What Are The Parts Of The Brain
Although each part of the brain has its own special function, they all work collectively. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
Lets start at the bottom of the brain and work our way up to the top.
First up, the hindbrain. Its made up of the upper part of the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The hindbrain is responsible for control your bodys vital functions, like your breathing and heart rate. The cerebellum controls the voluntary actions in the body, such as balance, coordination, and fine muscle control. Its also responsible for maintaining posture and equilibrium.
The midbrain consists of the uppermost part of the brainstem. Its function is to control fundamental body functions, such as breathing, eye movements, blood pressure, heartbeat, and swallowing.
The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain. It is also the most highly developed part of the brain. Its responsible for giving and receiving meaning to information from your sensory organs, like when you read, think, learn, speak, feel, and move. It also controls vision, hearing, and other senses.
The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do
Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?
Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.
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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain
There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.
Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.
What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?
The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:
Left Side Brain Vs Right Side Brain
Firstly, the human brain is divided into left and right hemispheres. These are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The two sides are strongly though not entirely symmetrical.
The left brain controls muscles on the right-hand side of the body. Then the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant. Like left or right-handedness.
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The Four Lobes Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum itself is separated into four different lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe.
The frontal lobe of the brain is typically associated with planning and reasoning, as well as emotions and problem-solving. The motor cortex is found in the rear of the frontal lobe. The motor cortex receives information from the other parts of the brain and uses it to ensure that the movements of the body are carried out.
Meanwhile, the occipital lobe is found at the back of the brain and is primarily responsible for the processing of visual information. The primary visual cortex is responsible for receiving information from the retinas in the eyes and then interpreting that information for use.
The parietal lobe is found on top of the brain and it is thought to be responsible for the perception of various stimuli, orientation, movement, and recognition. The parietal lobe is home to the somatosensory cortex, which enables the bodys senses to be processed and relevant information extracted from them.
Cerebrum: Function Of The Largest Part Of The Human Brain
The cerebrum is the latest evolutionary feature of the brain and is the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum is located in the uppermost region of the central nervous system and contains the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The brain is divided into three principal parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, and it is further divided into various lobes and structures. What are the functions of all the structures? What critical roles do they play in enabling the human brain to carry out the complex functions is capable of?
The human brain has 100 billion neurons, each neuron connected to 10 thousand other neurons. Sitting on your shoulders is the most complicated object in the known universe. Michio Kaku
The cerebrums function is to direct thought and action through conscious or unconscious motor functions.
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How Does The Nervous System Work
The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.
All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.
Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.
Where Is The Brain Located
The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.
The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.
The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.
Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.
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What Is The Cerebral Cortex
The outer layer of the largest part of the human brain is the cortex, meaning bark in Latin. It makes up about two-thirds of the brains total mass, covering most of its structures including the cerebellum.
Measuring two to four millimeters thick, its an extremely important layer of your brain. It consists of gray matter that holds 10% of all the neurons of your brain.
The cortex consists of folded bulges that create fissures, all adding to the brains surface area. This increases the amount of gray matter as well as the amount of information that is processed.
Sensory and motor data are processed in the cortex to enable our sense of consciousness. And, at over 10 billion nerve cells, the peaks and valleys of the cerebral cortex are the processing powerhouse of the largest part of the human brain the cerebrum.
What Is The Largest Part Of The Brain Called
Which part of the brain is the largest part and what is its function?
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
which is the largest part of the brain what are its function?functionfunctions
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What Does The Brain Do
The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.
Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And What Do They Do
The brain has many different parts. The brain also has specific areas that do certain types of work. These areas are called lobes. One lobe works with your eyes when watching a movie. There is a lobe that is controlling your legs and arms when running and kicking a soccer ball. There are two lobes that are involved with reading and writing. Your memories of a favorite event are kept by the same lobe that helps you on a math test. The brain is controlling all of these things and a lot more. Use the map below to take a tour of the regions in the brain and learn what they control in your body.
Neurons And Glial Cells
The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.
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Structure And Function Of The Spine
The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.
Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.
Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.
Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.
Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.
Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.
Between the vertebrae are the discs .
Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.
Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
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What Are The Four Nuclei Of The Cerebellum
As the three lobes take in information from the cerebrum, spinal cord and body, the cerebellum also has a way of sending out information. This is done through what are called nucleia bundle or neurons embedded deep in the cerebellums white matter.
Rounding out cerebellums composition are the four nuclei that pass information between the cerebrum and the body. These nuclei are: dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastcgi. They receive on the body and give information from the cerebellum through Purkinje cells and mossy fibers.
Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The final section of the brain is a mass of tissue and nerves called the brain stem. Located underneath the cerebrum and cerebellum, the brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. All information that goes from the brain to the body , must pass through the brain stem to reach its destination. The brain stem accounts for the remaining 5% of the brains mass, and is , the oldest part of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for regulating the heart and lungs, communications between the brain and the peripheral nervous system , our sleep cycle, and coordinating reflexes.
The brain stem plugs the brain into the rest of the body through the spinal cord .
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Anterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Anterior cerebral artery syndrome occurs when there is an interruption of the blood flow in one of the anterior cerebral arteries. These arteries supply various regions of the brainincluding large parts of the medial surfaces of the frontal and parietallobesand as such anterior cerebral artery syndrome can present with markedly different functional deficits depending on the exact region damaged.
The part of the precentral gyrusthe primary motor cortexthat lies on the medial surface of the frontal lobe provides motor input to the contralateral lower limb. As such, if occlusion or interruption of blood flow results in ischemic damage to this region, an affected patient will typically present with contralateral hemiparesis of the lower limb. Accordingly, occlusion of both anterior cerebral arteries can result in bilateral hemiparesis of the lower limbs.
The part of the postcentral gyrusthe somatosensory cortexthat lies on the medial surface of the parietal lobe interprets sensory information from the contralateral lower limb. If this region is subjected to ischemic damage, an affected individual is more likely to experience contralateral loss of sensation, including light touch, position, vibration, and proprioception, mainly in the lower limb.
Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
Posterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Posterior cerebral artery syndrome occurs when there is obstruction of the blood flow through the calcarinebranch of the posterior cerebral artery. The calcarine branch supplies the visual cortex in the occipitallobe, the part of the brain necessary for sight.
Ischemic damage to this region can lead to a condition called contralateral homonymous hemianopia , which is the loss of vision in the contralateral visual field. For example, if calcarine branch of the left posterior cerebral artery is occluded, an affected individual will typically experience vision loss in the right visual field of each eye. In cases of temporal lobe ischemia, amnesia may result.
The presence of dual blood supply to parts of the occipital lobe means that certain regions of the visual field may be spared from damage when the posterior cerebral artery is occluded: this typically presents as macular sparing, or sparing of the central visual field.
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