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What Part Of The Brain Controls Arousal

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So What Part Of The Brain Controls Sexual Arousal

3 Brain Systems That Control Your Behavior: Reptilian, Limbic, Neo Cortex | Robert Sapolsky

It is known that sex begins in the brain, but it is less known that the areas of the brain destined for sexual activity are greater in the male brain. Does this mean that men and women are destined to enjoy sex differently? The answer is no.

The fact is that in order to have a complete sexual experience, the joint and simultaneous work of almost all parts of the brain is necessary, whether it is a man or a woman.

The occipital lobe is used when you see a very low-cut dress or a T-shirt that marks the biceps. If you place your hands there, signals of what you feel reach the parietal lobe in the opposite hemisphere, warns Norwegian neuroscientist Kaja Nordengen.

The recognition of what you find attractive occurs, however, in the frontal lobe, with the collaboration of the limbic system.

With the help of the frontal lobe, the focus of your attention is concentrated on what attracts you and you pay much less attention to the rest of the things around you. In addition, the activation of different regions of the cerebral cortex are also completely decisive all hormonal changes, which are also controlled by the brain, she adds.

The neurologist at Akershus University Hospital in Oslo, where she received her doctorate in 2014, also points out that while many different regions of the brain work together in a complete sexual experience, it is enough, in fact, to stimulate the cortex in the brain between the hemispheres to produce erections in primates.

Areas Involved With Social Interpretation

In addition, they were also able to verify that sexual desire not only sets in motion brain areas involved in the perception of sensory and emotional stimuli from the person but also the structures related to the social interpretation of the emotions and desires of others, he explains. the investigation.

When comparing love with sexual desire, activity in the ventral striatum, hypothalamus, amygdala, somatosensory cortex, and inferial parietal lobe was reduced.

These reductions are in line with sexual desire as a state of mind with a very specific goal, while love could be seen as a behavior with a more abstract, flexible and complex goal, less dependent on the physical presence of another person.

In addition, love is associated with certain areas of the brain that are related to motivation, expectation, and habit formation.

Although love and desire share a pattern of emotional, motivational and cognitive activation of the brain areas, our review also reveals specific patterns of activation of each of these phenomena.

That love is located in a certain area of the striatum, associated with drug addictions, could explain that love is really a habit that is formed by a sexual desire that is fed back through a reward. It works the same the way drugs do in the brain in addicted people, says Pfaus.

Of course, the addiction relationship occurs when the object of our love leaves abruptly. We enter a state of withdrawal in which we feel depressed and we long for the other .

The Role Of Genes And Neurotransmitters

Chemical signals to sleep

Clusters of sleep-promoting neurons in many parts of the brain become more active as we get ready for bed. Nerve-signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters can switch off or dampen the activity of cells that signal arousal or relaxation. GABA is associated with sleep, muscle relaxation, and sedation. Norepinephrine and orexin keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake. Other neurotransmitters that shape sleep and wakefulness include acetylcholine, histamine, adrenaline, cortisol, and serotonin.

Genes and sleep

Sleep studies

Your health care provider may recommend a polysomnogram or other test to diagnose a sleep disorder. A polysomnogram typically involves spending the night at a sleep lab or sleep center. It records your breathing, oxygen levels, eye and limb movements, heart rate, and brain waves throughout the night. Your sleep is also video and audio recorded. The data can help a sleep specialist determine if you are reaching and proceeding properly through the various sleep stages. Results may be used to develop a treatment plan or determine if further tests are needed.

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The Brain Is Flexible: Neuroplasticity

The control of some specific bodily functions, such as movement, vision, and hearing, is performed in specified areas of the cortex, and if these areas are damaged, the individual will likely lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For instance, if an infant suffers damage to facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he or she will never be able to recognize faces . On the other hand, the brain is not divided up in an entirely rigid way. The brains neurons have a remarkable capacity to reorganize and extend themselves to carry out particular functions in response to the needs of the organism and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and rewires existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers to the brains ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. Neuroplasticity enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.

Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate themselves as skin or blood vessels can, new evidence suggests that the brain can engage in neurogenesis, the forming of new neurons . These new neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate to other brain areas, where they form new connections with other neurons . This leaves open the possibility that someday scientists might be able to rebuild damaged brains by creating drugs that help grow neurons.

The Brain Map Of Love And Sexual Desire

Optimal Arousal

Where does love originate? And desire? What role does the brain play in sex drive? Science has spent years trying to explain, with data in hand, what factors intervene in the generation of these feelings. A review of studies now shows the areas of the brain that share desire and love, and also the differences in the neural patterns that each generates.

Multiple studies have analyzed the biochemical and neuroendocrine responses that are generated both in love and desire. It is known that in couple relationships, in addition to two people, a group of hormones are involved, among which are oxytocin, serotonin or vasopressin.

However, a comprehensive vision of the neural networks that occur in each of these feelings was lacking.

The main purpose of our study is to offer a meta-analysis of all functional resonance imaging studies on sexual desire and love to better understand the different brain activations and the common pathways they share, they explain in their work researchers from different universities such as Concordia or Geneva .

Jim Pfaus, the lead author of this study, explains that love and desire have different patterns in the brain, but they coincide significantly in cortical and limbic structures, such as the insula and the striatum.

This is the case for both women and men, something that we did not expect since they tend to believe that they think differently in relation to love and sex .

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Model Predictions And Hypotheses

The two presented models assume that a degree of hierarchy exists between the neural circuits that govern sleep as well as among those that govern arousal. The presence of such hierarchy as well as the communication among the various nodes are a crucial aspect of the models discussed above. The layered model would predict several aspects of sleep-wake dynamics that are testable with current technology. For instance, the presented models imply that caudal sleep-wake centers have a stronger overall effect on an animal’s behavioral state. Using an optogenetic approach, we would predict that stimulating sleep-promoting terminals in caudal regions, like the PZ would have a stronger sleep-promoting effect than stimulating terminals from the VLPO in the LH. We would also expect that stimulating local terminals would have stronger effects than more distant terminals since PZ projects to more rostral sleep-promoting centers. Similarly, the model would predict that stimulation of caudal wake-promoting regions such as the PB will produce increased wakefulness in comparison to the stimulation of more rostral wake-promoting regions.

Potential Boundary Conditions And Questions For Future Research

In this article, we have argued that arousal leads to winner-take-more and loser-take-less effects in perception and memory via local and global noradrenergic mechanisms in the brain. Yet, although the GANE model explains many findings observed in the emotioncognition literature, there are a number of important questions for future research.

Arousal may not increase selectivity as effectively among older adults because of age-related changes in the LCNE system, including loss of LC neurons . Recent autopsy evidence indicates that lower LC neuron density is related to the rate of cognitive decline prior to death, even after controlling for decline in other aminergic nuclei . – and 2-adrenoreceptors may also be affected in aging . Decreases in 2-adrenoreceptor activity may contribute to age-related cognitive declines because agonists that engage 2A-adrenoreceptors can improve age-related deficits in working memory , potentially via 2A-induced improvements in the ability to maintain focused attention . Aging also affects how effectively glutamate triggers additional NE release , which would disrupt the emergence and/or efficacy of NE hotspots in older adults.

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Early Signs Of Empathy And Concern For Others

Even newborns show early, premature form of concern for others as evidenced by stronger distress in response to another infant’s crying . Although this attests to a strong, natural reaction to others’ emotional states, this behavior has been called empathic distress , because it consists of self-distress, rather than other-oriented response . Hoffman’s developmental theory proposed that because young infants are incapable of distinguishing between self and other, they cannot show actual concern for another person, only empathic self-distress. More recently, however, this view has been challenged. In fact, similar to older children and adults, young infants’ self-distress reactions to the distress of another stem from difficulties in regulation arousal, rather than from confusion between self and other . Empathic concern in humans has been documented as early as 68 months of age and continues to develop until adulthood , while studies on younger ages are still needed. Importantly, these early signs of concern for others do not necessitate verbal abilities nor advanced theory of mind , and research indicates a modest increase in empathy with age . However, as children grow up and become increasingly sophisticated social actors, they can learn to regulate their empathy, so that it is more likely to occur toward familiar, close, or deserving individuals .

N.D. Schiff, in, 2009

Sleep Disorders And Sleep

The Amygdala: Jump Scares, Pain and Arousal

There are many sleep disorders that can influence sleep. They range from narcolepsy, which results in excessive fatigue, to insomnia, which makes it hard to get enough sleep. Sleep researchers are hard at work learning more about sleep and sleep disorders in order to help people get the sleep that they need. If you struggle with a sleep disorder, talk to your doctor or see a sleep specialist to help protect your brains health.

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Effects Of Physiological Arousal On Cognition

The effects of physiological arousal on cognition cause individuals to be active, attentive, or excited.The term physiological refers to physiology and concerns the normal functioning of an organism. Physiological arousal refers to features of arousal reflected by physiological reactions, such as escalations in blood pressure and rate of respiration and lessened activity of the gastrointestinal system.These terms are what allow for the effects physiological arousal has on cognition itself.

Cognition is internal mental representations best characterized as thoughts and ideas- resulting from and involved in multiple mental processes and operations including perception, reasoning, memory, intuition, judgement and decision making. While cognition is not directly observable, it is still amenable to study using the scientific method. Cognition is also something that plays a fundamental role in determining behavior. Goes into explaining cognitive functions and how they are internal and inferred from behavior using measure like accuracy in performing a task like recalling a list of words of the time taken to find some word on a page of text.The study of cognitive functions derive from the information processing approach which argues that these functions involve operations occurring at various processing stages is typically based on a model of cognitive function of interest.

Anticipated behaviors examples

Functions Of The Cortex

When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

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Physiological Interpretation Of The Attention

We speculate that several thalamic nuclei situated in the ventrolateral region are involved in the interaction between arousal and attention. The somatosensory relays, the ventrolateral nucleus , the centromedian nucleus , the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus , and the nucleus reticularis are likely to be the target of top-down modulation of information flow, as suggested previously for other thalamic nuclei . In particular the nucleus reticularis appears to be the best candidate for the interaction between arousal and attention because it receives axonal collaterals from the corticothalamic, thalamocortical, and midbrain reticular formation projection systems .

This account suggests that the greater change in thalamic activity when subjects are performing the attentional task in a state of low arousal may reflect an enhancement of top-down modulation of multimodal inputs necessary to prevent the physiological shift of activity of the thalamocortical system toward incipient neuronal synchronization and the onset of sleep .

This process may represent a sort of compensatory mechanism, a âwindow of activationâ operating in extreme physiological conditions in which the arousal and attentional systems interact to modify the output of the thalamocortical system. We speculate that the thalamus has to âwork harderâ in conditions of low arousal to achieve a performance that is equal to that obtained during normal arousal.

Local Control Of Sleep Promoting Systems

About the Brain  Headway Thames Valley

Like wakefulness, sleep is a globally coordinated state although it can also be regulated locally . In contrast to wake-active neurons, non-REM sleep or NREM-rapid eye movement sleep active neurons contain inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA, glycine, and galanin. So far, NREM and NREM-REM sleep-active neurons have been identified in the parafacial zone in the brainstem, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus and median preoptic nucleus, melanin-concentrating hormone containing neurons, a subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain, and Nos interneurons in the cerebral cortex.

Unless many more undiscovered sleep-promoting regions exist, it is likely that there are more wake-promoting loci than sleep-promoting loci. Unlike the wake-promoting systems, the existing sleep-promoting centers project to and act on wake-active neurons, with the strongest enervation within a layer , although wider and sparser projections exist. For example, the sleep-active PZ projects to the wake-active PB , and Nos neurons inhibit wake-active pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex . While more in-depth functional neuroanatomic circuit mapping is needed, sleep-active populations of neurons from different layers do not appear to connect directly to each other. That is, the PZ does not appear to directly innervate other sleep-active neurons such as those within the VLPO, median preoptic area, or BF. In summary, sleep nodes, unlike wake nodes, are not networked together.

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A Discrete Event System Model Of The Arousal System

Figure 3. A modified version of the system in Zhong and Wonham illustrating hierarchical control of a DES and encompassing the unison of the states attained in Glo and Ghi as contributing to the aggregate result. The resultant signal A represents an arousal state such as wake or sleep with the contributions to the fusion center being the output of the neural circuits of various brain regions. Since high-level control by Chi can be realized through the implementation of the lower level components , the DES is an appropriate model for the pyramidal structure governing the arousal system. The hierarchy is in-place but the interactions among the component must be further specified as they will determine whether the populations of wake and sleep promoting neurons exceed/not-exceed thresholds associated with wake and sleep, respectively.

Zhong and Wonham consider a five-tuple of variables to study a two-level controlled discrete-event system . Their work advances prior DES theory by presenting the notion of hierarchical consistency. We consider a simplified and less rigorous version of the DES model that consists of the low-level system being described by a four-tuple

Functional Neuroanatomy Of The Lcne System

Along with the dorsal ACC, the insula is a key node in a broader salience network that helps integrate different sources of saliency , guide adaptive behavior , and regulate shifts from rest to task-oriented behavior . On the basis of these findings, recent models of the salience network propose that it mediates competitive interactions between antagonistic attention networks that prioritize internal versus external stimuli . Current data suggest that the LCNE system modulates salience network activity. For example, -adrenoreceptor blockade during stress reduces salience network activity , and salience network activity is associated with pupil and autonomic responses to errors and overall arousal . In neuroimaging studies, the LC co-activates with the dorsal anterior cingulate during the detection of novel stimuli and during task switching , a proposed function of the salience network.

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