Sunday, September 25, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Autonomic Functions

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Disorders Of Autonomic Nervous System

People with an autonomic disorder may have trouble regulating more than one system. The common symptoms are fainting, fluctuating blood pressure, and lightheadedness. 

  • Autonomic failure
  • It is a rare degenerative disorder of the autonomic nervous system. There is a general loss of autonomic functions. For example, there is reduced sweating and lacrimation, elevated blood pressure, and sexual dysfunction. 

  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Orthostatic hypotension is the sudden drop in blood pressure on standing upright. it is a disorder in which the autonomic nervous system fails to constrict the blood vessels when a person stands up. The main complication of orthostatic hypotension is falling due to fainting.

  • Afferent Baroreflex failure
  • The damage to the blood pressure sensing nerves in the neck leads to failure of the baroreflex. It causes fluctuations in the blood pressure, making it too high or too low. Symptoms of this autonomic disorder include fainting, headaches, and dizziness.

    The Structure Of Reflexes

    One difference between a somatic reflex, such as the withdrawal reflex, and a visceral reflex, which is an autonomic reflex, is in the efferent branch. The output of a somatic reflex is the lower motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that projects directly to a skeletal muscle to cause its contraction. The output of a visceral reflex is a two-step pathway starting with the preganglionic fiber emerging from a lateral horn neuron in the spinal cord, or a cranial nucleus neuron in the brain stem, to a ganglionfollowed by the postganglionic fiber projecting to a target effector. The other part of a reflex, the afferent branch, is often the same between the two systems. Sensory neurons receiving input from the peripherywith cell bodies in the sensory ganglia, either of a cranial nerve or a dorsal root ganglion adjacent to the spinal cordproject into the CNS to initiate the reflex . The Latin root effere means to carry. Adding the prefix ef- suggests the meaning to carry away, whereas adding the prefix af- suggests to carry toward or inward.

    Comparison of Somatic and Visceral ReflexesFigure 1. 

    What Part Of The Brain Controls Fear

    From a biological standpoint, fear is a very important emotion. It helps you respond appropriately to threatening situations that could harm you.

    This response is generated by stimulation of the amygdala, followed by the hypothalamus. This is why some people with brain damage affecting their amygdala dont always respond appropriately to dangerous scenarios.

    When the amygdala stimulates the hypothalamus, it initiates the fight-or-flight response. The hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce hormones, such as and cortisol.

    As these hormones enter the bloodstream, you might notice some physical changes, such as an increase in:

    • heart rate
    • blood sugar
    • perspiration

    In addition to initiating the fight-or-flight response, the amygdala also plays a role in fear learning. This refers to the process by which you develop an association between certain situations and feelings of fear.

    The Old Brain: Wired For Survival

    The brain stem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. Its designed to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses . The brain stem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla, the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing. In many cases the medulla alone is sufficient to maintain life animals that have the remainder of their brains above the medulla severed are still able to eat, breathe, and even move. The spherical shape above the medulla is the pons, a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.

    Running through the medulla and the pons is a long, narrow network of neurons known as the reticular formation. The job of the reticular formation is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and to relay the remainder of the signals to other areas of the brain. The reticular formation also plays important roles in walking, eating, sexual activity, and sleeping. When electrical stimulation is applied to the reticular formation of an animal, it immediately becomes fully awake, and when the reticular formation is severed from the higher brain regions, the animal falls into a deep coma.


    The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata

    Research group: Autonomic Nervous System and Pain  English

    Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

    Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.


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    Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy

    Your autonomic nervous system lies almost entirely outside of the central nervous system and involves two main parts: the craniosacral part , and the thoracolumbar part . These are sometimes thought of as being opposite to each other, ultimately striking a balance within the body. The parasympathetic is associated with relaxation, digestion, and generally taking it easy. The sympathetic is responsible for the “fight or flight” response.

    One of the interesting things about the autonomic nervous system is that, almost without exception, the nerves in a clump of nerves called a ganglion before the message is transmitted to the target organ, such as a salivary gland. This allows for another level of communication and control.

    When To See A Doctor

    Autonomic disorders can be serious. People who experience symptoms of an autonomic disorder should see a doctor for a full diagnosis.

    Talking to a doctor is particularly important for people with diabetes or other conditions that can increase the likelihood of autonomic disorders.

    To diagnose the cause of ANS symptoms, a doctor will first assess a persons medical history for risk factors.

    A doctor may also request one or more of the following:

    • Tests to detect orthostatic hypotension: A doctor may measure OH using a tilt-table test. In this test, a person lies on a bed that tilts their body at different angles while a machine records their heart rate and blood pressure.
    • Electrocardiogram: This test measures electrical activity within the heart.
    • Sweat test: This test assesses whether the sweat glands are functioning correctly. A doctor uses electrodes to stimulate the sweat glands and measures the volume of sweat they produce in response to the stimulus.
    • Pupillary light reflex test: This test measures how sensitive the pupils are to changes in light.

    What Does The Brain Do

    The brain controls what we think and feel, how we learn and remember, and the way we move and talk. But it also controls things we’re less aware of like the beating of our hearts and the digestion of our food.

    Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

    When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

    Control Of Biological Rhythms

    Rhythmic activity is generated by the ncl. suprachiasmaticus. Rhythmic hypothalamic processes extend into practically all other functions of the hypothalamus as sympathetic tone, hormone secretion, regulation of temperature, intake of food and fluids, sexual function, emotion, and immune processes.

    Other relationships include relation to sleep , immunity , and changes in the tone of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic-immune interactions particularly affect the secondary lymphoid organs and are believed to increase preparedness for escape/attack. Relation to memory , complex behavior , control of metabolism , sensory function and relation to the motor system ninvoluntary movements, extrapyramidal tract, basal ganglia).

    What Part Of The Brain Controls Your Ability To Exercise

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    Different areas of your brain give you the ability to perform a variety of exercises. The brain is the control center for the body, and every move you make and every breath you take originates in the brain. For this reason, most of the areas of the brain are involved in movement and exercise.

    Location And Basic Physiology

    In vertebrate anatomy, the brainstem is the most inferior portion of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the brain and spinal cord. The brainstem gives rise to cranial nerves 3 through 12 and provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Though small, it is an extremely important part of the brain, as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain that communicate with the peripheral nervous system pass through the brainstem. This includes the corticospinal tract , the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway and the spinothalamic tract . The brain stem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It regulates the central nervous system and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle.

    Anatomy Of The Autonomic Nervous System

    The role of the central nervous system in maintaining ...

    The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that supplies the internal organs, including the blood vessels, stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, bladder, genitals, lungs, pupils, heart, and sweat, salivary, and digestive glands.

    The autonomic nervous system has two main divisions:

    • Sympathetic

    • Parasympathetic

    After the autonomic nervous system receives information about the body and external environment, it responds by stimulating body processes, usually through the sympathetic division, or inhibiting them, usually through the parasympathetic division.

    An autonomic nerve pathway involves two nerve cells. One cell is located in the brain stem or spinal cord. It is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which is located in a cluster of nerve cells . Nerve fibers from these ganglia connect with internal organs. Most of the ganglia for the sympathetic division are located just outside the spinal cord on both sides of it. The ganglia for the parasympathetic division are located near or in the organs they connect with.

    What Part Of The Brain Controls Happiness

    Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.

    Imaging suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.

    A 2015 study found that people with larger gray matter volume in their right precuneus reported being happier. Experts think the precuneus processes certain information and converts it into feelings of happiness. For example, imagine youve spent a wonderful night out with someone you care about. Going forward, when you recall this experience and others like it, you may experience a feeling of happiness.

    It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.

    As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

    Dopamine is associated with your bodys reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.

    Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. Its also involved in social bonding with a partner.

    Divisions Of The Autonomic Nervous System

    • Consists of visceral efferent fibers
    • Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
    • Sympathetic neurons exit the CNS through the spinal nerves located in the lumbar/thoracic regions of the spinal cord
    • Parasympathetic neurons exit the CNS via cranial nerves and also spinal nerves located in the sacral spinal cord
    • There are always two neurons involved in nerve transmission: presynaptic and postsynaptic
    • Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are relatively short; postganglionic sympathetic neurons are relatively long
    • Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are relatively long; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons are relatively short
    • All neurons of the ANS are either adrenergic or cholinergic
    • Cholinergic neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter
    • Adrenergic neurons use norepinephrine as their neurotransmitter

    The Ans And Its Relationship To Private Subconscious Therapy

    Its important to note that this method is much about psycho-education as it is about psychotherapy and the aim is to resolve the Feeling Cause behind any present symptoms and discomforts. The following information highlights the physical stress on the body resulting from a perceived threat/stress that a person feels.

    To Desire Change Or Not: We usually only change our minds within our belief systems, once we are given new information that we agree with. Understanding the automatic functions between our emotions and the physical operations of the body can substantially contribute to our desired changes.

    Brain And Nervous System

    Youre in the middle of a meeting at work, but your mind keeps drifting to the parent-teacher conference you have tonight and the car you have to pick up at the shop on the way home and how you wish you hadnt skipped lunch because the rumbling in your stomach is driving you nuts. Then, suddenly, youre back in the moment, hoping nobody noticed your brief departure.

    It may seem as if your brain is always on the go. And it is. The brain not only controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk, but also many things youre less aware of such as the beating of your heart, the digestion of your food, and yes, even the amount of stress you feel. Like you, your brain is quite the juggler.

    Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System

    , MD, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic

    Some Drugs Used to Treat Symptoms of Autonomic Disorders

    The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. This system works automatically , without a persons conscious effort.

    Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive.

    Control Of Body Temperature

    The preoptic area in the hypothalamus is responsible for monitoring body temperature and for reactions to increases in temperature. Extreme increases in temperature are apparent when this area is injured or damaged. The area hypothalamica posterior contains neurons that do not directly monitor body temperature; however, they react to the information from peripheral and central thermoreceptors and activate output functions of thermoregulation. Output functions of thermoregulation are concentrated on the maintenance of adequate body temperature and protection of the organism against hypothermia.

    Short And Long Reflexes

    Somatic reflexes involve sensory neurons that connect sensory receptors to the CNS and motor neurons that project back out to the skeletal muscles. Visceral reflexes that involve the thoracolumbar or craniosacral systems share similar connections. However, there are reflexes that do not need to involve any CNS components. A long reflex has afferent branches that enter the spinal cord or brain and involve the efferent branches, as previously explained. A short reflex is completely peripheral and only involves the local integration of sensory input with motor output .

    Short and Long ReflexesFigure 3. Sensory input can stimulate either a short or a long reflex. A sensory neuron can project to the CNS or to an autonomic ganglion. The short reflex involves the direct stimulation of a postganglionic fiber by the sensory neuron, whereas the long reflex involves integration in the spinal cord or brain.

    Cooperative Effects Of Both Divisions


    • Reproductive system- sympathetic fibers stimulate ejaculation of semen and reflex peristalsis in females; parasympathetic fibers cause vasodilation, ultimately resulting in erection of the penis in males and the clitoris in females
    • Urinary system- sympathetic fibers stimulate the urinary urge reflex by increasing bladder tone; parasympathetic nerves promote contraction of the urinary bladder

    How The Brain Works

    Healthy Brain BasicsBeverly Engel

    Want to know what goes on inside that beautiful brain of yours? The short answer is: A LOT. This highly complex organ comprises several highly specialized parts. Though each part has a primary function, some parts play several roles, making some functions a product of many parts working together in harmony. Your memory, for instance, is built by the hippocampus, but organized by amygdala. The connection, communication and cooperation between these parts are what makes your brain such an efficient and amazing machine.

    The Hindbrain a.k.a. Reptilian Brain

    Our most primitive piece of brain anatomy is responsible for basic functions and primal instincts . It includes the following parts:

    Spinal Cord: This tubular bundle of nervous tissue serves as the main pathway between the brain and the central nervous system.

    Medulla Oblongata: The lower part of the brainstem controls breathing, digestion, heart rate, and other functions that you dont need to think about . It also relays nerve signals going to and from the brain.

    Pons: Located on the brainstem, the pons coordinates communication between the two brain hemispheres. It relays sensory information to the brain and plays a role in arousal, control of autonomic functions, and sleep.

    Cerebellum: Located at the bottom of the brain, the cerebellum regulates and coordinates movement, posture and balance. It also plays a part in the learning of movement.

    The Cerebral Cortex

    Psychology In Everyday Life: Why Are Some People Left

    Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only 10% are primarily left-handed . This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low, and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis .

    At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasound scans show that nine out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth , and the mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome . It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems .

    But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United States. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States .

    Where Do Emotions Come From

    The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.

    Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:

    • Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
    • Hippocampus. The helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
    • Amygdala. The helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
    • Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.

    Neurotransmitters And Receptors Of The Autonomic Nervous System

    Acetylcholine binds to two types of membrane receptor: muscarinic and nicotinic. Muscarinic receptors are located on the membranes of effector cells, between the terminals of the postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic cholinergic fibers and effector organs. Their activation exhibits a slower excitatory effect. Nicotinic receptors are localized to the membranes of ganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons, and their activation exhibits a rapid depolarization-excitatory effect on ganglionic neurons.

    Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. It binds to two types of membrane receptors: -adrenergic and -adrenergic. The results of the combinations are different responses of the effector organs. For example, stimulation of -receptors on vessel smooth muscle induces vasoconstriction, while stimulation of -receptors of bronchial smooth muscle induces bronchodilatation.

    There are inhibitory and excitatory synapses between neurons. Relatively recently, the third subsystem of neurons, known as non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters , has been described and found to be integral to autonomic function, particularly in the gut and lungs .

    Functions Of The Cortex

    When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig  applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

    Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

    Parasympathetic Nervous System And Your Heart

    There are a number of special receptors for the PSNS in your heart called muscarinic receptors. These receptors inhibit sympathetic nervous system action. This means theyre responsible for helping you maintain your resting heart rate. For most people, the resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute.

    On the other hand, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate. A faster heart rate pumps more oxygen-rich blood to the brain and lungs. This can give you the energy to run from an attacker or heighten your senses in another scary situation.

    According to an article in the journal from the American Heart Association, a persons resting heart rate can be one indicator of how well a persons PSNS, specifically the vagus nerve, is working. This is usually only the case when a person doesnt take medications that affect heart rate, like beta-blockers, or have medical conditions affecting the heart.

    For example, heart failure reduces the response of the parasympathetic nervous system. The results can be an increased heart rate, which is the bodys way of trying to improve the amount of blood it pumps through the body.

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