Thursday, September 29, 2022

What Is The Purpose Of The Blood Brain Barrier

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Nvu In The Perinatal Brain

What Exactly Is the Blood Brain Barrier?

Despite extensive research into the mature NVU since the widespread embrace of the concept, there has to date been relatively little research performed on the NVU within the developing brain. Illustrating this, in a review of the developing BBB, Saunders et al. observed a widespread characterization of the BBB as being immature, noting that this was often a vague description based on minimal evidence .

In reality, little is known about the NVU in the perinatal period, however, evidence points to considerable differences between the perinatal NVU and the adult NVU. BBB function in newborns differs substantially from that of adults in both physiological and pathological circumstances . In addition, Kozberg and Hillman discuss the NVC in the perinatal brain, highlighting the ways that this coupling function also differs from its adult equivalent. Combined, these differences suggest a disparity in NVU structure and/or function between the developing and adult brain. This disparity highlights the dangers of relying on knowledge of adult brain structure and function to inform our approach to the developing NVU, emphasizing the importance of research specifically looking at the NVU in the perinatal period.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of A Leaky Brain

Leaky Brain manifests as multiple signs and symptoms, so pay attention to these as opposed to ignoring them:

  • ADD/ADHD/Autism spectrum disorders
  • Brain fog or difficulty concentrating
  • Chronic fatigue that does not improve with rest or sleep
  • Headaches or migraines that come on suddenly become worse with standing, and grow more severe as the day progresses
  • Memory loss or another cognitive decline which may lead to dementia and Alzheimers disease
  • Mood disorders, particularly anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia
  • Peripheral neuropathy or muscular sclerosis
  • Seizures

It is important not to ignore these signs and symptoms because those living with Leaky Brain are at an increased risk of developing neurological or psychiatric conditions. Many of these conditions are considered signs and symptoms of Leaky Brain, but they may also be counted among the causes of Leaky Brain.

Leaky Brain Can Cause:

Diseases that Contribute to Leaky Brain include:

What Is The Purpose Of The Blood Brain Barrier

4.6/5purpose of the bloodbrain barrierbrainbrainis here

The BBB has several important functions: Protects the brain from “foreign substances” in the blood that may injure the brain. Protects the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in the rest of the body. Maintains a constant environment for the brain.

what happens if the blood brain barrier is damaged? So what happens if the bloodbrain barrier is damaged or somehow compromised? As a result, the bloodbrain barrier becomes more porous, allowing bacteria and other toxins to infect the brain tissue, which can lead to inflammation and sometimes death.

Also to know is, what makes the blood brain barrier?

The bloodbrain barrier is formed by endothelial cells of the capillary wall, astrocyte end-feet ensheathing the capillary, and pericytes embedded in the capillary basement membrane.

Does the blood brain barrier protect the spinal cord?

The brain and spinal cord are restricted the bloodbrain barrier keeps cerebrospinal fluid extra pure and offers the central nervous system an additional layer of protection from the general flotsam and jetsum in the bloodstream. The BBB is more like a neurovascular organ unto itself.

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Apicobasal Polarity Of Bbb Endothelium

The apicobasal polarity of the BBB endothelium is more remarkable than those in other organs in terms of polarized distributions of lipids, glycoproteins, receptors, and transporters between apical and basal membranes . It is initiated during angiogenesis by the partitioning defective protein complex, including PAR3, PAR6, and CDC42, and is tightly regulated by VEGF and Wnt signaling pathways . PAR3 interaction with VE-cadherin and JAM proteins triggers the reorganization of intercellular junction proteins including ZO1, claudin-5, and CD99, resulting in the formation of TJs on the apical side of AJs, thereby limiting paracellular flow . On the other hand, lumen formation and expansion are achieved by redistribution of surface receptors including CD34 and glycoproteins such as podocalyxin, and reorganization of cytoskeleton networks that requires 1-integrin, non-muscle myosin II, activation of RhoA pathway, and F-actin formation . Brain endothelial cells also express the Crumbs protein complex that stabilizes the intercellular junctions .

Introduction To The Blood

A schematic representation of the blood

The blood-brain barrier is a component of the neurovascular unit and acts as the blood-brain interface, mediating communication between the central nervous system and the periphery. The BBB separates the circulation from the brain, allowing for protection from and transport regulation of serum factors and neurotoxins. The BBB is not just a physical barrier but also acts more selectively as a transport interface , a secretory body, and a metabolic barrier .

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Associated Conditions And Problems

The blood-brain barrier is usually effective at keeping foreign or toxic substances out of your central nervous system. Most of the time this is a good thing, but it can pose a problem when developing new drugs for the nervous system. For example, one of the major challenges in treating brain tumors is that it can be difficult to make a medication capable of getting across the blood-brain barrier to reach the cancer. Because of this problem, researchers are developing medicine to try to bypass the blood-brain barrier.

The blood-brain barrier can sometimes also be broken down by injuries and infections. Research shows that strokes and traumatic brain injury can damage the endothelial tissue and cause the blood-brain barrier to open. Researchers have also found that those with early signs of cognitive impairment have a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. The findings could help to lead to early diagnostic tests for Alzheimers disease and other conditions that cause cognitive impairment.

What Is A Leaky Brain

A brain is considered leaky when the Blood-Brain Barrier has been compromised in some way. . If the tight junctions become loose or broken, the BBB becomes more permeable and harmful substances can leak in. Harmful chemicals and proteins can damage the brain leading to inflammation in other words, a Leaky Brain is an Inflamed Brain.

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Ms And Related Disorders

Besides its primary neuroprotective function, the BBB has also been shown to actively promote neuroinflammation by orchestrating immune responses during CNS-targeted autoimmune aggression. BBB ECs are an important source of proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 , CCL5, and CXCL10, which are required for lymphocyte and monocyte recruitment to the CNS . Immune cell infiltration into the CNS correlates with production of proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin -17, IL-22, granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor , interferon -, and tumor necrosis factor . These cytokines have been implicated in the modulation of EC function by up-regulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and by affecting the expression of junctional proteins and, thus, compromising BBB permeability. Last, BBB ECs express intercellular adhesion molecule -1, ICAM-2, vascular CAM -1, activated leukocyte CAM , melanoma CAM , and Ninjurin-1, which mediate, at least in part, the adhesion process and transmigration of leukocytes and leukocyte subtypes to the CNS . Thus, although the BBB protects against CNS-directed inflammation by restricting immune cell access to the brain, it can also regulate the local inflammatory response by expressing proinflammatory molecules that promote the recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the CNS.

Where Is The Blood

Blood Brain Barrier, Animation

The blood-brain barrier surrounds most of the blood vessels in the brain. It is a structure that is formed primarily due to the establishment of tight junctions between endothelial cells . There are also several other cells and proteins contributing to the blood-brain barrier complex for example, processes called astrocytic end-feet extend from astrocytes to surround blood vessels and provide support to the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier.

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How To Reverse And Heal A Leaky Brain Stop Start And Seek

Treating a leaky brain starts by healing a leaky gut. This involves eliminating all the causative factors of leaky gut and leaky brain and then adding dietary and lifestyle factors that support brain health.

Following these steps will lower inflammation in the body and brain, maximize the transport of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients into the brain, facilitate better removal of toxins out of the brain, reduce oxidative stress, and help rebuild tight junctions to restore the integrity of the BBB.

STOP:

  • Consuming gluten and foods that the individual cannot tolerate
  • Including sugar and processed foods in meals
  • Ignoring stress
  • Allowing bacterial and viral infections to fester before getting treatment
  • Drinking alcohol in excess
  • Myoinositol, Magnesium, Melatonin, Methylene Blue
  • Olive Leaf Extract, Oxaloacetate, Parthenolide
  • Progesterone, Pterostilbene, Resveratrol, Rosmarinic Acid
  • Shilajit, Selenium, Sulforaphane, Ursolic Acid
  • Therapeutic medications that repair the BBB, like:
  • Glucocorticoids which increase anti-inflammatory proteins in the brain
  • MMP Inhibitors which inhibit MMP function and help rebuild the BBB
  • Angiotensin which blocks MMP9 increases anti-inflammatory proteins and protects the BBB from further damage
  • Why Do We Need It

    The purpose of the bloodbrain barrier is to protect against circulating toxins or pathogens that could cause brain infections, while at the same time allowing vital nutrients to reach the brain.

    Its other function is to help maintain relatively constant levels of hormones, nutrients and water in the brain fluctuations in which could disrupt the finely tuned environment.

    So what happens if the bloodbrain barrier is damaged or somehow compromised?

    One common way this occurs is through bacterial infection, as in meningococcal disease. Meningococcal bacteria can bind to the endothelial wall, causing tight junctions to open slightly. As a result, the bloodbrain barrier becomes more porous, allowing bacteria and other toxins to infect the brain tissue, which can lead to inflammation and sometimes death.

    Its also thought the bloodbrain barriers function can decrease in other conditions. In multiple sclerosis, for example, a defective bloodbrain barrier allows white blood cells to infiltrate the brain and attack the functions that send messages from one brain cell to another. This causes problems with how neurons signal to each other.

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    Biomarkers For Impaired Blood

    The researchers suggest that the two sets of findings offer two new biomarkers that could help doctors identify individuals who might have a blood-brain barrier problem: one using MRI , and the other using EEG .

    There is also scope to develop the drug that they used as a way to repair a leaky blood-brain barrier to slow and perhaps even reverse some of the problems that it can cause.

    We now have two biomarkers that tell you exactly where the blood-brain barrier is leaking, so you can select patients for treatment and make decisions about how long you give the drug.

    Prof. Daniela Kaufer

    Experts on the two studies generally welcome the findings but warn against jumping to the conclusion that they describe ways to reverse dementia in humans.

    Overall, notes Diego Gomez-Nicola, an associate professor of neuroscience at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, these studies add to a body of knowledge supporting the impact of inflammation on dementia, and provide promising targets for future clinical studies.

    Insulin Signaling Within Cells Of The Blood

    Mechanisms of Blood

    There is not a cell type in the CNS that we are aware of that does not express the insulin receptor. In mice, the expression of the insulin receptor gene is most abundant in endothelial cells, about two times greater than astrocytes, with neurons falling in close behind in terms of RNA expression levels1 . This same expression pattern was not observed in samples from human tissue . Instead, expression of the insulin receptor is more evenly distributed between the cell types. Insulin interacts with receptors on neurons and glial cells , endothelial cells , and pericytes to elicit various physiological effects, some of which are highlighted in Figure 1. The insulin receptor exists in two isoforms, an A and B form, due to differences in splicing of the subunit, resulting in different binding affinities to insulin and insulin-like growth factor . However, until recently, the ability to detect these two isoforms by immunological methods in vivo in different cell types has been a challenge. With the advances in single cell RNA sequencing and a novel in situ RT-PCR/FISH assay , we expect a growth in the knowledge of expression pattern of these isoforms and alterations in human disease within specific cell types and regional variations. The insulin receptor can also form heterodimers with the IGF-1 receptor and can have varying post-translational modifications leading to further diversity of insulin action .

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    Therapies To Increase Bbb Insulin Transport And Cns Insulin Levels

    In this review, we have summarized the detrimental effects of altered insulin signaling within specific cell types at the BBB. However, many of these detrimental effects are due to decreased exposure to insulin and hence insulin BBB transport. Therefore, if CNS insulin can be increased, some of these detrimental effects could be overcome. Alternative routes to increase CNS insulin has recently been reviewed by our group in detail . We have highlighted here a couple of therapies that are the most translational to increase CNS insulin levels.

    What Is The Difference Between Blood Brain Barrier And Blood Csf Barrier

    The blood brain barrier is a physical barrier while the blood CSF barrier is a functional barrier. So, this is the key difference between blood brain barrier and blood CSF barrier. Additionally, there is a difference between blood brain barrier and blood CSF barrier in terms of structure. The endothelium in the blood brain barrier is made of cerebral capillary. In contrast, the blood CSF barrier is made of the choroid plexus of the brain.

    Moreover, the permeability of blood brain barrier is high, while the permeability of blood CSF is low. It is because blood brain barrier has a larger surface area than the blood CSF barrier. Therefore, we can consider this also as a difference between blood brain barrier and blood CSF barrier.

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    What Causes Leaky Brain

    The profound connection between the brain and the gut cannot be underestimated as research repeatedly confirms that microbes living in the gut affect the brain both positively and negatively.

    In fact, the stomach and small intestine contain a lining similar to the blood-brain barrier which also keeps harmful substances from entering the gut.

    Therefore, many of the same factors that cause a leaky gutpoor gut health, unhealthy diet, food intolerances, food sensitivities, toxins and infectionscan also create a leaky brain.

    Studies from Harvard³ show that wheat creates leaky gut in everyone as a protein called gliadin, found in wheat and gluten, increases another protein, zonulin. Zonulin weakens the tight junctions of the gut lining and BBB thereby contributing to leaky gut and leaky brain.

    What Is Blood Csf Barrier

    Blood Brain Barrier – Structure & Function

    Blood CSF barrier, as the name suggests, separates the cerebrospinal fluid and blood tissue. The cerebrospinal fluid is the protective fluid circulating around the brain. It protects the brain from external injury and shock. In addition, CSF also provides a metabolic function. It regulates the entry and exit of nutrients and waste products to the brain. Similar to the blood brain barrier, the blood CSF barrier also has three parts: choroid epithelial cells, basal membrane and endothelium of the pia mater capillaries. The choroid epithelial cells form a tight junction between the blood and the CSF, and it has microvilli lining.

    Figure 02: Cerebrospinal Fluid

    The main function of the blood CSF barrier is the selective absorption and entry of nutrients to the brain liquor . Its permeability is greater than that of the blood brain barrier. The nutrients flow across a concentration gradient into the CSF. Most importantly, the transport taking place in the blood CSF barrier is bidirectional. Thus, the removal of toxic metabolic waste also takes place in the blood CSF barrier.

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    Summary Blood Brain Barrier Vs Blood Csf Barrier

    Blood brain barrier and blood CSF barrier are vital structures of the brain. The blood brain barrier is a physiological separation of the blood tissue and the brain tissue. In contrast, the blood CSF barrier is a functional barrier which carries out the absorption of the nutrients. Both barriers are selectively permeable and allow only non-toxic components to pass through them. However, blood brain barrier is more permeable than the blood CSF barrier. It also has a higher surface area. Thus, this summarizes the difference between blood brain barrier and blood CSF barrier.

    Reference:

    1. â11. Cerebrospinal Fluid, Blood-Brain Barrier and Blood-CSF Barrier.â Functions of Cells and Human Body, Available here.

    Image Courtesy:

    1. âProtective barriers of the brainâ By Stolp HB, Liddelow SA, Sá-Pereira I, Dziegielewska KM and Saunders NR â Stolp HB, Liddelow SA, Sá-Pereira I, Dziegielewska KM and Saunders NR Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7:61. via Commons Wikimedia2. âBlausen 0216 CerebrospinalSystemâ By Blausen.com staff . âMedical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014â. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 . DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436. â Own work via Commons Wikimedia

    Dysfunction Of The Bbb In Cns Disorders

    Disruption of the BBB is observed in many different neurological disorders including MS, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease , epilepsy, and traumatic brain injuries. Functional imaging of human patients and analysis of postmortem brain samples has identified the pathological breakdown of the barrier in different neurological diseases. In addition, work with animal models of disease and with cell culture BBB models has enabled the identification of some of the molecular mechanisms that cause changes to the BBB. This dysfunction can include alterations in many different properties of the BBB including TJs, transporters, transcytosis, and LAM expression. This breakdown can lead to edema, disruption of ionic homeostasis, altered signaling, and immune infiltration that can lead to neuronal dysregulation and, ultimately, degeneration. Although BBB dysfunction is often secondary to the primary insult in these diseases, in some cases, it has been a suggested cause, including MS, epilepsy, and AD .

    Schematic representation of signaling regulating the bloodbrain barrier in health and disease. ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule MMP, matrix metalloproteinase ROS, reactive oxygen species.

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