Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Is The Largest Portion Of The Brain

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The Four Lobes Of The Cerebrum

Quiz – What is the largest part of the brain called?

The cerebrum itself is separated into four different lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe.

The frontal lobe of the brain is typically associated with planning and reasoning, as well as emotions and problem-solving. The motor cortex is found in the rear of the frontal lobe. The motor cortex receives information from the other parts of the brain and uses it to ensure that the movements of the body are carried out.

Meanwhile, the occipital lobe is found at the back of the brain and is primarily responsible for the processing of visual information. The primary visual cortex is responsible for receiving information from the retinas in the eyes and then interpreting that information for use.

The parietal lobe is found on top of the brain and it is thought to be responsible for the perception of various stimuli, orientation, movement, and recognition. The parietal lobe is home to the somatosensory cortex, which enables the bodys senses to be processed and relevant information extracted from them.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

Largest Parts Of The Human Brain

The human brain is a complex organ. While modern medicine separates it into a few different parts, none of them save the cerebellum could function on its own. The largest part of the brain, the cerebrum, is divided into parts itself, called lobes, all interacting with each other to carry out the complex actions we need to survive and get through the day. The brain is not only responsible for controlling our movements, it tells us when were hungry, when were aroused and when we need to sleep. Its how we dream and how we plan our day when we awaken. Its amazing what this 3 pound organ does for us.

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The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

Building Blocks Of The Brain

Cerebrum: Function Of The Largest Part Of The Human Brain ...

Extensive and intricate as the human brain is, and with the almost limitless variation of which it is capable, it is built from relatively few basic units. The fundamental building block of the human brain, like that of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom, is the neuron, or nerve cell. The neuron conducts signals by means of an axon, which extends outward from the soma, or body of the cell, like a single long arm. Numerous shorter arms, the dendrites , conduct signals back to the soma.

The ability of the axon to conduct nerve impulses is greatly enhanced by the myelin sheath that surrounds it, interrupted at intervals by nodes. Myelin is a fatty substance, a natural electrical insulator, that protects the axon from interference by other nearby nerve impulses. The arrangement of nodes increases the speed of conductivity, so that an electrical impulse sent along the axon can literally jump from node to node, reaching velocities as high as 120 meters per second.

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Structure And Function Of The Spine

The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.

Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.

Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.

Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.

Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.

Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.

Between the vertebrae are the discs .

Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.

What Are The Regions Of The Brain And How Do They Fit Into The Brain Structure

The three main parts of the brain are split amongst three regions developed during the embryonic period: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Together, these regions act as a useful map to understanding the various parts of the brain’s structure and functions.

The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain serve as regions that make finding the various parts of the brain easier./ BruceBlaus/Wikimedia Commons

To better understand the roles of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain within the brain, check out the short video below:

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Is The Frontal Lobe Responsible For Problem Solving

As a whole, the frontal lobe is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as memory, emotions, impulse control, problem solving, social interaction, and motor function. Damage to the neurons or tissue of the frontal lobe can lead to personality changes, difficulty concentrating or planning, and impulsivity.

Gene And Protein Expression

Cerebrum Largest Part of brain #Short clip

Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.

As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.

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The Cerebellum’s Left And Right Hemispheres

The cerebellum also has two hemispheres: the left cerebellar hemisphere and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Just as the longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum’s hemispheres, the “vermis” separates the cerebellum’s hemispheres.

Cerebellar hemispheres seen from front and back / The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

What Are The Four Nuclei Of The Cerebellum

As the three lobes take in information from the cerebrum, spinal cord and body, the cerebellum also has a way of sending out information. This is done through what are called nucleia bundle or neurons embedded deep in the cerebellum’s white matter.

Rounding out cerebellum’s composition are the four nuclei that pass information between the cerebrum and the body. These nuclei are: dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastcgi. They receive on the body and give information from the cerebellum through Purkinje cells and mossy fibers.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The final section of the brain is a mass of tissue and nerves called the brain stem. Located underneath the cerebrum and cerebellum, the brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. All information that goes from the brain to the body , must pass through the brain stem to reach its destination. The brain stem accounts for the remaining 5% of the brain’s mass, and is , the oldest part of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for regulating the heart and lungs, communications between the brain and the peripheral nervous system , our sleep cycle, and coordinating reflexes.

The brain stem plugs the brain into the rest of the body through the spinal cord .

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Information Transport And Boundary Assistants

The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.

Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons

Cerebrum: Function Of The Largest Part Of The Human Brain

What is the biggest part of the human brain? What is its ...

The cerebrum is the latest evolutionary feature of the brain and is the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum is located in the uppermost region of the central nervous system and contains the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

The brain is divided into three principal parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, and it is further divided into various lobes and structures. What are the functions of all the structures? What critical roles do they play in enabling the human brain to carry out the complex functions is capable of?

The human brain has 100 billion neurons, each neuron connected to 10 thousand other neurons. Sitting on your shoulders is the most complicated object in the known universe. Michio Kaku

The cerebrums function is to direct thought and action through conscious or unconscious motor functions.

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The Cerebellum And The Brainstem

Before diving too deeply into the functions of the cerebrum, lets take a quick look at the other parts of the brain. The brainstem is the base of the brain and it is connected to the cerebral spinal column. Structures in the brainstem include the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain. The brainstems primary function is to relay signals coming from the cerebellum and cerebrum to the spinal column. Many involuntary or automatic responses are handled by the brainstem, such as sneezing, coughing, and swallowing. The brainstem also regulates your body temperature, heart rate, and your breathing.

The cerebellum is found just under the cerebrum. The cerebellums primary function is to handle things like posture and balance. The cerebellum also plays a key role in carrying out voluntary movements. Most movements are the result of a variety of different muscle groups acting together, and the cerebellum coordinates the timing and actions of these different muscles to ensure fluid movement.

Billions of nerve fibers

The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum

The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.

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S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

What Is The Most Complex Highly Developed Largest

Which is the largest part of the human brain?
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BIOL 212 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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    Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System Deficits

    The cerebrum of adult weaver homozygotes has 52% lower DA levels than normal. At birth, young weaver neurons undergo degeneration beneath the subependymal plate. The substantia nigra of weaver mice has 40% fewer DA cells than the wild-type on postnatal day 20 and 70% fewer DA cells at 3 months of age DA neuron loss is also seen in the ventral tegmental area and retrorubral nucleus. A further wave of DA neuron degeneration is effected during the second year of life, bringing the total DA cell loss to 85% in the substantia nigra by 24 months. In regression fits, DA neuron fallout combines two independent components, an initial exponential decay, superceded by a linear regression, with a threshold at about 100 days. The half-life of neurons degenerating during the first phase is 58 days the probability per unit time that a neuron will die is a constant , estimated at 0.012 per day. During the second phase of degeneration, the probability of a neuron dying becomes a function of time and declines with advancing age, that is, the longer a cell survives, the less likely it is to degenerate.

    Heterozygous weaver mice have normal midbrain DA neuron numbers at 3 months of age. However, DA dendrites projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta into the pars reticulata appear defective in length and density, varicosity diameter, intervaricose segment length, and afferent synaptic connectivity.

    Russell J. Love Ph.D., Wanda G. Webb Ph.D., in, 1992

    Where Is The Brain Located

    The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

    The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

    The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

    Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

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    How Does The Nervous System Work

    The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.

    All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

    Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. It’s why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.

    In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child’s brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. That’s why many scientists believe it’s important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

    The Senses

    Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.

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