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What Organ System Does The Brain Belong To

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What Are 5 Facts About The Nervous System

Modern ways of studying the brain | Organ Systems | MCAT | Khan Academy

11 Fun Facts About the Nervous System

  • The body has billions of nerve cells.
  • Neurons are made of three parts.
  • Neurons may look different from one another.
  • Neurons are programmed to do different things.
  • There are two parts of the nervous system.
  • There are two types of nervous systems.
  • The involuntary system is broken down into three parts.

How Does The Central Nervous System Differ From Other Systems Of The Body

Most systems and organs of the body control just one function, but the central nervous system does many jobs at the same time. It controls all voluntary movement, such as speech and walking, and involuntary movements, such as blinking and breathing. It is also the core of our thoughts, perceptions, and emotions.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

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Neurotransmitters Are The Activators Of The Nervous System

Nervous system messages travel through neurons as electrical signals. When these signals reach the end of a neuron, they stimulate the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters travel across synapses, spaces between neurons or between neurons and other body tissues and cells. Neurotransmitters can be classified as two types: excitatory or inhibitory. Excitatory neurotransmitters stimulate electrical signals in other neurons and encourage responses from body cells. Inhibitory transmitters discourage signals and cellular responses. Through these chemicals, the nervous system regulates the activity of muscles, glands, and its own nerve pathways.

Structure And Function Of The Spine

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The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.

Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.

Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.

Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.

Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.

Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.

Between the vertebrae are the discs .

Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.

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Problems Of The Nervous System

Some common problems of the nervous system include:

  • Epilepsy storms of abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing seizures
  • Meningitis inflammation of the membrane covering the brain
  • Multiple sclerosis the myelin sheaths protecting the electrical cables of the central nervous system are attacked
  • Parkinsons disease death of neurones in a part of the brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking and problems with movement
  • Sciatica pressure on a nerve caused by a slipped disc in the spine or arthritis of the spine and, sometimes, other factors
  • Shingles infection of sensory nerves caused by the varicella-zoster virus
  • Stroke a lack of blood to part of the brain.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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How The Spinal Cord And Internal Organs Work Together

In addition to the control of voluntary movement, the central nervous system contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways that control the “fight or flight” response to danger and regulation of bodily functions. These include hormone release, movement of food through the stomach and intestines, and the sensations from and muscular control to all internal organs.

This diagram illustrates these pathways and the level of the spinal cord projecting to each organ.

What Organs Are Part Of Two Systems

Early methods of studying the brain | Organ Systems | MCAT | Khan Academy


Two Organs Systems It Belongs To
Mammary glands

Keeping this in view, what organs are in two systems?

Some organs are in more than one system. For example, the nose is in both the respiratory system and also is a sensory organ in the nervous system. The testes and ovary are both part of the reproductive systems and endocrine systems.

Furthermore, what 2 organ systems does the prostate gland belong to? The prostate gland belongs to the male reproductive system.

Keeping this in consideration, what organ is included in more than one organ system?

An organ can be part of more than one organ system. For example, the ovaries produce hormones, which makes them a part of the endocrine system the ovaries also make eggs, which makes them a part of the reproductive system as well.

What are the 12 organ systems?

They are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

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Male And Female Reproductive Systems

The reproductive system is the only body system that differs substantially between individuals. There is a range of Biological sex, but most books divide them into male and female. We will discuss the Biology of sex in detail in the reproductive and development chapters.

Feature: Human Biology in the News

Organ transplantation has been performed by surgeons for more than six decades, and youve no doubt heard of people receiving heart, lung, and kidney transplants. However, you may have never heard of a penis transplant. The first U.S. penis transplant was performed in May of 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The 15-hour procedure involved a team of more than 50 physicians, surgeons, and nurses. The patient was a 64-year-old man who had lost his penis to cancer in 2012. The surgical milestone involved grafting microscopic blood vessels and nerves of the donor organ to those of the recipient. As with most transplant patients, this patient will have to take immunosuppressing drugs for the rest of his life so his immune system will not reject the organ. The transplant team said that their success with this transplant holds promise for patients with devastating genitourinary injuries and disease. They also hope their experiences will be helpful for gender reassignment surgery.

How Can I Keep My Nervous System Healthy

Just like other parts of your body, your brain needs sleep for rest and repair, so a good regular sleep schedule is key. A healthy balanced diet that features foods high in omega-3 fatty acids is important, too. Those include fatty fish like salmon, albacore tuna, mackerel, herring, and farmed trout.

Stress also can affect your nervous system, but you can do a few things to manage it:

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The Peripheral Nervous System

The organs of the peripheral nervous system are the nerves and ganglia. Nerves are bundles of nerve fibers, much like muscles are bundles of muscle fibers. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves extend from the CNS to peripheral organs such as muscles and glands. Ganglia are collections, or small knots, of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS.

The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into an afferent division and an efferent division. The afferent or sensory division transmits impulses from peripheral organs to the CNS. The efferent or motor division transmits impulses from the CNS out to the peripheral organs to cause an effect or action.

Finally, the efferent or motor division is again subdivided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system, also called the somatomotor or somatic efferent nervous system, supplies motor impulses to the skeletal muscles. Because these nerves permit conscious control of the skeletal muscles, it is sometimes called the voluntary nervous system. The autonomic nervous system, also called the visceral efferent nervous system, supplies motor impulses to cardiac muscle, to smooth muscle, and to glandular epithelium. It is further subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Because the autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary or automatic functions, it is called the involuntary nervous system.

Neurons In Nervous Tissue Relay Rapid

Body Systems

All nervous tissue, from the brain to the spinal cord to the furthest nerve branch, includes cells called neurons. Neurons are charged cells: they conduct electrical signals to pass information through the body. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon with an axon terminal. The dendrites receive signals from body tissues or other neurons and pass them into the cell body. If an outgoing signal is produced, it zips down the axon to the axon terminal and passes to the next neuron or target cell. This conductive capability sends information up and down nerve pathways and through the central nervous system at incredible speed. Some 100 billion neurons give the brain its awesome processing power.

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The Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system. One of its main roles is to regulate glands and organs without any effort from our conscious minds.The autonomic nervous system is made up of two parts: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. These systems act on the body in opposite ways. Together, they coordinate a multitude of adjustments required for our changing personal needs as we move through our environment. For example, the size of our pupils is adjusted automatically to allow the correct amount of light into our eyes for optimum vision, our sweat glands are turned on when we get too hot and our salivary glands produce saliva when we eat food .

Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

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How The Spinal Cord And Muscles Work Together

The spinal cord is divided into five sections: the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions. The level of injury determines the extent of paralysis and/or loss of sensation. No two injuries are alike.

This diagram illustrates the connections between the major skeletal muscle groups and each level of the spinal cord. A similar organization exists for the spinal control of the internal organs.

What Conditions Can Affect Your Nervous System

Human body systems: nervous system – the brain

Your nervous system has lots of protection. Your brain is guarded by your skull, and your spinal cord is shielded by small bones in your spine and thin coverings . Theyâre both cushioned by a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.

Still, things can go wrong with your nervous system just like any other part of your body. When a disorder damages it, that affects the communication between your brain, your spinal cord, and your body. Examples of these disorders include:

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Organization Of The Nervous System

Although terminology seems to indicate otherwise, there is really only one nervous system in the body. Although each subdivision of the system is also called a “nervous system,” all of these smaller systems belong to the single, highly integrated nervous system. Each subdivision has structural and functional characteristics that distinguish it from the others. The nervous system as a whole is divided into two subdivisions: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system .

The Human Body Systems Guide

The human body is actually an amazing coalition of many different systems that work together to keep everything functioning correctly. For example, some systems handle food and energy, while others focus on taking in oxygen and moving it around the body. By learning about the different systems working inside the body, you can understand how everything works together to keep you healthy, growing, and strong.

Nervous System

Your brain and spinal cord are the major parts of the central nervous system. Different parts of your body send messages to the brain through the nerves and spinal cord. Once your brain gets these messages, it responds by interpreting the messages and reacting. The brain can then send instructions out to the body.

Endocrine System

The endocrine system takes care of many different things. This system sends hormones out through the body, which are chemicals that tell cells what to do. Under the care of the endocrine system, lots of different activities occur. For instance, the body sleeps at night and wakes up in the morning, cells grow, and organs function in certain ways.

Respiratory System

Circulatory System

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What Is The Central Nervous System

The central nervous system controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.

The brain is the center of our thoughts, the interpreter of our external environment, and the origin of control over body movement. Like a central computer, it interprets information from our eyes , ears , nose , tongue , and skin , as well as from internal organs such as the stomach.

The spinal cord is the highway for communication between the body and the brain. When the spinal cord is injured, the exchange of information between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.

How Does It Work

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The messages traveling in your nerves are sent through billions of nerve cells called neurons. The spaces between these cells are called synapses. The cells are linked to one another through chemicals called neurotransmitters that move across the synapses to the next neuron. Dopamine and serotonin are types of neurotransmitters.

This process continues until the message gets to the right place. Some messages move faster than 200 miles per hour.

This is also how messages get from your body back to your brain and spinal cord. For example, if you step on something sharp, the nerves in your foot send a message from neuron to neuron to your central nervous system that says, Hey, this hurts. Your brain and spinal cord respond with a message to your foot: Pull away now.

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The Brain And Spinal Cord Are The Central Nervous System Nerves And Sensory Organs Make Up The Peripheral Nervous System

Together, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systems transmit and process sensory information and coordinate bodily functions. The brain and spinal cord function as the control center. They receive data and feedback from the sensory organs and from nerves throughout the body, process the information, and send commands back out. Nerve pathways of the PNS carry the incoming and outgoing signals. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves connect the brain to eyes, ears, and other sensory organs and to head and neck muscles. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord to tissues of the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Each nerve is responsible for relaying sensory information, sending motor commands, or both.

Functions Of The Cranial Nerves

Each of the 12 cranial nerves has a specific function within the nervous system.

  • The olfactory nerve carries scent information to the brain from the olfactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity.
  • The optic nerve carries visual information from the eyes to the brain.
  • Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves all work together to allow the brain to control the movement and focus of the eyes. The trigeminal nerve carries sensations from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication.
  • The facial nerve innervates the muscles of the face to make facial expressions and carries taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve conducts auditory and balance information from the ears to the brain.
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve carries taste information from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and assists in swallowing.
  • The vagus nerve , sometimes called the wandering nerve due to the fact that it innervates many different areas, wanders through the head, neck, and torso. It carries information about the condition of the vital organs to the brain, delivers motor signals to control speech and delivers parasympathetic signals to many organs.
  • The accessory nerve controls the movements of the shoulders and neck.
  • The hypoglossal nerve moves the tongue for speech and swallowing.

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