Thursday, June 16, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Eating

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Binge Eating Tied To Brain

Which part of the human brain controls the urge for eating and drinking ? | 11 | NEURAL CONTROL …

Researchers say previous studies have shown that the release of pleasure chemicals in the brain — called opioids — control the desire to eat very tasty or highly palatable foods. These chemicals can increase the drive to eat fatty or sugary foods by up to 300%.

Using this reaction as a model for binge eating, researchers studied the effects of deactivating the area of the brain that controls emotions and motivation, the amygdala, in rats.

The tests showed that when this area was turned off, a surge of opioids in the brain had no effect on how much fat the rats ate and prevented the binge eating of fatty foods that normally accompanies the release of these euphoric chemicals.

In contrast, rats that had an intact amygdala and got a dose of opioids ate three times more than those given saline solution. But there was no binge eating among the rats with deactivated amygdalas that were given a shot of opioids.

The results of the study appear in a recent issue of the journal NeuroReport.

S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

Triglycerides That Mimic Dopamine

How do nutrients activate this reward circuit? Serge Luquets team has found a partial response to the question by focusing on the action of the triglycerides that circulate in the blood after a meal. We observed that triglycerides were able to communicate directly with the reward system. To understand why, we injected them directly into the carotid artery of mice to make sure they would reach the brain, he explains. This modified the dietary behaviour of the rodents by reducing their natural tendency to prefer fatty and sweet foods. The animals subsequently displayed a preference for a more balanced diet, showing that the reward associated with such foods had diminished.

In the brain, triglycerides are able to act like dopamine, in particular by reaching DRD2 neurons which respond to this hormone and reducing their activity, notes Serge Luquet. By entering the brain, the lipids interact with the dopaminergic circuits, thus modulating the desire and pleasure associated with food. At least in mice.

In humans exposed to appetising smells , MRI imaging has shown activation of the reward system. But the brains response to these odours is much weaker just after eating. Triglyceride levels in the blood are much higher after a meal, and we were able to demonstrate a strong correlation between elevated postprandial lipids and how the brain responds to a food trigger: triglycerides act as a signal in the brain to regulate the intake of pleasurable foods.

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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

How Does Our Brain Control Hunger

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It begins with a low murmur that we only learn about ourselves, but soon turns into an impossible to disguise roar that catches the attention of everyone around us.

Our guts are leaving us a clear message, there is hunger and if we do not eat soon it is possible that we begin to notice other signs such as weakness and irritability.

The appetite regulating center is located in the brain. The one in charge of carrying out this process is an enzyme called AMPK and according to a study by the Institute of Science and Technology of Daegu it is possible to modify its behavior.

The way the brain perceives that we need to eat has to do with the process by which we adjust our weight, so that there can be a balance between the energy provided by the food we eat and the expenditure made by our body.

AMPK plays an important role in this process, an enzyme complex present in most organs of the body liver, muscle, adipose cells.. which is related to a cellular recycling program, autophagy, which acts as a metabolic regulator: detects cellular energy and helps the cells energy balance and calorie consumption.

When we go without food for a long time, hunger-inducing neurons set off a process called autophagy, which is a natural self-destruct mechanism through which cells recycle and discard internal structures that are no longer useful to them.

In this case, they help us understand why our character can change so much when we are hungry.

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What Side Of Brain Controls Speech

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In this regard, which part of the brain is responsible for speech?

k?/, also UK: /br?k?/, US: /bro?k?/), is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the brain with functions linked to speech production.

One may also ask, what side of the brain controls memory? The medial temporal lobe in particular is thought to be involved in declarative and episodic memory.

Consequently, what part of the brain controls speech and motor skills?

The frontal lobes are the largest of the four lobes responsible for many different functions. These include motor skills such as voluntary movement, speech, intellectual and behavioral functions.

What controls the right side of the brain?

The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts.

How Does The Nervous System Work

The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.

All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.

In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

The Senses

Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.

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Memories Of Last Meal Influence The Next

Studies done in people support the idea that meal-related memory can control future eating behavior.

When researchers impair the memory of a meal by distracting healthy participants while they eat such as by having them play computer games or watch television people eat more at the next opportunity. The opposite is also true: enhancing meal-related memory by having people reflect on what they just ate decreases future intake.

Patients suffering from amnesia do not remember eating and will eat when presented with food, even if they have just eaten and should feel full. And memory deficits are associated with overeating and increased weightin relatively healthy people.

Weve started our search by focusing on a brain region called the hippocampus, which is absolutely vital for personal memories of what, where and when something happened to you.

Interestingly, hippocampal cells receive signals about hunger status and are connected to other brain areas that are important for starting and stopping eating, such as the hypothalamus. My colleagues and I reasoned that if hippocampal-dependent memory inhibits future eating, then disrupting hippocampal function after a meal is eaten, when the memory of the meal is being stabilized, should promote eating later on when these cells are functioning normally.

A New Regulator: The Gut

Which part of the human brain controls the urge for eating and drinking ? | 11 | TEST PAPER | BI…

For a long time, it has been well-accepted that these two circuits worked in parallel and managed the different components of food intake. Today, researchers are discovering a new mechanism regulating food intake, which is not located in the brain but in the periphery: the gut-brain axis, and more specifically one of its components, the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is the longest nerve in the body. The neurons contained in its ganglia ensure the interoceptive relay, i.e. communication between the brain and the viscera and viceversa.

In the study conducted by Dr. Chloe Berland and directed by Dr. Giuseppe Gangarossa, an associate professor at Université Paris Cité, the researchers of Central Control of Eating Behavior and Energy Expenditure team worked with mice whose behavior is similar to eating disorders associated with binge-eating. These mice, in addition to their usual food, were also given the opportunity to eat palatable food every day, but for only one hour. By giving the mice access to unlimited regular food, the scientists were able to focus primarily on the brain circuits underlying the control of hedonic food intake.

However, it would be too simplistic to consider this compulsive behavior as the result of only brains actions, since the mechanism bringing nutritional information to the brain is extensive and begins in the gastrointestinal tract.

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger

Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.

Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.

Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.

Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes

Understanding How Our Appetite Is Controlled And Influenced By Our Body And Brain Is Important For Countering The Worldwide Obesity Epidemic

Researchers in South Korea have uncovered mechanisms behind the enzyme that controls our appetite. Understanding how our appetite is controlled and influenced by our body and brain is important for countering the worldwide obesity epidemic.

To maintain a healthy energy balance, our appetite needs to increase or decrease, depending on our caloric intake through food and energy use in our daily lives. Previous research has shown that a region of the brain, known as the hypothalamus, senses levels of sugar and hormones in the blood, and uses these signals to regulate food intake. However, many questions remain about the mechanisms by which the hypothalamus does this.

Now a team of researchers at the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology has discovered that a low-glucose condition activates a hypothalamic enzyme called adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase , which changes the properties of small protein-like molecules, called neuropeptides, which our brain uses to communicate. It does so by taking advantage of a natural self-destruct mechanism called autophagy. This process allows our body to recycle and degrade cellular materials.

This story is reprinted from materials provided by the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology .

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Physiological Mechanisms Of Hunger And Eating

There are a number of physiological mechanisms that serve as the basis for hunger. When our stomachs are empty, they contract. Typically, a person then experiences hunger pangs. Chemical messages travel to the brain, and serve as a signal to initiate feeding behaviour. When our blood glucose levels drop, the pancreas and liver generate a number of chemical signals that induce hunger and thus initiate feeding behaviour.

For most people, once they have eaten, they feel satiation, or fullness and satisfaction, and their eating behaviour stops. Like the initiation of eating, satiation is also regulated by several physiological mechanisms. As blood glucose levels increase, the pancreas and liver send signals to shut off hunger and eating . The foods passage through the gastrointestinal tract also provides important satiety signals to the brain , and fat cells release leptin, a satiety hormone.

The various hunger and satiety signals that are involved in the regulation of eating are integrated in the brain. Research suggests that several areas of the hypothalamus and hindbrain are especially important sites where this integration occurs . Ultimately, activity in the brain determines whether or not we engage in feeding behaviour .

Figure EM.9 Hunger and eating are regulated by a complex interplay of hunger and satiety signals that are integrated in the brain

Effect Of Turning Neurons Off Then Back On

Your brain may eat itself when youre overtired: study ...

In my lab, we tested this prediction using optogenetics. This state-of-the-art method uses light to control individual cells in a behaving animal. We were able to inhibit hippocampal cells for 10 minutes before, during or after rats ate a meal.

To do this, we inserted a specific gene into hippocampal cells that caused these cells to immediately stop functioning as soon as we shined light of a certain wavelength on them. The cells remained inactive as long as we shined the light. Crucially, their function returned to normal as soon as we turned the light off.

We discovered that optogenetically inhibiting hippocampal cells after rats ate a meal caused the animals to eat their next meal sooner and caused them to eat almost twice as much food during that next meal. And remember, the hippocampal cells were working normally by the time the rats ate again. We saw this effect after the intervention whether the rats were offered rodent chow, a sugar solution, or water sweetened with saccharin.

That rats would eat more saccharin after we interfered with their hippocampal function is particularly interesting because saccharin is a noncaloric sweetener that produces very few of the gastrointestinal chemical signals normally generated by food. We concluded that the effect we saw after inactivating hippocampal cells is most likely explained by an effect on memory consolidation, rather than by an impaired ability to process GI messages.

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Satiety Neurocircuits Decrease The Activity Of The Reward System

The neurocircuitry of satiety is not as well-known as that of hunger. The general paradigm appears to be as follows: peripheral signals of positive energy balance, primarily hormonal, travel to the brain to inhibit the activity of hunger-producing neurocircuits. However, three populations of neurons within the CNS, defined by their neuropeptide content, are activated by these signals and directly influence the reward system. These are the POMC neurons of the Arc, the POMC neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius , and the preproglucagon neurons of the NTS. The NTS neurons integrate peripheral satiety signals, such as leptin, cholecystokinin , glucagon-like peptide 1 , and gut distention, to induce rapid satiety. The role of POMC neurons is more complex, but appears to reduce the immediate value of the food reward while maintaining future responsiveness to that same reward.

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Brain Region Mediates Pleasure Of Eating

Neurons in the amygdala link food consumption to reward

Providing the body with food is essential for survival. But even when full, we can still take pleasure in eating. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried and the Friedrich Miescher Institute in Basel have characterized a type of neuron in the amygdala of the mouse brain that is involved in making eating rewarding. When given the choice, mice choose to activate these amygdala neurons. Artificially activating these neurons increases food intake even when the mice are not hungry. The neurobiologists have identified the neuronal circuitry underlying this behavior, raising the possibility that there could be cells with a similar function in the human brain.

HTR2a-expressing neurons in the mouse amygdala are active during eating to promote food consumption. .

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