is called gray matter and contains nerve cells. The inner part is called white matter and contains connections of nerves.
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Damage To The Frontal Lobes
As the frontal lobes are situated at the front of the brain and are large in size, this makes them more susceptible to damage. This area is the most common for traumatic brain injuries, with damage to this region causing a variety of symptoms.
Below is a list of symptoms that may occur if an individual has experienced damage within their frontal lobe:
- Impaired judgment
- Reduced creativity
Damage to Brocaâs area, in particular, has been shown to affect the ability to speak, understand language, and to produce coherent sentences.
One of the most famous case studies associated with frontal lobe damage is the case of Phineas Gage. He was a railway construction worker who suffered an unfortunate accident when a metal rod impaled his brain in the frontal region.
Gage survived this accident but was said to have experienced some personality changes because of the trauma. Before the accident, Gage was described as a âwell-balancedâ and a smart, energetic person.
After his accident, he was described as being child-like in his intellectual capacities and had a loss of social inhibition .
This case study implies that the frontal lobes are essential to our personalities, intelligence, and social skills.As well as trauma to the head being a cause of damage to the frontal lobes, there are many other causes that can lead to damage.
Other tests worth noting as finger tapping tests, to test for motor skill ability, and the Token Test, which tests for language skills.
How Glaucoma Affects The Eye
You have millions of nerve fibers that run from your retina to form the optic nerve. These fibers meet at the optic disc. In most types of glaucoma, the eyes drainage system becomes clogged so the intraocular fluid cannot drain. As the fluid builds up, it causes pressure to build inside the eye, which can damage these sensitive nerve fibers and result in vision loss. As the fibers are damaged and lost, the optic disc begins to hollow and develops a cupped shape. Doctors can identify this cupping shape in their examinations.
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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More
Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.
Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!
The Architecture Of The Brain
The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .
When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.
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Frontal Lobe Function Location In Brain & Damage
By Olivia Guy-Evans, published May 08, 2021
The frontal lobe is located behind the forehead, at the front of the brain. These lobes are part of the cerebral cortex and is the largest brain structure.
The frontal lobeâs main functions are associated typically with âhigherâ cognitive functions, including decision-making, problem-solving, thought and attention.
It contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning and Brocaâs Area, which is essential for language production
Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.
GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.
Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.
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Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
Vision Loss In Glaucoma
Glaucoma usually occurs in both eyes, but increased eye pressure tends to happen in one eye first. This damage may cause gradual visual changes and loss of sight over many years. Often, peripheral vision is affected first, so the change in your vision may be small enough that you may not notice it. With time, your central vision may also be affected. Sight lost from glaucoma cannot be restored. However, early detection and treatment can prevent vision loss and maintain remaining vision.
You can also find the information in this article in our free booklet Understanding and Living with Glaucoma.
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Risks Of Damage To The Frontal Lobe
Seizures. Some seizure disorders are caused by damage to â or a malformation in â the brain’s frontal lobe. Seizures impact your motor abilities and speech. Your doctor will assess your seizures and determine which region of your frontal lobe may be impacted.
Personality and social skills. Because the frontal lobe is large and in the front of your skull, it is susceptible to damage. Any damage may contribute to changes in your social behavior. Damage may impact your spatial orientation and coordination of your facial muscles.
The Limbic System Or Emotional Center
The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.
Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:
- The amygdala
- Regions of the limbic cortex
- The septal area
These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.
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Where Is The Frontal Lobe Located
Neuroscientists have traditionally divided the brain’s cerebrum into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The cerebrum is the newest part of the brain to have evolved, and houses most higher functions, such as conscious thought, morality, memory, and the ability to learn through memorization, deduction, and other complex processes. The frontal lobe plays a key role in this complex set of cognitive functions.
Named for its location, the frontal lobe is situated toward the front of the cerebrum, just behind the forehead and under the frontal skull bones. It sits atop the temporal lobe, in front of the parietal lobe, and apart from the occipital lobe, with portions of the limbic systemsometimes called the limbic lobe crossing all four brain lobes, including the frontal lobe.
The central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes, with the lateral sulcus separating the frontal and temporal lobes.