Thursday, April 21, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Blood Pressure

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The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

How Your Brain Controls Blood Pressure: UM Discovery Could Eventually Lead to Treatments

The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

  • The amygdala
  • Regions of the limbic cortex
  • The septal area

These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

What Are The Parts Of The Brain

The brain is made up of three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The Forebrain

The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain as well as some other structures under it.

The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes us who we are: our intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres. They’re connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers that lets them communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

  • The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.
  • The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

So when you’re balancing your checkbook, you’re using the left side. When you’re listening to music, you’re using the right side. It’s believed that some people are more “right-brained” or “left-brained” while others are more “whole-brained,” meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, and :

The Midbrain

Making Changes If You Have Anxiety Or Depression

If your high blood pressure is co-occurring with a mental health problem such as depression or anxiety, it can be even tougher to find the energy and motivation to make the necessary lifestyle changes. Just thinking about exercising or preparing a healthy meal, for example, can seem overwhelming. But by focusing all your efforts on one tiny change at a time, youll find that youre capable of more than you realized.

Take the first step. It could be as simple as going for a walk or downloading a meditation app or buying some nicotine patches. It can take time for lifestyle changes to register as a reduction in blood pressurebut sometimes they can improve your mood much sooner. Taking that first step is always the hardest.

Focus on small steps. Its easy to get overwhelmed by daily life when youre battling depression, anxiety, or another mood disorder. By taking small but positive steps each day, though, youll find that your energy and outlook will gradually start to improve. Once you feel happier and more positive, youll find it easier to forge ahead with lifestyle changes and see the results in both your blood pressure readings and your overall outlook and wellbeing.

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How Does The Brain Work

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

Can Your Brain Control Your Blood Pressure

Life Science 4.1: The Nervous System
Date:
University of Kentucky
Summary:
Can your brain control your blood pressure? Surgeons recently implanted the RheosR System into the first clinical trial patient. When the device was turned on, the patient’s blood pressure measurements significantly decreased. The patient reported no discomfort. The device is designed to reduce blood pressure by using small electrical signals to influence the body’s blood pressure regulation system, called the baroreflex. The Rheos System is a pacemaker-like device that is implanted under the skin in the upper chest cavity and connected to two leads that are placed on the carotid arteries.

It is a health concern that tens of thousands of people battle every day– the struggle to keep their blood pressure in check. Oftentimes, it involves numerous medications and lifestyle changes. In some cases even that combination is not enough, and patients are faced with potentially life-ending consequences. The struggles are real for many people around the world.

That is why a FDA-approved clinical trial at the UK College of Medicine is so important.

Surgeons recently implanted the RheosR System into the first clinical trial patient. When the device was turned on, the patient’s blood pressure measurements significantly decreased. The patient reported no discomfort.

High blood pressure affects about 72 million people in the United States.

Story Source:

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S To Lowering Your Blood Pressure

The first line of treatment for high blood pressure is to make healthy lifestyle changes:

  • Get active
  • Manage stress
  • Quit smoking
  • Its also important to take any antihypertensive medications your doctor recommends. There are many different types of medications available to control high blood pressure, so if one drug causes unpleasant side effects, your doctor can help you find a more suitable one.

    Even if your doctor also prescribes you medication to help tackle hypertension, controlling your weight, quitting smoking, improving your diet, managing stress, and getting regular exercise are critical for keeping your heart in shape and managing your blood pressure over the long term.

    If youve just been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease or have suffered a serious health event such as a stroke or heart attack, you may be experiencing a great deal of emotional upheaval. Its important to give yourself time to process the change in your health and be kind to yourself as you adjust to your new situation. But its also important to know there are plenty of things you can do to come to terms with your diagnosis and regain control of your health.

    Who Is Likely To Have A Stroke

    Anybody can have a stroke, but your risk increases with age. A family history of stroke or mini-stroke, also called a transient ischemic attack, increases your risk. People over age 65 account for two-thirds of all strokes.

    Males and people of African-American, Hispanic, Asian, or Pacific Islander descent are also at higher risk. However, women are more likely to die from stroke than men.

    Other conditions that increase your risk of stroke include:

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    What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

    Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

    Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

    Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

    Brain Heart And Kidney Correlate For The Control Of Blood Pressure And Water Balance: Role Of Angiotensinases

    Hypothalamus – Human Brain Series – Part 17

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    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

    The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

    How Does The Nervous System Work

    The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.

    All neurons, however, relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave.

    Intelligence, learning, and memory.;As we grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. It’s why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.

    In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child’s brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. That’s why many scientists believe it’s important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

    The Senses

    Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals we breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.

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    Researchers Uncover Mechanism Used By The Brain To Control Blood Pressure

    For decades, researchers have known that the brain controls the diameter of the peripheral arteries, the vessels that carry blood to the arms, legs, hands and feet. Electrical impulses from the brain travel to these arteries through a network of nerves known as the sympathetic nervous system, adjusting blood pressure levels.

    New research by scientists at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute and the University of Maryland School of Medicine has uncovered a pathway by which the brain uses an unusual steroid to control blood pressure. The results, published in the journal Public Library of Science One, point to new approaches for treating high blood pressure and heart failure.

    Control of the peripheral arteries by the sympathetic nervous system is essential for daily life, but this mechanism is often chronically overactive in patients with high blood pressure or heart failure. In fact, many drugs that help with hypertension and heart failure work by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

    However, these drugs can have serious side effects, such as fatigue, dizziness, depression and erectile dysfunction. These drawbacks have led to the search for novel ways to inhibit sympathetic nerve action while causing fewer problems for patients, said Frans Leenen, MD, PhD, Director of the Hypertension Clinic and Hypertension Research at the Heart Institute, and a principal author of the study.

    Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

    The Brain

    Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

    • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
    • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
    • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
    • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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    The Vasomotor Control Center

    The vasomotor center controls the size of the body’s blood vessels. When a person is stressed or in danger, the vasomotor center makes the blood vessels get smaller. This is part of the body’s “fight or flight” reaction. It causes more blood to go to the body’s most important organs, like the brain, heart, and lungs. This can help a person survive if they are in danger. It also makes the blood pressure go up.

    At other times, the vasomotor center makes the blood vessels get wider. This makes the blood pressure go down, and makes it easier for blood to get to some parts of the body.

    Major Factors That Affect Blood Pressure

    The major ways your body can regulate your blood pressure include: – Changing your heart beat: When your heart beats faster, more blood pumps through your vessels and blood pressure is higher. Similarly, when your heart beats with more forceful contractions, it pumps more blood with each beat, and pressure rises. – Contracting or expanding blood vessel walls: Blood vessel walls are muscular, which allows them to expand or contract. More narrow vessels cause faster blood flow and higher blood pressure . Dilated vessels are wider, allowing blood to flow easily . – Kidney function: Your body can also adjust your blood volume by controlling water retention and urination through kidney function . The higher your blood volume, the higher your blood pressure.

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    High Pressure High Risk

    High blood pressure is the leading cause of strokes, both symptomatic and silent. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension contribute to risk; the higher your pressure, the higher your risk. According to one Harvard study, hypertension increases a man’s risk of stroke by 220%; according to another, each 10 mm Hg rise in systolic pressure boosts the risk of ischemic stroke by 28% and of hemorrhagic stroke by 38%.

    That’s the bad news. The good news is that treating hypertension is extremely protective; in round figures, if you reduce your systolic blood pressure by 10 mm Hg, you should cut your risk of stroke by a whopping 44%.

    Therapeutic Targeting To Reduce Sna

    Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Part 3

    Current recommendations for the treatment of hypertension are broadly governed by the severity of the elevation in blood pressure and the coexistence of cardiovascular risk factors, complications and/or target organ damage., Standard treatment options include lifestyle modifications and pharmacological treatment blocker, -adrenoceptor blocker, calcium channel antagonist, diuretic and -adrenoceptor blocker). A thorough discussion of this topic is beyond the scope of the present review, but as might be expected the implementation of a specific lifestyle modification should be specific to the needs of the patient , while the choice of pharmacological treatment should be determined by several factors including the presence of co-morbidities , whether the patient has high cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance, and the extent to which the patient is responsive to treatment.,

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    How The Nervous System Works

    The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body.

    All neurons, however, relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave.

    Intelligence, learning, and memory. At birth, the nervous system contains all the neurons you will ever have, but many of them are not connected to each other. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving seemed to take so much concentration when you first learned but now is second nature: The pathway became established.

    In young children, the brain is highly adaptable; in fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part can often learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

    What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

    The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

    • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
    • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

    The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

    The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

    Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

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