Majority Of Postnatal Proliferating Cells Are Olig2+
The MRI-based morphometric data showed robust growth and increased myelination in the early postnatal pons. The histological analysis of pontine postmortem tissue also showed cellular proliferation in the white matter regions. These observations led us to analyze the proportion of proliferating cells expressing Olig2, a progenitor marker that is frequently associated with the generation of oligodendrocytes. Human pons sections ranging from 1 day to 7 mo were double-labeled for Ki67 and Olig2, and the tegmentum and basis were analyzed . In the 01 mo group, double-labeled Olig2+/Ki67+ cells were seen in both the basis and the tegmentum. Increased density of both single-labeled and double-labeled cells were observed in the basis relative to tegmentum. The majority of Ki67+ cells in the basis were Olig2+ , but single- labeled cells for either marker were also observed . By 27 months of age, the number of Ki67+ and Ki67+/Olig2+ cells declined in both pons locations relative to the 01 month group, consistent with the proliferation analysis described earlier. However, despite the smaller number of proliferating cells in the 27 mo age group, the proportion of proliferating cells that were Olig2+ remained stable and was not statistically different between pons subregions or when compared to 01 mo data .
Did You Remember To Breathe
I’m sure you know that your heart is a pretty large structure: about the size of your fist. Your lungs are obviously even bigger in size. But did you know that the speed at which your heart beats and your lungs breathe are in large part controlled by areas of your brain sometimes as small as a thumbtack?
Amazing, isn’t it? A tiny little area in your brain is what gives you the ability to breathe and enjoy life. These little areas are located in two important areas of your brain stem, known as the pons and medulla oblongata. We’ll also learn about their structure and function, including chemoreceptors, pH sensing, and breathing rate.
Not only do these areas control your heart and lungs, but they also monitor your blood pressure and the acidity of your blood in order to adjust your breathing rate automatically. Your brain essentially has autopilot zones, which allow you to focus on things, like studying for an exam, watching television, or texting a friend, without having to worry about remembering to breathe.
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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
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System And Functions Of Brain:
The main units of the brain is sub divided into small sections. These sections consist of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the brainstem. All these portions accounts for specific portions of the brains overall duty. The superior parts are, in turn, split up into smaller spots that deal with small of the work. Various areas often;separating;their responsibility for the;similar task.
What Does The Brain Do
The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.
Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.
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Nestin And Vimentin Expression In The Postnatal Human Pons
Confocal images of three regions of the human pons labeled for nestin , vimentin , and DAPI . AD: At 1 postnatal day a dense population of vimentin+, nestin+, and vimentin+/nestin+ cells is observed in the ventricular zone of the dorsal pons. Within the tegmentum and basis, the few vimentin+/nestin+ processes were generally oriented parallel to white matter tracts. EH: A markedly decreased VZ population of vimentin+/nestin+ cells can be identified in 7 mo samples. The vimentin+/nestin+ processes seen in the tegmentum and basis within the first month of life were no longer seen by 7 months of age. IL: By 8 years of age the nestin+ cells in the ventricular epithelium were no longer present, but a small subpopulation still expressed vimentin. Neither nestin+ nor vimentin+ cells were observed in 8 year old basis or tegmentum. Scale bars = 50 m.
Pons And Medulla Oblongata
Pons and medulla oblongata together with midbrain and thalamus are part of the brainstem, which is located in the posterior part of the brain. It is a region of transition between central and peripheral nervous system, containing cell nuclei of majority of cranial nerves from which they are emerging to the spinal cord. The pons and medulla developmentally originate from the third vesicle of neural tube . Hox genes orchestrate the segmented organization of spinal cord, pons and medulla and are not expressed in other parts of the brain. Pons facilitates connections between medulla and cerebellum, as well as into the thalamus. Medulla receives inputs from pyramidal tracts originating from the cerebral cortex. These nerves are involved in control of the motoric functions. An important function of pons and medulla is the autonomous control of the body’s vital functions. For example the cardiovascular centers receive sensory inputs from the heart and blood vessels via the vagus nerve and modulates heart rate and blood pressure. A complex network between antagonistic respiratory centers regulates the pattern and rate of the respiratory cycle of inhalation and exhalation.
Figure 1. Schematic drawing of the human brain, indicating the location of pons and medulla from a coronal perspective or sagittal view.
ADCYAP1 – parabrachial n.
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The Pons Controls Some Aspects Of Sleep/wake Cycles
Some aspects of regulating sleep/wake cycles occur in the pons, particularly deep sleep. Deep sleep is when dreaming is most likely to happen and is essential for getting the rest you need to function at optimum levels. Some people with injuries to the pons may require medication to regulate their sleep/wake cycles.
The Ascending And Descending Fiber Pathways Of The Pons
The mammalian pons typically houses several distinct large and small fiber pathways, some of which are clearly evident in basic anatomical preparation and some of which need either specialized immunostaining or hodological studies to reveal. Despite this, the general pattern across mammals is quite similar and varies mostly in accordance with specific specializations of the different species, be they sensory or motor specializations. The rostral border of the pons is demarcated by the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle . From this decussation, the fibers coalesce to form a distinctive arc in a position dorsolateral to the pontine tegmentum. The superior cerebellar peduncle maintains this location within the pons to the level of the trigeminal motor nucleus, where it shifts dorsally to invest into the white matter of the cerebellum. In all mammals, the largest cerebellar peduncle is the middle cerebellar peduncle and the axons making up this structure arise from the ventral pontine nucleus. These invest into the cerebellar white matter from the lateral and ventral aspects of the pons.
Sumit Sarkar, … Jennifer L. Walters, in, 2018
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Function Of Pons In The Brain
The Pons serves a specific function in the brain; it sorts and relays messages between different sections of the brain. Specifically, the Pons relays messages between the cortex in the brain and the cerebellum.
Our brain is absolutely incredible and is what ultimately makes humans human. All the parts of the brain are extremely important, but the Pons stands out just a little more than some of the other parts. Check out this guide to learn all about the Pons.
The chief function of the body is to carry the brain around. Thomas A. Edison
Components Of The Brainstem
The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.
Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.
The medulla oblongata; is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake cycles, alertness, and temperature regulation.
The pons lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum. It also has tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.
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Ascending Tracts Of The Pons
The major ascending tracts include the dorsal columns, spinothalamic tracts, and spinocerebellar tracts, which are described below:
Dorsal Columns: The dorsal columns convey information about position sense , vibration, and discriminatory touch. Before reaching the pons, the fibers from these columns cross at the level of the lower medulla to form a structure called the medial lemniscus, which then traverses the pons. Damage to the medial lemnisci, at the level of the pons, results in sensory problems on the opposite side of the body.
Spinothalamic Tracts: These tracts convey sensations of pain, temperature, and light touch. The tracts cross shortly after entering the spinal cord and do not change sides as they ascend through the pons. Damage to the spinothalamic tracts, at the level of the pons, results in sensory problems on the opposite side of the body.
Spinocerebellar Tracts: These tracts convey subconscious information pertaining to proprioception to the cerebellum, the part of the brain concerned primarily with posture, tone, and balance. These tracts travel to the cerebellum via structures called cerebellar peduncles. Also, there are several nuclei within the pons whose axons unite to form one of the cerebellar peduncles which play a role in the function of the cerebellum. Therefore, damage to these tracts result in problems with posture, tone, and balance.
How Does The Nervous System Work
The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.
All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.
Intelligence, learning, and memory.;As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. It’s why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child’s brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. That’s why many scientists believe it’s important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.
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S Of The Brain And The Function Of Pons
The brain is comprised of 3 major sections; the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. The forebrain is comprised of: the thalamus, the cerebrum, and the hypothalamus. The midbrain houses the tegmentum and the tectum. Finally, the hindbrain consists of the cerebellum, medulla, and the pons . There are also 4 lobes: the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe, and finally the parietal;lobe. Lets cover what each portion of the brain does:
- Temporal lobe: associated with hearing, speech, memory, and it also has a part of emotions
- Occipital lobe: responsible for vision
- Frontal lobe: involved with emotion, reasoning, movement, judgment, and planning
- Parietal lobe: involved with movement, recognition, sense of touch, language, and even temperature
- Thalamus: receives sensory information that it then sends to the cerebral cortex. Think of it as a relay station
- Cerebrum: comprised of different parts, is responsible for learning, memory, language, sensory processing, smell, and movement
- Hypothalamus: controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, emotion, and sleep
- Tegmentum:;involved in motor function and controls movement
- Tectum: involved in auditory and visual functions
- Cerebellum: responsible for movement and coordination
- Medulla oblongata:;besides being responsible for why alligators are so cranky, controls breathing, digestion, sneezing, swallowing, and heart function
Organization Of The Pons
The pons consists of a) the basilar pons in the front , and b) the pontine tegmentum in the back . The basilar pons and the pontine tegmentum contain nuclei and tracts. The basilar pons contains a complex combination of tracts and nuclei . The pontine tegmentum is made up of cranial nerves which serve the head and neck, associated nuclei, the reticular formation , and tracts .;
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Stroke And The Pons Region Of The Brain
The pons is a region of the brain located in the brainstem. The pons is relatively small, and it is located in the lower part of the brain, connecting the cerebral cortex with the medulla oblongata.
The pons contains nerves and nerve tracts that integrate brain functions such as movement and sensory messages between the brain and the body. The pons also coordinates balance in the head, neck, and body and plays a primary role in eye movement, sleeping, dreaming, digestion, swallowing, breathing, and the heartbeat.
In scientific terms, the pons is sometimes known as the hindbrain, a name that is based on the location of the pons in relation to the rest of the brain during the development of the brain in the embryo .
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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Role : Nerve Origin Point
The Pons also serves as a point of origin for multiple different nerves. Those nerves are the trigeminal nerve, the abducens nerve, the facial nerve, and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Lets go over what each of those nerves is and what it does.
- Trigeminal nerve : This nerve is responsible for motor functions and sensation in the face
- Motor functions include chewing
- This is the largest cranial nerve and branches off to 3 other nerves
- The Ophthalmic nerve, the Mandibular nerve, and the Maxillary nerve
- Facial nerve :;One of the most important nerves in the face, this nerve is responsible for facial expression, taste, and controls the tongue
- This controls all muscles involved in facial expression
As you can see these are all very important nerves that control just about everything to do with our face. If the Pons is damaged at all then there are some serious effects that it can have on multiple different parts of your face, possibly rendering someone immobile.
Hindbrain: Parts Function And Location
By Olivia Guy-Evans, published May 09, 2021
The brain and its parts can be divided into three main categories: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
The forebrain is the largest region which contains the entire cerebrum as well as several structures nestled within it.The midbrain is the most forward portion of the brainstem and is associated primarily with motor movement, audition, and visual processing.
The hindbrain is located at the lower back part of the brain and includes most of the brainstem , and the cerebellum.
The hindbrain is also known as the rhombencephalon and is one of the most crucial parts of the central nervous system as it connects the brain to the spinal cord, so messages are able to be sent from the brain, down the spinal cord, to the rest of the body.
The hindbrain is essentially an extension of the spinal cord, with tracts of axons running through the spinal cord to the hindbrain, to which is integrates the incoming sensory information and coordinates motor responses.
The hindbrainâs chief role is in coordinating the vital functions of our bodies such as breathing and heart rate. Therefore, the hindbrain is important for survival.
Another main function of the hindbrain is the organization of motor reflexes, mostly controlled by the cerebellum structure. Similarly, the hindbrain is responsible for sleep activity and wakefulness.
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