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What Led To The Formation Of Political Parties Brainly

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What Is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions

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Question 1.Define Democracy. Sate two merits and demerits of democracy.Answer:Democracy is a form of government which is chosen by the people to work for their welfare and can be changed by them.Merits:

  • Democracy is the best form of government as the rulers are accountable to the people and have to fulfil their needs.
  • Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. This reduces the chance of hasty and irresponsible decisions from being taken and improves the quality of decision making.

Demerits:

  • Leaders keep changing in democracy. This leads to instability.
  • Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.

Question 2.How elections in India are different from Mexico?Answer:

  • Both the countries have a multi-party system. In case of India, political parties in power often loose elections whereas in case of Mexico PRI did not loose a single election for more than 70 years.
  • Elections in India are held after every 5 years whereas in case of Mexico elections are held after 6 years.
  • Government officials work under the Election Commission during the election days whereas this is not true for Mexico.

Question 3.Assess any three conditions that apply to the way a democratic government is run after the elections.Answer:

Question 5.Democracy is all about political competition and powerplay. There is no scope for morality. Justify the statement by giving arguments against democracy.Answer:

Allocation Of Time To Candidates And Parties

Internationalstandards generally encourage direct access broadcasting, particularly in newdemocracies.

Accordingto the EU, particularly in a media system characterised by a privateaudio-visual media sector shaped along political lines, state broadcasters havea particular responsibility to be a genuine public service and create a forumfor all campaign messages during the election period.

Anelectoral framework will need to stipulate about how media are to allocatedirect access broadcasts. Legislation to this extent must be comprehensive andcarefully worded. Problems can easily result from vague rules and procedures.For example, according to the OSCE who observed the 2001 election inKazakhstan, there was onfusion in the provisions on direct access toairtime regarding candidates and parties and the timing of slots, as well as afailure to differentiate between established and new parties in terms of suchaccess. This report by OSCE also states that there were no provisions to allowmedia to refuse to broadcast a campaign advertisement , nor to protect media outlets from liability for statements madein campaign advertisements.

PaidAdvertising, Free Access, or a Mixture of the Two?

HowIs Access Time or Space Divided?

Timingof Slots

Willthere be regulation about the times that slots are broadcast? If everyone is toget a chance to broadcast in peak time, how can slots be allocated? What orderwill the parties be allowed to broadcast in?

WhoPays – and Who Makes the Programme?

Criticism Of Politicians And Government

Internationaltribunals – and increasingly national ones as well – are clear that politiciansand governments may be subject to greater criticism and insult than ordinaryprivate individuals and that consequently the law will offer them lessprotection. This is due to the fact that politicians bear great responsibilityfor leadership and representation of their constituents and their country, andbecause they have greater access to remedies than most ordinary people. Ofcourse the situation that has so often prevailed is the opposite: governmentofficials often invoking charges such as criminal defamation against critics.

Internationallaw also distinguishes between factual allegations and opinions. Politicalopinions may only be restricted in the most extreme circumstances. They cannotbe restricted on the grounds that they are “untrue” since, as theEuropean Court of Human Rights observed, to require someone accused ofdefamation to prove the truth of an opinion “infringes freedom of opinionitself”.

While freedom of expression is important for everybody, it isespecially so for an elected representative of the people. He represents hiselectorate, draws attention to their preoccupations and defends theirinterests. Accordingly, interferences with the freedom of expression of anopposition Member of Parliament… call for the closest scrutiny on the part ofthe Court.

Lingens v.Austria, Judgment of 8 July 1986, Series A no. 103.

Castells v. Spain,Judgment of 23 April 1992, Series A no. 236

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Viii Parties Query Unofficial Results

Some parties and candidates became uncomfortable with the continued announcement of results while the Malawi Electoral Commission had not issued any result.

Their argument was that the unofficial results were projecting other candidates as winners. They argued that this created unnecessary tension among the electorate, and they urged the Electoral Commission to address the situation.

Barely a day into the extension of the voting period, one of the contesting parties, the United Democratic Front, held a press briefing on May 21, 2014 urging the Commission to stop media houses from broadcasting unofficial results, claiming that the results were having an impact on the electorate who were yet to vote.

The party argued that broadcasting of the unofficial results had an influence on the electorate especially towards those who were said to be already leading. MEC needs to do something to stop the announcements because it is not healthy as some people are yet to cast their votes. This has an impact as some voters might give up or might be compelled to vote for those who are already in the lead, the partys publicity secretary, Ken Ndanga was quoted as saying.

A Proportional Electoral System

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In a proportional electoral system, however, parties advertise who is on their candidate list and voters pick a party. Then, legislative seats are doled out to the parties based on the proportion of support each party receives. While the Green Party in the United States might not win a single congressional seat in some years thanks to plurality voting, in a proportional system, it stands a chance to get a few seats in the legislature regardless. For example, assume the Green Party gets 7 percent of the vote. In the United States, 7 percent will never be enough to win a single seat, shutting the Green candidates out of Congress entirely, whereas in a proportional system, the Green Party will get 7 percent of the total number of legislative seats available. Hence, it could get a foothold for its issues and perhaps increase its support over time. But with plurality voting, it doesnt stand a chance.

Moving to a proportional electoral system would involve the abandonment of the winner-take-all approach and would increase the number of parties in the U.S. system.

While a U.S. ballot for first-past-the-post elections features candidates names, the ballots of proportional representation countries list the parties. On this Russian ballot , the voter is offered a choice of Social Democratic, Nationalist, Socialist, and Communist parties, among others.

  • The Electoral College and Electoral Voting
  • Demobilized Ethnic Groups
  • Campaign and Election Laws

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Facilitate Development Of Political Awareness

Many people, including people with disabilities, and especially the poor, may have low levels of political awareness, e.g. they may not know how to vote or may be unaware of the existence of national laws regarding disability rights or international conventions, such as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. To encourage political participation, CBR programmes can:

  • encourage adults with disabilities to join literacy programmes
  • ensure people with disabilities have access to advocacy and rights-based training
  • link people with disabilities to self-help groups and disabled people’s organizations, where they can learn useful skills for political participation, e.g. public speaking, problem-solving, campaigning
  • ensure children and adolescents are included in activities where they have the opportunity to express their opinions, think and make decisions, and understand the consequences of their actions.

What Is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Important Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.With the help of an example, prove that a democratic government is a more accountable form of government.Answer:We can take the example of India. In India, the government is accountable to the citizens. Government policies in India are based on the democratic values. It is able to respond to the needs of the people. It holds multi-party elections. It has opposition parties to criticize the government. Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find it out. This is known as transparency. So, this shows democracy produces a government which follows the procedures and is accountable to the government. A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens right. Democracy provides a method to deal with difference and conflicts. It is suitable in countries like India. India has diversity of language, religion and culture. It is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct our own tnistakes. Democracy also increases the dignity of the citizens, because it is based on the principle oApolitical equality. This means that the poorest and the least educated have the same status as the rich and educated.

Question 3.Why is democracy considered to be the best option among all other political systems available in world? Explain.Answer:

Arguments Against Democracy:

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United States: Bringing The Bloggers To Heel

Successive US Presidential elections have been hailed as marking the advent of the Internet election. However, the 2004 election did indeed see the arrival of a phenomenon that few had even heard of four years earlier: blogging. Blogs a contraction of web logs, or online diaries were considered by many commentators to have been highly influential. Many of the most celebrated bloggers were political conservatives who were thought to have made a major contribution to the re-election of the Republican incumbent, George W. Bush.

However, even before the 2004 election, a US District Court judge had ruled that the Federal Election Commission should apply the law on campaign finance to the Internet. When the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act was passed in 2002, the FEC decided that the Internet should be exempt from its provisions. The McCain-Feingold law was an attempt to address the issues of soft money spending that is ostensibly unrelated to the campaign itself and sham issue ads, that is advocacy apparently unconnected with the campaign that in fact serves to boost a particular candidate.

The BCRA defined public communications as any form of general public political advertising. Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly in the US District Court was particularly critical of the FEC regulation excluding the Internet from this definition:

Media Ownership And Elections

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Ownershiphas an enormous bearing on the nature of a media outlets elections coverage or, for that matter, any political coverage. State and government owned mediaare under direct state or ruling party control and may therefore tend towardfavouring incumbent parties or candidates. Public Service Broadcasting acts independently of any political body, but is often financially supported bythe state. Privately-owned media may be independent, but may also serve thepolitical interests of their proprietors. In some countries, these proprietorsmight be political parties and candidates themselves. Community media may tendto focus only on specific issues that pertain to the specific community itserves. The nuances go further: economics, trust, and historical context allcontribute to the dynamics of differently owned media. Yet, undoubtedly, it is the establishment ofthe right diversity and balance within the media ownership landscape that is oneof the keys to fostering democratic processes in any given country, not leastfair and free elections.

First,it is important that we know what is meant by each of the media types:

All of these ownership types include bothtraditional and new media. There are significant overlaps between the aboveownership models, and the categorisations are simplified here for ease ofdiscussion.

MediaOwnership in the Context of Elections

Media Ownership in the Global Context

ChristinaHoltz-Bacha and Lynda Lee Kaid, Political Advertising In

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Right Of Access To Government Media

Thereis a growing weight of decisions by national tribunals on the right ofopposition parties to access to the government media. There is a clear trendtowards recognizing that governments have an obligation to ensure such access.This was the approach taken by the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinionand Expression in his 1999 report.

Since the petitioners were not allowed to publish their viewson political matters through the government newspapers, and by necessaryimplication even through the radio and TV, they were denied the enjoyment oftheir freedom of expression …

Thecourt then made a more general comment on the proper role of publicly-ownedmedia:

In the case of newspapers they are supposed to be run on thebasis of journalistic principles and ethics free from any outside interference.These principles dictate the coverage of all newsworthy events regardless ofthe source of such news. Anything less than this, and it is very easy for thegeneral public to assess whether or not a given newspaper is working accordingto sound journalistic principles and ethics, is not acceptable from a publiclyowned medium – print or other.

TheHigh Court of Trinidad and Tobago had earlier made a similar finding inrelation to television. The state-owned television station had refused tobroadcast a pre-recorded speech by an opposition member of parliament. Thecourt ruled that this action violated the right to freedom of expression:

Arthur Wina& Others v. the Attorney-General HP/1878 .

Internet Restriction During Elections

Dr. Miguel Angel Lara Otaola

In Pakistan, every year the government citing concerns of public safety- shuts down the internet in major cities across the country during holidays such as Eid and Ashura. What is an internet shutdown and what does it mean? An internet shutdown is an intentional disruption of Internet or electronic communications, rendering them inaccessible or effectively unusable, for a specific population or within a location, often to exert control over the flow of information . Usually done by the government, these blackouts may be used for limiting internet but can also be extended to communications networks including social media, messaging, mobile services and SMS, effectively placing individuals on a digital curfew

Between January 2016 and September 2017 116 government-ordered internet shutdowns affected at least 30 different countries including Bahrain, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Ukraine . India alone experienced 22 disruptions in 2016, making it the country with the most number of shutdowns. And the trend is rising. This is demonstrated by researchers from the University of Washington, who since 1995 have identified situations where governments deliberately interfered with the operation of the internet. While between 1995 and 2001 there were less than 10 disruptions per year globally, 111 situations were identified in 2010 alone .

References

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Nation Building In Afghanistan

Afghanistan as a unified entity has existed since the 18th Century, when Ahmed Shah Durrani brought together the fractious Pashtun tribes and conquered the Tajiks, Uzbeks and other peoples living in what is now known as Afghanistan . Almost three centuries later the state building project he initiated is still a work-in-progress, with strong local traditions and tribal systems of governance offsetting the Kabul-centric notion of central government. In addition, external powers, particularly Russia and Britain, fostered tribal allegiances as part of their 19th Century Great Game and as geopolitics changed they were joined by the US, the USSR, India, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and China.

Afghanistans location at the crossroads of empires has given it a rich cosmopolitan heritage based on Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and numerous local faiths. It is also ethnically diverse, with at 14 ethnic groups identified in the National Anthem although Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara predominate. The countrys mountainous geography and diverse agricultural base has militated against centralization, and while the central government has installed provincial and district-level governments, these are dominated by local power brokers who use their status to further personal or tribal agendas.

Public Media: State Government And Public Service Broadcasting

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The state, specific governments,or the public, own a large proportion of the world’s media – especially radioand television. The term public media is often used to refer to these forms of mediaownership. There are important distinctions between these forms however.

  • Public Service Broadcasting uses public money to broadcastin the interests of the public as a whole. They are often established bylaw, but they are non-partisan, not supporting a particular partyincluding the incumbent ruling party. PSBs are not-for-profit.
  • State and government media are owned by the state or thegovernment of the day and directlycontrolled by it. It may perform a public service function or it may be apropaganda instrument of the state or government. State and government mediais also generally not-for-profit.

Thesemedia may be financed out of one or all of these sources:

  • A license fee paid bytelevision viewers
  • The government budget
  • A programming fee paid bypartner stations
  • Public subscriptions andgrants
  • Commercial advertising

Thesedifferent revenue sources have potential implications for the broadcaster’sday-to-day independence. A license fee, advertising, and other revenues that donot go directly through the government budget may make it easier for thebroadcaster to maintain a distance from government .

Widely-acceptedprinciples for PSBs include:

  • Universalaccessibility

1. Communityownership and control

2. Communityservice

3. Communityparticipation

4. Anon-profit business model

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What Led The Formation Of Political Parties

Answer: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson led partisan political factions or parties into the national elections of 1796.

Explanation: Washington even sought advice from two opposing partisan leaders, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Displayed here is a draft of Washington’s Farewell Address, which Hamilton helped write.

The factors that lead to the formation of political parties:

The formation of political parties happened during 1787 when there was a struggle over ratification of the federal Constitution between two parties, Federalists and Anti-Federalists.

The shortcomings of Articles of Confederation induced lengthy debates and presentation of documents, pamphlets led to spiralling effects and conflicts. Some of the shortcomings of Articles of Confederation include:

  • Devoid of executive branch to constitute and enforce any acts passed by the Congress
  • There was only single vote in Congress for each states, irrespective of sizes of States
  • Lack of regulation with respect to foreign and interstate commerce
  • Non existence of national court system
  • Need of laws and amendments to pass any laws
  • The debate between two parties, Federalists and Anti-Federalists was the norm of the days as Federalists was supporting ratification of Constitution while Anti-Federalists was against it.

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