What Does The Brain Do
The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.
Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.
Neurons And Glial Cells
The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.
The Limbic System Or Emotional Center
The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.
Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:
- The amygdala
- Regions of the limbic cortex
- The septal area
These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.
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S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
Who All Were Involved In The Research
The study, published in the journal Neuroscience India, was a collaborative effort by researchers Raghav Mehta from McGill University in Canada, Jayanthi Sivaswamy and Alphin J Thottupattu from the International Institute of Information Technology , Hyderabad, and R Sheelakumari and Chandrasekharan Kesavadas from Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology in Kerala.
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The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.
You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.
The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata
Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.
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Gene And Protein Expression
Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.
As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.
How The Lobes Of The Brain Interact
The lobes of the brain are not separated from one another by bones or other barriers, and must constantly interact with one another to process and synthesize information. All of the lobes are either physically connected to one another, or connect via nerve signals, and researchers sometimes debate the precise point at which one lobe begins and another ends.
The brain is divided into left and right hemispheres, and each lobe crosses both hemispheres. Thus doctors and researchers sometimes refer to two distinct lobesthe left frontal lobe and right frontal lobe, for example.
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What Are The Three Lobes Of The Cerebellum
The cerebellum’s hemispheres are each divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are split up by two fissures , called the primary fissure and the posterolateral fissure.
The three lobes of the Cerebellum, where purple is the anterior lobe, green is the posterior lobe and orange is the Flocculonodular lobe./Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
Unlike the cerebral cortex, there are no clear separation of functions in the cerebellar cortex. The best way to identify the tasks are by the information each section processes.
The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
The anterior lobe and the vermis together are known as the spinocerebellum. The spinocerebellum helps regulate muscle tone and body movement. It’s also responsible for our sense of our body’s position in relation to our surroundings, and in relation to other parts of our body . This area receives input from our spinal cord, auditory and visual systems.
The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
The posterior lobe is called the cerebrocerebellum. This area is responsible for planning movements that are about to happen, managing sensory information to determine action and motor learning. It receives information from the cerebral cortex .
The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
Dose And Dose Rate As Key Concepts Of Nanotoxicology
The aforementioned studies on particle lung overload in rats demonstrate that overwhelming the capacity of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize and clear retained particles from the alveolar region of the lung results in severe lung injury by mechanisms that are not operational at lower doses. Dose, dose rate and dose metrics are critical determinants of effects which need to be considered when designing toxicological studies. This is indicated in with an important cautionary note regarding the issue of dose. High doses administered as a bolus in an animal study or to cell cultures can readily identify a NP as hazardous on the basis of observed significant inflammatory/oxidative stress responses. Although such studies are valuable and may be used for ranking the toxicity of newly developed NPs against a reference or benchmark particle, observed effects may not be directly extrapolated as occurring under in vivo exposure conditions . A key difference is the dose rate in addition to the amount of the delivered dose . The mechanisms underlying effects induced by a high dose rate are likely very different from those induced when the same dose is delivered by inhalation over days, weeks or months. Results from bolus type dose delivery should not be used for purposes of risk assessment however, when designed as dose-response studies including reasonably low doses, they can be very valuable as hypothesis forming or proof of principle studies, to be validated in vivo.
Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
How The Worlds Biggest Brain Maps Could Transform Neuroscience
Imagine looking at Earth from space and being able to listen in on what individuals are saying to each other. Thats about how challenging it is to understand how the brain works.
From the organs wrinkled surface, zoom in a million-fold and youll see a kaleidoscope of cells of different shapes and sizes, which branch off and reach out to each other. Zoom in a further 100,000 times and youll see the cells inner workings the tiny structures in each one, the points of contact between them and the long-distance connections between brain areas.
Scientists have made maps such as these for the worm and fly brains, and for tiny parts of the mouse and human brains. But those charts are just the start. To truly understand how the brain works, neuroscientists also need to know how each of the roughly 1,000 types of cell thought to exist in the brain speak to each other in their different electrical dialects. With that kind of complete, finely contoured map, they could really begin to explain the networks that drive how we think and behave.
Its an onerous undertaking. But knowing all the brain cell types, how they connect with each other and how they interact, will open up an entirely new set of therapies that we cant even imagine today, says Josh Gordon, director of the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland.
Sources: US BRAIN Initiative/HBP/H. Okano et al. Neuron92, 582590 .
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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And How Do They Fit Into The Brain Structure
The three main parts of the brain are split amongst three regions developed during the embryonic period: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Together, these regions act as a useful map to understanding the various parts of the brain’s structure and functions.
The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain serve as regions that make finding the various parts of the brain easier./ BruceBlaus/Wikimedia Commons
To better understand the roles of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain within the brain, check out the short video below:
Which Is The Smallest Part In Brain
. In this way, which is the largest part of the brain?
The cerebrum is the largest part of the humanbrain, making up about two-thirds of the brain’smass. It has two hemispheres, each of which has four lobes:frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.
Similarly, what are the 7 parts of the brain? Parts of the brain
- The frontal lobe: Personality, attention, and socialinteraction.
- The parietal lobe: Sensation, particularly the sense oftouch.
- The temporal lobe: Hearing, certain types of memory, andlanguage.
- The occipital lobe: Vision.
In this way, where is small brain located?
The cerebellum has theappearance of a separate structure to the brain and islocated underneath the large mass of the cerebralcortex.
Why cerebellum is called Little Brain?
Answer and Explanation: The cerebellum is often ‘the little brain‘ because it shares manysimilarities with the cerebrum, the main portion of thebrain.
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Deposition Of Inhaled Nps And Translocation Pathways
The deposition of inhaled NPs in the respiratory tract is governed by random motion due to bombardment by gas molecules, known as Brownian motion or diffusion. Deposition by this mechanism is greatest for the smallest NPs, as shown in for the adult human respiratory tract, assuming nose breathing at 10 L/min . Thus, about 85% of airborne NPs of about 1 nm in size will be deposited by this diffusional deposition in the upper respiratory tract, whereas in the tracheobronchial and alveolar regions of the lower respiratory tract, peaks of deposition are for NPs of around 5 nm and of 20 nm , respectively. Of course, if the primary particles of NPs are agglomerated, the deposition efficiency is a function of the larger agglomerate size. Gravitational and inertial forces increasingly become determinants of deposition for particle sizes above 200 nm.
Predicted deposition fraction of inhaled particles by region in the human respiratory tract during nasal breathing. Diffusion is the main mechanism by which nano-sized particles deposit. Based on
Sensory nerves in the respiratory tract, consisting of dense networks in the upper respiratory tract and tracheobronchial region and some in the alveolar region.
From respiratory tract to brain: Potential translocation pathways of nanoparticles after deposition in the upper and lower respiratory tract.
What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:
- The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
- The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.
The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.
The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.
The brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
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What Is The Name Of The Smallest Part Of The Human Brain
Keeping this in consideration, what is the name of the biggest part of the human body?
What is the largest part of the brain and its function?
Cerebrumcerebrumlargest partbrainbrain functioncerebral
Is the cerebellum The largest part of brain?
What Is A Brain Atlas
A brain atlas is a brain map or a template which becomes the ‘standard’ against which brain abnormalities can be measured.
According to the study, a brain atlas helps researchers compare findings from different brain imaging methods like Magnetic Resonance Imaging and functional MRI , or between healthy and diseased brain states, or across individuals.
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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain
There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.
Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.
What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?
The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:
What Are The Four Nuclei Of The Cerebellum
As the three lobes take in information from the cerebrum, spinal cord and body, the cerebellum also has a way of sending out information. This is done through what are called nucleia bundle or neurons embedded deep in the cerebellum’s white matter.
Rounding out cerebellum’s composition are the four nuclei that pass information between the cerebrum and the body. These nuclei are: dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastcgi. They receive on the body and give information from the cerebellum through Purkinje cells and mossy fibers.
Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The final section of the brain is a mass of tissue and nerves called the brain stem. Located underneath the cerebrum and cerebellum, the brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. All information that goes from the brain to the body , must pass through the brain stem to reach its destination. The brain stem accounts for the remaining 5% of the brain’s mass, and is , the oldest part of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for regulating the heart and lungs, communications between the brain and the peripheral nervous system , our sleep cycle, and coordinating reflexes.
The brain stem plugs the brain into the rest of the body through the spinal cord .