The Cerebellums Left And Right Hemispheres
The cerebellum also has two hemispheres: the left cerebellar hemisphere and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Just as the longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrums hemispheres, the vermis separates the cerebellums hemispheres.
The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
Cerebellar hemispheres seen from front and back / The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
What Does The Left Temporal Lobe Control
To date, weve learned a lot about the brain, but theres still much more to be uncovered. What we do know has helped us identify and treat many medical ailments.
As for the temporal lobe, its task is to control sight and sound processing, as well as language usage.
It takes care of hearing and listening, visual input processing, and verbal material comprehension . The temporal lobe is also where our long-term memories are stored.
So, the way we express ourselves in terms of language, and the way we understand art and music, is all thanks to the temporal lobe.
What Does Programming Do To Your Brain
Though researchers have long suspected the brain mechanism for computer programming would be similar to that for math or even language, this study revealed that when seasoned coders work, most brain activity happens in the network responsible for logical reasoning, though in the left brain region, which is favored by
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Which Side Of The Brain Is Dominant
Differences between right brain vs. left brain characteristics and functions
While no single theory completely explains the multiple complexities of brain functions, neuroimaging techniques show some distinct differences between the left and right brain hemispheres, which is referred to as lateralization.
Examples of these differences include language function in the Broca surface area and Wernicke area of the left side of the brain, and emotional and nonverbal functions in the right side of the brain.
The areas responsible for language tends to be on the dominant side of the brain, and opposite of the handedness of a person. For example, if you are left handed, the language function areas of your brain are more likely to be located on the right side of your brain. Moreover, if you are right-handed, your speech functions are more likely to be located on the left side of your brain.
Left-brain characteristics and functions
Left-brain functions are thought to include:
- Understanding the sum of any situation, getting “the big picture
- Large muscle movements like walking
- Sensing where ones body is in space
According to neuroscience research, the left side of the brain or hemisphere:
- Is positively stimulated by new experiences.
- Controls the immune system.
- Is responsible for the involuntary bodily functions, for example, breathing, heart rate, and digestion.
Right brain characteristics and functions
What Does The Brain Do
Different parts of the brain receive and understand different messages from different parts of your body. The Brain is divided into two halves called Hemispheres. The Right Hemisphere works the left side of the body and the Left Hemisphere works the right side of the body. These two Hemispheres are joined together by a thick grouping of more than 200 million nerve fibres called the Corpus Callosum . These nerve fibres let messages pass from one side of the brain to the other.
Each Hemisphere of your brain has parts called Lobes. Each Lobe has different jobs that it does. The part of the Brain that makes our body parts move is called The Motor Cortex. It is found towards the back of the Frontal Lobe which is located at the front of your head. Different parts of the Motor Cortex of your Frontal Lobe move different parts of your body. Researchers have been able to map exactly which part of your brain moves each part of your body. They created a picture or a Motor Map of this which is called The Motor Cortex Homunculus to show us which part of our brain in the Motor Cortex is responsible for moving each part of our body.
Go to the ABIOS website Brain Map for more information about the what the Brain does.
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What Is Brain Lateralization
Information that enters the left hemisphere travel across the corpus callosum going to the right side of the brain and vice versa. The two hemispheres of the brain function interdependently.
Each of them has a role to play in the processing of information although the other is more dominant in certain functions. The process is called brain lateralization. The degree of brain lateralization is not the same in everyone.
Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.
GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.
Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.
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A More Holistic Picture
But lateralization isnt the whole story. Even in language: stroke or injury to the right side of the brain commonly impairs the ability to understand the emotional aspects of speech carried by intonation and phrasing. To understand language fully, then, requires both sides of the brain, working together.
The hemispheres, after all, are not truly separate: communication between them is enabled by commissural fibers, broad white matter tracts through which a constant traffic of neural messages pass from side to side. The most prominent of these is the corpus callosum, but smaller commissural tracts connect the hemispheres as well.
Beyond the implications of gross anatomy, our increasingly nuanced view of lateralization reflects a more general evolution in our understanding of how the brain works: while some basic functions can reasonably be localized to modules or specific regions , more complex functions, such as the cognitive capacities popularly associated with the right and left hemisphere, are better explained in terms of networks that may spread across large areas of the brain.
New Ideas And Reality
Left brains are not famous for creative, ground-breaking ideas, but then again we arent really sure how the two sides of the brains work or dont work together. What we think we know is that the right brain can generate a new idea more efficiently and perhaps to a more intense degree than the left brain, whereas the left brain can take an idea and run with it. In other words, the right brain can initiate something but the left brain can handle the planning, processing, logic, etc. Total success is not possible without both sides of the brain firing on all cylinders.
The left brain also seems to have a propensity for reality. You would not expect to find many metaphysical wanderings in the left brain. While this might limit the left brain in terms of considering all possibilities, it also prevents the left brain from getting lost in the impossible, unrealistic or off-topic. The left brain prefers to stay rooted in and focused on reality. This is the epitome of the left brain relying on logic, sequence, critical reasoning and self-sufficiency.
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What Does The Left Frontal Lobe Control
The left side of the brain controls movement related to language, whereas the right side is responsible for nonverbal tasks. Collectively, the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that is home to our emotional regulation centers and controls our personality, for example.
The frontal lobes in general have a huge influence on many aspects of our intellect and behavior, evidenced by the diversity of symptoms that can occur when the area is damaged. The anatomy of the brain is well- defined, but scientists are still learning about its exact functions. Although the left side is more involved in language-based tasks for most people, this does not always have to be the case. Rarely, some young children require the removal of half their brain as a result of a medical condition. Despite this loss, the remaining half of the brain is sometimes able to pick up the slack and do everything the other half did before it was removed.
Box 1 The Genetics Of Handedness And Cerebral Asymmetry
Linkage analyses have often revealed candidate laterality genes, but all too often these fail in follow-up analysisa common problem in the search for genes related to human behavior. Part of the problem is the sheer immensity of the genome, which means that candidates are likely to surface by chance, and the problem is compounded by the likelihood of a strong chance element in the determination of handedness itself. With appropriate statistical control, several large-scale genome-wide studies have failed to reveal any single locus to be significantly associated with handedness ,, including one study based on a large sample of twins, which also failed specifically to support the single-gene model developed by McManus , or weaker versions of that model. The authors of one study estimate that as many as 40 different loci may be involved , but note that it would be difficult to distinguish multilocus models from a single-gene model, such as that of McManus, in terms of handedness pedigrees.
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Left Hemisphere Brain Damage Treatment
While the effects of left hemisphere brain damage can be serious, they may not be permanent. The brain possesses a remarkable ability to make adaptive changes known as neuroplasticity. This ability allows the brain to rewire functions affected by damage to unaffected regions of the brain.
To activate neuroplasticity, you must engage in highly repetitive and intensive practice of affected movements or skills. This helps stimulate the brain and reinforce demand for those functions.
Some rehabilitative therapies that can help you promote neuroplasticity after left hemisphere brain damage include:
Ultimately, recovery after left hemisphere brain damage focuses on highly repetitive, task-specific training that encourages the brain to make adaptive changes. Thousands of repetitions are required to promote neurological changes in the brain. Therefore, its essential for individuals to have hope, keep practicing, and trust in the process.
What Are Some Characteristics Of The Left Side Of The Brain
People are often categorized either as left-brained and right-brained, meaning one side of their brain is dominant.
In this article, we will explore specifically the left brain characteristics, what they are, what it means to be a left-brain person, and how you can align your left brain using your knowledge, skills, and talents to reach your brains full potential.
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The Architecture Of The Brain
The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .
When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.
For Planners And Management Scientists
No, I do not suggest that planners and management scientists pack up their bags of techniques and leave the field of management, or that they take up basket-weaving or meditation in their spare time. It seems to me that the left hemisphere is alive and well the analytic community is firmly established, and indispensable, at the operating and middle levels of most organizations. Its real problems occur at the policy level. Here analysis must co-exist withperhaps even take its lead fromintuition, a fact that many analysts and planners have been slow to accept. To my mind, organizational effectiveness does not lie in that narrow-minded concept called rationality it lies in a blend of clear-headed logic and powerful intuition. Let me illustrate this with two points.
- First, only under special circumstances should planners try to plan. When an organization is in a stable environment and has no use for a very creative strategythe telephone industry may be the best examplethen the development of formal, systematic strategic plans may be in order. But when the environment is unstable or the organization needs a creative strategy, then strategic planning may not be the best approach to strategy formulation, and planners have no business pushing the organization to use it.
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How To Use This Information To Help Your Child
If a child has a strong left brain and a less mature right brain, he may experience social difficulties and have little interest in sports or outdoor activities. This imbalance in skills can be tough on kids and parents.
It was once thought that the brain was static, unable to grow or change. But extensive research has shown that the brain remarkably adaptable, able to create new neural pathways in response to stimulus in the environment. This is a branch of science called neuroplasticity.
Detailed Information About The Functions And Characteristics Of The Right Brain
- It allows young children to grasp and understand the concept of more versus less.
- The right hemisphere of the brain is responsible for some of the cognitive functions such as attention, processing of visual shapes and patterns, emotions, verbal ambiguity, and implied meanings.
- Children below 3 years old are predominantly governed by the right brain.
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What Is Right Brain
The right brain is the right hemisphere of the brain, which is responsible for creativity, intuition, and impulsiveness. It processes the information in whole concrete images, not step-by-step methods to reach the final conclusion. Therefore, it has difficulties in understanding parts of a whole image. Also, the right brain faces difficulties in sequential thinking and it has to be trained in sequencing skills with the use of visual images or concrete materials.
Figure 2: Brain Lateralization
The right brain may have difficulties in working with measurements, time, size, fractions, money, word problems, algebra, and geometry. It may not follow oral instructions without a visual demonstration.
Left And Right Brain Roles
Tracking activity in the brains of healthy people while theyre engaging in different tasks, as we do with neuroimaging, provides another, more modern window into laterality. For example, neuroimaging studies suggest that the two hemispheres might play different roles in emotion processing, with the left hemisphere showing somewhat greater activation for happy or positive emotions and the right hemisphere showing more activity during negative emotional processing.
One particularly interesting insight that neuroimaging has given us is the finding that white matter tracts, or the wiring diagram of the two hemispheres, is different. The wiring of the right hemisphere has been called more efficient because it has greater connectivity between regions.
Think of a city with a really good subway system, like Manhattan, making it easy to get from one side of the city to another. The left hemisphere, in contrast, seems to be more modular. Its more like a cluster of little cities operating more independently, like Los Angeles, where every mini-city has its own municipal transport system and the cities themselves are not well connected. Santa Monica and Beverly Hills have different governing bodies, so its hard to get from one to the other using public transportation.
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Understanding Left Side Brain Injury
The brain acts as the control center for the entire body and is responsible for both physical and cognitive abilities. It consists of two hemispheres, each of which governs the opposite side of the body. For example, the left hemisphere commands movement on the right side of the body, and vice versa.
For most individuals, the right side of the brain is responsible for non-verbal, intuitive and creative actions such as musical and artistic ability. The left hemisphere, on the other hand, is in charge of verbal, analytical and logical functions.
Some specific functions the left hemisphere controls include:
- Logic and reasoning
- Right-hand control
- Sequential thinking
The left side is also considered the language hub of the brain. It is where the bulk of your language abilities lie, particularly your ability to produce and understand language.
Therefore, most people with left-side brain injuries have difficulty speaking, a condition known as aphasia.
Lets take a closer look at aphasia, and other effects of left hemisphere damage,