Wednesday, May 25, 2022

What Is Your Brain Made Of

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Weight Training Changes The Brain

Is Your Brain Really Made of FAT?

Weight training may have benefits for brain health, at least in rats. When rats lift weights, they gain strength and also change the cellular environment inside their brains, improving their ability to think, according to a notable new study of resistance training, rodents and the workings of their minds.

The study finds that weight training, accomplished in rodents with ladders and tiny, taped-on weights, can reduce or even reverse aspects of age-related memory loss. The finding may have important brain-health implications for those of us who are not literal gym rats. Read more> > >

Cerebrum The Cerebrum Is The Largest Part Of The Brain It Is Divided Into 2 Halves Called The Left And Right Cerebral Hemispheres The 2 Hemispheres Are Connected By A Bridge Of Nerve Fibres Called The Corpus Callosum The Right Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Left Side Of The Body The Left Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Right Side Of The Body The Cerebral Cortex Is The Outer Folded Part Of The Brain It Is Also Called The Grey Matter The Cerebral Cortex Is Mostly Made Up Of The Cell Bodies And Dendrites Of Nerve Cells Cell Bodies Contain The Nucleus And Other Main Parts Of The Cell Dendrites Are The Short Branching Fibres That Receive Signals From Other Nerve Cells The Inner Part Of The Cerebrum Is Called The White Matter It Is Mostly Made Up Of The Long Fibres Of A Nerve Cell That Send Signals To And From The Brain To The Rest Of The Body The Fatty Coating That Surrounds Axons Gives This Part Of The Brain A Whitish Appearance Each Hemisphere Is Divided Into 4 Sections Called Lobes These Include The Frontal Parietal Temporal And Occipital Lobes

Each lobe has different functions:

The frontal lobe controls movement, speech, behaviour, memory, emotions and intellectual functions, such as thought processes, reasoning, problem solving, decision-making and planning.

The parietal lobe controls sensations, such as touch, pressure, pain and temperature. It also controls the understanding of size, shape and direction .

The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory and emotions. The dominant temporal lobe also controls speech.

The occipital lobe controls vision.

Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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Can Your Brain Grow Bigger

Bigger is slightly better. The human brain continues to grow until it reaches its peak size in the third to fourth decade of life. An MRI study of 46 adults of mainly European descent found that the average male had a brain volume of 1,274 cubic centimeters and that the average female brain measured 1,131 cm3.

How Hungry Are Our Brains

Your Brain Structure  What is the Brain Made Of?

Despite the fact that the human brain is not a very large organ, its functioning requires a whole lot of energy.

Although the brain weighs only 2 percent of the body , it alone uses 25 percent of all the energy that your body requires to run per day, Herculano-Houzel explained in a presentation.

And why does the brain need so much fuel? Based on studies of rat models, some scientists have hypothesized that, while most of this energy is expended on maintaining ongoing thought and bodily processes, some of it is probably invested in the upkeep of brain cells health.

But, according to some researchers, at first sight, the brain, seemingly inexplicably, uses up a lot of energy during what is known as the resting state, when it is not involved in any specific, targeted activities.

According to James Kozloski, Inactivity correlated networks appear even under anesthesia, and these areas have very high metabolic rates, tipping the brains energy budget toward a large investment in the organisms doing nothing, he writes.

But Kozloskis hypothesis is that no large amount of energy is spent for no reason so why does the brain seem to do it? In fact, he says, it doesnt.

Energy spent doing nothing, he says, is actually put toward assembling a map of accumulating information and experiences that we can fall back on when making decisions in our day-to-day lives.

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How Much Of Your Brain Is Water

The human brain is comprised of 77 to 78 percent water. Lipids, or fats, contribute 10 to 12 percent to brain mass, proteins make up 8 percent, 2 percent is composed of soluble organic substances, and carbohydrates and inorganic salts each contribute 1 percent.

Although composed primarily of water, the brain requires a sufficient daily intake of water to function properly. Brain cells that are deprived of too much water lose efficiency. Dehydration can cause impairment to the attention span, short-term memory, long-term memory and mathematical abilities.

The medical condition hydrocephalus, commonly referred to as water on the brain, is not actually caused by the presence of too much water in the brain. Rather, it is caused by a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid, the clear, colorless liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Hydrocephalus can occur at any time during human development and may be caused by birth defects, infections, brain hemorrhage, strokes, tumors or trauma to the head. Hydrocephalus is typically treated by one of two surgical procedures: the insertion of a drainage system called a shunt or a procedure known as endoscopic third ventriculostomy, in which tiny holes are made in the brain’s ventricles to drain the fluid.

What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

  • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
  • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

Reading Out Loud Uses Different Brain Circuits Than Reading Silently

How Emotions are made in your Brain

Reading aloud promotes brain development. Children first learn to read by speaking words out loud. Once that knowledge is established, then they learn to read to themselves. Its indeed one of the strange facts about the brain because we usually teach our children to read and talk politely. But to promote brain development in your child, you should read and talk aloud in front of them.

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Introduction: The Human Brain

A false-colour Magnetic Resonance Image of a mid-sagittal section through the head of a normal 42 year-old woman, showing structures of the brain, spine and facial tissues

The brain is the most complex organ in the human body. It produces our every thought, action, memory, feeling and experienceof the world. This jelly-like mass of tissue, weighing in at around 1.4 kilograms, contains a staggering one hundred billion nerve cells, or neurons.

The complexity of the connectivity between these cells is mind-boggling. Each neuron can make contact with thousands or even tens of thousands of others, via tiny structures called synapses. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives. The pattern and strength of the connections is constantly changing and no two brains are alike.

It is in these changing connections that memories are stored, habits learned and personalities shaped, by reinforcing certain patterns of brain activity, and losing others.

Exercise Is Just As Good For Your Brain As It Is For Your Body

Aerobic exercise raises your heart rate and increases blood flow to your brain. As your increased breathing pumps more oxygen into your bloodstream, more oxygen is delivered to your brain. This leads to neurogenesisor the production of neuronsin certain parts of your brain that control memory and thinking. Neurogenesis increases brain volume, and this cognitive reserve is believed to help buffer against the effects of dementia.

It has been noted that exercise promotes the production of neurotrophins, leading to greater brain plasticity, and therefore, better memory and learning. In addition to neurotrophins, exercise also results in an increase in neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically serotonin and norepinephrine, which boost information processing and mood.

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Can You Make Your Brain *not* See This Circle Illusion

This is not a spiral, no matter how much your brain yells at you that it is. Credit: Akiyoshi Kitaoka

I have two warnings for you about this article: One is that its possible the images displayed here will make you feel a bit dizzy, even nauseated. Im serious if that happens, you might want to close the page.

The other is that Im about to destroy your brain. Fairly warned be ye, says I.

Its been a while since Ive written about a mind-melting optical illusion, and oh, my, do I have a good one for you today. Are you ready?

These are two concentric circles. Seriously! Credit: Akiyoshi Kitaoka

Take a good look at that image, if you can. Every time I do, my brain tries to leap out of my head.

When you look at one part of the image, it almost appears as if the other parts are changing. The shape shifts, and its almost as if parts of the structure disappear, like falling into your eyes blind spot.

But heres the amazing part: What youre seeing are two concentric circles.

Its true! Here, check out this side-by-side comparison:

See? Concentric circles. Credit: Akiyoshi Kitaoka

I took the original image and used Photoshop to simply draw circles in the image. See! They really are circles, and they really are concentric. If you dont believe me, then try it for yourself use software like Photoshop or Gimp and draw circles, or hold up something circular to your monitor. As much as your brain tells you otherwise, these really are two nested circles.

So, whats going on here?

Easy Ways To Make Your Brain Smarter And Faster

What is the brain made out of ?

Each of us has been gifted with a smart and amazing brain but most of us do not utilize it to its full potential. Since we all know that what we do not use is likely to wither and waste away, it is very important to do stuff that can make the brain smarter and faster. Making your brain smarter and faster doesnt always mean that you have to keep studying or become a reclusive bookworm. There are many simple tips and tricks that can make your brain faster, sharper and smarter and they usually involve lifestyle and dietary changes alongside some behavioral traits that can flex the grey matter. So here are the easy ways to make your brain faster and smarter.

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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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Best Brain Exercises To Make Your Brain Sharper

As you age, your brain will start to decline. Fortunately, practicing some brain exercises every day can help delay that decline from happening. There are many ways you can keep your mind sharp and healthy, such as learning a new language or practicing guided meditation. The following list of brain exercises can help improve your mental performance with little effort or strain, so you can confidently practice this form of self-care today.

Your Brain Uses 20% Of The Oxygen And Blood In Your Body

The Brain for Kids – What is the brain and how does it work?

Your brain needs a constant supply of oxygen. As little as five minutes without oxygen can cause some brain cells to die, leading to severe brain damage. Also, the harder you think, the more oxygen and fuel your brain will use from your blood up to 50%.

Every minute, 750-1,000 milliliters of blood flows through the brain. This is enough to fill a bottle of wine or liter bottle of soda.

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Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have

The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”

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An Adult Brain Weighs About 3 Pounds

The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brains weight, and the brain makes up about 2% of a humans body weight. The texture of the brain is like a firm jelly. The heaviest normal human brain weighed 4.43 pounds. It belonged to the Russian Writer Ivan Turgenev. And the smallest brain, just 2.41 pounds, belonged to a woman.

Does Brain Training Software Work

What Happens in Your Brain When You Make Memories?

Lumosity, a website founded by Michael Scanlon, Kunal Sarkar and David Drescher, certainly has confidence, in the age old notion, that brain exercises really can make a difference.

They were perhaps the first , of an ever growing trend. Other brain-exercising and training software programs include CogniFit, CogMed, Mind Sparke and Jungle Memory.

Neurologist, Dr. Carolyn Leaf has a series called Switch on the Brain. Her software presents the concept that cortical mapping and remapping of the brain is possible.

Co-founder Michael Scanlon began developing the Lumosity website, after he dropped out of Stanford, where he was pursuing a PHD in neuroscience. Recently, the reports are that over 50 million people have become members of the website, and the mobile app continues to be downloaded thousands of times every day.

In 2007, Susanne Jaeggi, and other researchers published their Columbia University study, which pointed to short-term memory gains and IQ increases from digital brain training.

Thomas Redick and colleagues at Georgia Tech tested 17 varied cognitive tasks, including those that tested working memory, fluid intelligence, multitasking, and discernment speed. Overall, the Redick findings were that Jaeggi had been optimistic and there were no universal permanent improvements, only short-term, specific enhancements.

Over the 13 years since Jaeggi published, cognitive improvement research has continued. Some show more promise than others.

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