Gene And Protein Expression
Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.
As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.
The Cranium: Covering Of The Brain
The brain is protected by a bony covering called the cranium. The cranium and the bones of the face make up the skull. Inside the cranium, the brain is surrounded by three layers of tissue called the meninges. The meninges include:
- Pia mater: The layer closest to the surface of the brain
- Arachnoid membrane: The middle layer of tissue
- Dura mater: The outer-most layer
Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
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The Size Of The Human Brain
- In terms of weight, the average adult human brain weighs in at 1300 to 1400 grams or around 3 pounds.
- In terms of length, the average brain is around 15 centimeters long.
- For comparison, a newborn human baby’s brain weighs approximately 350 to 400 grams or three-quarters of a pound.
- Men tend to have bigger brains than women. After taking overall body weight into account, men’s brains tend to be approximately 100 grams larger than women’s.
- In women, parts of the frontal lobe and limbic cortex tend to be bigger than those of men.
- In men, the parietal cortex and amygdala tend to be larger than those in women.
- Neurons are the structures that serve as building blocks of the brain and nervous system. They transmit and carry information, allowing different parts of the brain to communicate with one another as well as allowing the brain to communicate with various parts of the body. Researchers currently estimate that there are around 86 billion neurons in the human brain.
The Function Of The Brain
The brain is responsible for just about every single process that happens in our body. It controls our motor skills, breathing, thought processes, and emotions, and it interprets information from all of our sensory organs.
Put simply, the brain is the command center for all the other body systems. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system, also known as the CNS. However, the brain is not a single homogenous blob that does everything. Certain parts of this organ are responsible for specific tasks.
Lets take a closer look at the parts of the brain, along with a small breakdown of different portions of each part.
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What Are The Lobes Of The Brain
Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into four different lobes. They are known as the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobes. Look at the responsibilities of each lobe.
- Frontal lobe: the front portion of the brain responsible for planning, problem-solving, emotions, and impulse control.
Sex Differences Sexuality And Gender Differences
- Brain size and weight are generally larger in males than in females.
- Sex differences in humans see Brain and nervous system for general sex differences. See also Sex differences in human psychology and Neuroscience and intelligence
- Orgasm positron emission tomography has been used to examine the correlation of orgasm and specific brain activity in real time.
- Infidelity is a breach of an expectation of sexual and or emotional exclusivity expressed or implied in an intimate relationship. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist has used fMRI to assert there also is a neurobiological side to adultery.
- Love and sex “We have two brain systems: One of them is linked to attachment and romantic love, and then there is the other brain system, which is purely sex drive.” See Helen Fisher . Sometimes these two brain systems are not well connected, which enables people to become adulterers and satisfy their sex drive without any regards to their attachment side. Fisher has also conducted fMRI research on love and lost love. Fisher asserts there are three identifiable physical systems that correlate with the following functions:
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The Largest Part Of The Human Brain Is
Question: The Largest Part Of The Human Brain Is?
A human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system. The spinal cord makes up the nervous system. The human brain is a three-pound organ which has a control to every functioning of our body, interprets information from outside world and embodies the essence of mind and soul. Moreover, the human brain is composed of three parts which are cerebrum, cerebellum and the brainstem. The largest part of the brain is cerebrum which is about 2/3 of brains mass about the The Largest Part Of The Human Brain Is?
. However, the cerebrum and diencephalon make up the forebrain. The forebrain is responsible for thinking and perception. A gray tissue known as cerebral cortex covers the brain. Hence, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system. Do you know which is a weak base?
The brain consists of Hemispheres each having four lobes. The lobes prefrontal, parietal, Temporal and occipital. Therefore, the cerebrum is also known as telencephalon. Cerebrum sits on the top of the brain. Cerebrum performs higher functions such as interpreting touch, vision, and hearing, also including reasoning, speech, emotions and fine control of movements
What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.
The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.
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How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .
What Does The Brain Stem Do
As already explained, the brain stem consists of two parts the medulla oblongata and the pons.
- The Medulla:
Located at the bottom of the stem, the medulla helps control our cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In addition, this part of the brain is also responsible for a variety of reflexive actions.
Every time you cough, sneeze, or vomit, its your body acting on the impulses sent from the medulla.
- The Pons:
Sitting above the medulla oblongata, the pons is primarily in charge of breathing and sleep regulation.
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Integration Computation & Cognition
Sleep, dreaming and imagination
Wakefulness, awareness, attention
- Pre-attentive processing the unconscious accumulation of information from the environment. All available information is pre-attentively processed.
- Preconscious information that is available for cognitive processing but that currently lies outside conscious awareness. One of the most common forms of preconscious processing is priming
- Neural oscillation
- Brain activity and meditation
- Research on meditation Research on the processes and effects of meditation is a growing subfield of neurological research. fMRI and EEG, have been used to see what happens in the body of people when they meditate, and how their bodies and brain change after meditating regularly
- Yoga-nidra conscious awareness of the deep sleep state. “Yogi sleep” is a sleep-like state which yogis report to experience during their meditations which has been studied scientifically.
- Maharishi University of Management founded in 1973 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi for “consciousness-based education” and the Transcendental Meditation technique. Effects of meditation and awareness practices have had scientific investigation.
- Kundalini yoga one form of yoga that has been studied with brain mapping. Structural changes have been noted.
- Swami Janakananda a tantric yoga and meditation teacher, founder of the Yoga and Meditation School in Scandinavia. He and several of his fellow teachers have participated in brain mapping research.
The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.
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Metencephalonanterior Part Of Hindbrain
Composed of cerebellum, pons, different nerves and fourth ventricle, it is an important portion of the developmental division of your brain and performs vital functions associated with Central Nervous System , viz. muscle movements, sleep, circulation, balance, arousal and cardiac reflexes. If you want to know about the wonderful working of different parts of brain, just go through the interesting human brain facts.
The Cerebellum’s Left And Right Hemispheres
The cerebellum also has two hemispheres: the left cerebellar hemisphere and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Just as the longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum’s hemispheres, the “vermis” separates the cerebellum’s hemispheres.
Cerebellar hemispheres seen from front and back / The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
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The Geography Of Thought
Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.
When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.
As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.
The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do
Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?
Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.
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The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain
The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.
The brain stem controls these vital body functions:
- Sensory relay
Health Conditions Of The Brain
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Of course, when a machine as finely calibrated and complex as the brain gets injured or malfunctions, problems arise. One in five Americans suffers from some form of neurological damage, a wide-ranging list that includes stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy, as well as dementia.
Alzheimers disease, which is characterized in part by a gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimers or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimers symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to the diseases devasting effects.
Far more common than neurological disorders, however, are conditions that fall under a broad category . Unfortunately, negative attitudes toward people who suffer from mental illness are widespread. The stigma attached to mental illness can create feelings of shame, embarrassment, and rejection, causing many people to suffer in silence. In the United States, where anxiety disorders are the most common forms of mental illness, only about 40 percent of sufferers receive treatment. Anxiety disorders often stem from abnormalities in the brains hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
What Are The Three Major Divisions Of The Brain Quizlet
Terms in this set
- Hindbrain. The posterior part of the brain. Consists of the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum.
- Midbrain. In the middle of the brain and the top of the brainstem. Sensory pathways, visual and auditory processing/reflexes.
- Forebrain. The most anterior and most promient part of the mammalian brain.
The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions
The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.
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The Four Lobes Of The Cerebrum
: BruceBlaus via Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY 3.0
The cerebrum itself is separated into four different lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe.
The frontal lobe of the brain is typically associated with planning and reasoning, as well as emotions and problem-solving. The motor cortex is found in the rear of the frontal lobe. The motor cortex receives information from the other parts of the brain and uses it to ensure that the movements of the body are carried out.
Meanwhile, the occipital lobe is found at the back of the brain and is primarily responsible for the processing of visual information. The primary visual cortex is responsible for receiving information from the retinas in the eyes and then interpreting that information for use.
The parietal lobe is found on top of the brain and it is thought to be responsible for the perception of various stimuli, orientation, movement, and recognition. The parietal lobe is home to the somatosensory cortex, which enables the bodys senses to be processed and relevant information extracted from them.