Understanding Parts Of The Brain
Learn about the parts of the brain and how dementia damages them, as well as about the symptoms the damage causes.
Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.
A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.
The Lobes Of The Brain
Each hemisphere of the brain is divided into functional sections known as lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain. They are:
- Frontal lobe: Located at the front of the brain, right behind the forehead. The frontal lobe is quite large, occupying about one-third of the cerebral cortex’s total mass, and it controls personality, behavior, emotional regulation, and the ability to plan, solve problems, and organize.
- Parietal lobe: Located near the back and top of the head, above the ears. The parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial concepts. The function of the left and right parietal lobes do not completely mirror each other, with the dominant parietal lobe controlling speech and logic, while the non-dominant parietal lobe controls spatial skills and creativity. In fact, a stroke affecting the non-dominant parietal lobe can produce its own set of problems, including disorientation and an inability to recognize one’s own body.
- Occipital lobe: A small region located at the back of the head. The occipital lobe is responsible for the integration of vision.
- Temporal lobe: Located at the side of the head above the ears and below the frontal lobe. The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory, speech, and comprehension.
Newer Implications Related To Lesions In Broca’s Area
Since studies carried out in the late 1970s it has been understood that the relationship between Broca’s area and Broca’s aphasia is not as consistent as once thought. Lesions to Broca’s area alone do not result in Broca’s aphasia, nor do Broca’s aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in Broca’s area. Lesions to Broca’s area alone are known to produce a transient mutism that resolves within 36 weeks. This discovery suggests that Broca’s area may be included in some aspect of verbalization or articulation however, this does not address its part in sentence comprehension. Still, Broca’s area frequently emerges in functional imaging studies of sentence processing. However, it also becomes activated in word-level tasks. This suggests that Brocas area is not dedicated to sentence processing alone, but supports a function common to both. In fact, Broca’s area can show activation in such non-linguistic tasks as imagery of motion.
Broca’s area as a key center in the linking of phonemic sequences
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Where Is The Temporal Lobe Located
Doctors sometimes refer to the temporal lobe as a pair of lobes, since the region crosses both left and right brain hemispheres, including one temporal lobe on each side. Like the brain’s other three lobes, the temporal lobe is located in the forebrain. Biologists believe this is the newest portion of the brain to have evolved, since it is only present in vertebrates.
The temporal lobe is so named because of its proximity to the temples. It is positioned toward the base of the center of the cortex, just behind the temples. Like all other brain regions, it is not a standalone organ. Instead, the temporal lobe interacts with and depends upon input from all other brain regions, as well as sensory input about the surrounding world. In this way, the temporal lobeand the brain it supportsis a dynamic organ.
Rather than controlling the mind, it learns from the environment, creating a complex mind-body-environment interplay that constantly changes a person’s subjective experiences. Though every temporal lobe has a similar structure, the experiences produced in each person’s temporal lobe are uniquely their own.
Auditory Cortex And Angular Gyrus
The primary auditory cortex, located in the temporal lobe and connected to the auditory system, is organized so that it responds to neighboring frequencies in the other cells of the cortex. It is responsible for identifying pitch and loudness of sounds.
The angular gyrus, located in the parietal lobe of the brain, is responsible for several language processes, including number processing, spatial recognition and attention.
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Pituitary Gland Controls Growth
The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.
This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.
Computation And Reasoning Problems
Finally, a left-side brain injury may cause difficulties with math and logic skills.
It may also affect abstract reasoning and organization skills. People with left hemisphere damage often struggle to keep their thoughts straight, which may make problem-solving more difficult.
Some other cognitive skills that left hemisphere injuries can affect include:
- Ability to gather and sort information
- Strategy and planning
These skills are comprised of a group of abilities known as executive functions. Speech therapists are exceptional at creating exercises to help you improve these functions.
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Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia
Degeneration of the angular gyrus in the temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe can lead to lvPPA. Typical symptoms include slowed speech with normal articulation, impaired comprehension of sentence syntax as well as impaired naming of things. lvPPA is probably associated with Alzheimers disease pathology.
Can You Live 20 Years After A Stroke
Long-Term Mortality Rate Study, Ages 1850 The majority of the 959 patients studied suffered from ischemic stroke. The study found that, among 30-day survivors, the risk of death by the twentieth year mark was highest for ischemic stroke patients, at 26.8 percent, with TIA sufferers close behind at 24.9 percent.
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Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms
Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.
The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a full list of the secondary effects of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.
Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:
Language And The Dominant Side Of The Brain
Shereen Lehman, MS, is a healthcare journalist and fact checker. She has co-authored two books for the popular Dummies Series .
The brain has two hemispheres that are two identical-appearing halves. The functions of the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere virtually mirror each other, with the right side of the brain controlling the left half of the body’s movement, sensation, vision, and hearing, while the left side controls the right half of these functions.
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Interesting Facts About Your Frontal Lobe
Check out some interesting facts about your frontal lobe:
- The frontal lobes are the largest of the lobes in your brain. Theyre located at the front of your brain. Its estimated they make up about one-third of your cerebrum.
- The frontal lobe of primates, particularly humans, is much larger than those of other species. You might say the frontal lobe is the most important area for our various human skills, such as reasoning and language.
- The frontal lobes are extensively connected with nerve pathways to other areas of the brain, reinforcing their importance in a vast array of functions. As such, damage to the frontal lobes may cause a ripple effect to other parts of the brain.
- Your frontal lobes are the last areas of your brain to mature. In some cases, they may not be fully developed
The Cerebrum And Cerebral Cortex
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is covered in a thick layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex. Interior to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex is the white matter portion of the cerebrum. The white color comes from the layer of insulation called myelin that is on the neurons in this part of the brain.
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres that are joined by a band of nerves which allow communication between the two halves. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.
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Cortical Strokes Vs Subcortical Strokes
Before we dive into the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke, you should know the difference between cortical vssubcortical strokes.
The cerebral cortex/cerebrum is a large part of the brain that includes 4 lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Strokes in these regions are known as a cortical strokes.
Aside from the cerebrum, there are subcortical structures thatlie deep within the brain. Strokes in these areas of the brain are also knownas subcortical strokes.
The arteries that supply the subcortical areas of the brain are smaller and more delicate. Subcortical strokes are often hemorrhagic strokes due to the fragile arteries bursting, often from high blood pressure.
There are many differences between cortical and subcortical strokes. For example, cortical strokes often impact higher level functioning and its uncommon for subcortical strokes to result in language difficulties.
We will discuss other patterns next!
General Inability To Speak And Understand Language
Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.
People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .
PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.
Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.
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Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
Correspondence Strategies Brain Controls Speech: Some Dos And Donts
- Ensure you have the individualâs consideration before you begin.
- Limit or wipe out foundation clamor .
- Keep your voice at a customary level, except if the individual has shown something else.
- Keep correspondence straightforward, yet a grown-up. Work on your own design and lessen your pace of discourse. Underline watchwords. Try to not âtalk downâ to the individual with aphasia.
- Give them a chance to speak. Fight the temptation to end sentences or deal words.
- Speak with signals, composing, drawings, and looks
- Affirm that you simply are discussing effectively with âyesâ and ânoâ questions.
- Recognition all endeavors to speak and make light of any mistakes. Try to not demand that every word be created impeccably.
- Participate in typical exercises sooner instead of later. Try to not protect individuals with aphasia from family or disregard them during a gathering discussion. Maybe, endeavor to incorporate them in family dynamic however very much like could reasonably be expected. Keep them educated regarding occasions however try to not trouble them with everyday subtleties.
- Empower freedom and take a look at to not be overprotective.
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The Pituitary Growth Of Control Of The Gland
The pituitary gland is very short only about the size of a pea, Its task is to produce and release hormones into the body. This gland is also an essential player during adolescence.
This is the time when the bodies of boys and girls are subject to major changes, because they slowly become men and women, all thanks to the hormones released by the pituitary gland.
What Does The Temporal Lobe Control
The temporal lobe is not a standalone organ. It directly interacts with other regions of the brain, and sends and receives signals to and from the spinal cord, allowing it to communicate with the entire body. Thus damage to the temporal lobe can affect functioning in far-flung organs, and damage to organs completely unrelated to the temporal lobe may impede its ability to receive, process, and respond to various cues.
Because the temporal lobe houses much of the limbic system, the temporal lobe is both heavily influenced by and influences a number of automatic bodily functions, including heart rate, arousal, anxiety, and similar states. Over time, disruptions in these states can affect other bodily functions. For example, early childhood trauma predisposes some people to a chronic state of anxiety that keeps them in a state of fight-or-flight. This floods the body with hormones such as cortisol, and can lead to chronic inflammation, and even health problems such as infertility.
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Does The Temporal Lobe Control Facial Recognition
The temporal lobe of the brain is partly responsible for our ability to recognize faces. Some neurons in the temporal lobe respond to particular features of faces. Some people who suffer damage to the temporal lobe lose their ability to recognize and identify familiar faces. This disorder is called prosopagnosia.
Risks Of Damage To The Frontal Lobe
Seizures. Some seizure disorders are caused by damage to â or a malformation in â the brain’s frontal lobe. Seizures impact your motor abilities and speech. Your doctor will assess your seizures and determine which region of your frontal lobe may be impacted.
Personality and social skills. Because the frontal lobe is large and in the front of your skull, it is susceptible to damage. Any damage may contribute to changes in your social behavior. Damage may impact your spatial orientation and coordination of your facial muscles.
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The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
Which Part Of The Brain Controls Balance Example With Picture
The brain controls the capability to think, speak, feel, see, hear, remember, walk and many other things. It controls even your breath. The brain is a spongy mass of carrying tissues and nerves connected to the spinal cord.
Few nerves in the brain go direct to the eyes, ears and other parts of the head. Other nerves attach the brain to other parts of the body through the spinal cord to control the personality, senses, and functions of the body from breathing to walking.
Together with the brain, spinal cord, and nerves from the central nervous system.
The cerebral brain, a big, outside part of the brain, controls reading, thinking, learning, speech, emotions and planned muscle movements, such as walking. It also controls sight, hearing and other senses.
The brain is split into two cerebral hemispheres : left and right. The right side half part controls the left side of the body. The left side half part controls the right side of the body.
Each hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each tab controls specific functions. For example, the frontal lobe controls personality, decision making, and reasoning, while the temporal lobe controls memory, speech, and sense of smell.
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