How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .
How Does Brain Process Information
Information processing starts with input from the sensory organs, which transform physical stimuli such as touch, heat, sound waves, or photons of light into electrochemical signals. The sensory information is repeatedly transformed by the algorithms of the brain in both bottom-up and top-down processing.
Neural Control Of Saccadic Eye Movements
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement , and controlling the direction of the movement . The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in , for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens . With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position.
Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental setup is shown on the right. In this example, an abducens lower motor neuron fires a burst of activity that precedes and extends throughout the movement
Simplified diagram of synaptic circuitry responsible for horizontal movements of the eyes to the right. Activation of local circuit neurons in the right horizontal gaze center leads to increased activity of lower motor neurons
Sensory Motor Integration in the Superior Colliculus.
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Getting To Know Your Brain: Cerebellum
In Latin, cerebellum actually means little brain; however, its function is anything but. This area of the brain controls important body functions such as balance, coordination, posture, and motor learning.Read More
array => string "Its well-known that all the basic life functions originate in the brain stem. Commonly referred to as the simplest part of the brain, this area is responsible for maintaining breathing, hunger and thirst, blood pressure, heart rhythms, sleep patterns, and body temperature. "}
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Functional Differences Between The Flocculus/paraflocculus And The Nodulus/uvula
The vestibulocerebellum has many functions and lesions produce a variety of abnormalities. Are there overriding principles about the functions of the two areas within the vestibulocerebellum? One simple hypothesis is that the flocculus and paraflocculus are more concerned with the relatively immediate and fast-acting aspects of ocular motor function that relate to the needs of the fovea . On the other hand, the nodulus and ventral uvula are more concerned with the duration and axis of eye rotation in response to low-frequency, sustained rotational stimuli, and so determine the orientation of images on the retina relative to upright. Recent evidence however indicates that an intact nodulus and uvula are also necessary for the proper function of the high-frequency t-VOR as well as smooth pursuit . Thus there does not appear to be an absolute compartmentalization of functions of the VOR and pursuit among the different parts of the vestibulocerebellum, and, as will be discussed below, the dorsal vermis and underlying fastigial nuclei also play a role in smooth pursuit. Such redundancy is certainly an advantage during locomotion, considering the vital role vestibular and pursuit responses play in stabilizing gaze on stationary targets or in following targets that are also moving in the environment.
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Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
- Information and support
- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning.; Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
The Eyes Are Windows Into The Brain
The eyes are a window into the workings of the brain. Many studies show that eye movements are closely linked to cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and decision-making. Eye movements not only reflect certain aspects of brain function, providing information about our thoughts and desires to others, but might also influence and actively participate in them.
The eyes also provide a glimpse into the aging and diseased brain. We now know that changes in eye movements accompany the changes that occur in the brain as a result of both normal aging and neurodegeneration. Eye movements may therefore prove to be important indicators of these processes, and there is growing interest in using them as a marker for early signs of conditions such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases. Though the research is still in the early stages, it suggests that eye-tracking technology might eventually be useful in diagnosing such diseases.
Scanning the field
There are four basic types of eye movements. Vestibulo-ocular movements are reflexes that stabilize our eyes relative to the outside world to compensate for head movements; vergence movements simultaneously rotate the eyes in opposite directions to align the fovea of each eye to a near or distant object; and smooth pursuit movements are slow tracking moves that keep a moving object on the fovea.
Picking up the slack?
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What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum.;The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.
Brainstem.;The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum.;The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
Anatomy Of The Nervous System
If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race takes a lot less time than it just took to read about it.
Considering everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and grooves, though, provide it with the additional surface area necessary for storing all of the bodys important information.
The spinal cord, on the other hand, is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and ¾ inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. These make up the peripheral nervous system.
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Is Eye Part Of Brain
The eye may be small, but it is one of the most amazing parts of your body and has a lot in common with the brain. The eye is the only part of the brain that can be seen directly this happens when the optician uses an ophthalmoscope and shines a bright light into your eye as part of an eye examination.
The Pituitary Growth Of Control Of The Gland
The pituitary gland is very short only about the size of a pea, Its task is to produce and release hormones into the body. This gland is also an essential player during adolescence.
This is the time when the bodies of boys and girls are subject to major changes, because they slowly become men and women, all thanks to the hormones released by the pituitary gland.
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Is Brain Fog A Symptom Of Anxiety
While brain fog is pretty common, its not a condition on its own. But it can be a symptom of several issues anxiety and stress among them. If your brain is a computer, ongoing anxiety and stress are those programs that run in the background and use up tons of memory and make everything else run slowly.
The Geography Of Thought
Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two;frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a;motor area;, which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called;Brocas area; allows thoughts to be transformed into words.
When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes; are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary;sensory areas;. These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.
As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the;occipital lobes;, process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.
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Eye Movements And Executive Functions
Eye movements are any shift of position of the eye in its orbit. There are many different kinds of eye movements, which are defined in the next section titled Classes of eye movements. Eye movements determine what information reaches our retina, visual cortex, and most important, higher cortical centers. Hence, eye movements are critically important for vision, attention, and memory; they determine what we see, attend to, and remember about our surroundings. They are thus central to executive functions. Much scientific work also suggests that the brain circuitry subserving certain executive functions, such as that for spatial attention and spatial working memory, overlaps parts of the brain circuitry subserving control of eye movements. Thus, better understanding of eye movements provides a valuable window into executive functions.
A.B. Sereno, M.S. Bolding, in, 2017
How Can I Develop My Right Brain
5 ways to activate the right side of your brain
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Where Do Emotions Come From
The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.
Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:
- Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the hypothalamus is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
- Hippocampus. The hippocampus helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
- Amygdala. The amygdala helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
- Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.
What Is The Treatment For Optic Nerve Damage
Optic neuritis usually improves on its own. In some cases, steroid medications are used to reduce inflammation in the optic nerve. Possible side effects from steroid treatment include weight gain, mood changes, facial flushing, stomach upset and insomnia. Steroid treatment is usually given by vein .
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What Part Of Brain Controls Posture And Balance
The cerebellum gets information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and from other parts of the brain and then it regulates the motor movements. All voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech are coordinated by the cerebellum which results in the smooth and balanced muscular activity.
How The Nervous System Works
The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body.
All neurons, however, relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave.
Intelligence, learning, and memory. At birth, the nervous system contains all the neurons you will ever have, but many of them are not connected to each other. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving seemed to take so much concentration when you first learned but now is second nature: The pathway became established.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable; in fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part can often learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
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How Does The Brain Control Movement
How does brain control the precision of movement of our body parts? This might get a bit more complicated than you expected, so hold on. Your brain is rather complicated with many different parts and even simplifying it gets confusing. This is going to be a long one since you asked for the brain to movement mechanism .
Ill try to find common ground making it both understandable and accurate. This is about the voluntary control the brain has on muscles, movements like reflexes are excluded.
Initiating a Movement
The first thing we need is to know how movement is initiated. This isnt as easy as sending a message from the brain to the muscle to make it;move. Messages originate from the cortex, the outer layer of the brain. These need to go to the muscles, but they make a little stop first. If every message was sent to your muscles you wouldnt be able to function. This stop happens at the Basal Ganglia. This is a complicated system that selects which;instructions;will be executed and which are inhibited. The reason for a movement can be many things, the specific goal is not important right now.
Important areas in the basal ganglia are the ones below, Ill hold off on too much detail and just give general descriptions. There are more structures that may or may not be part of the basal ganglia, but lets stick to these.
Modulation Of The Pathways
Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing
EMDR assists the child in vividly recalling a specific troubling traumatic memory in imagination while simultaneously moving the eyes back and forth horizontally . EMDR has been reported to be beneficial in as little as one 90-minute session, but only two small experimental studies with children have compared EMDR to either wait-list control condition or an alternative therapy . A larger study found EMDR to reduce PTSD symptoms in children who had not benefited from previous treatment after a hurricane, but there was no control condition or alternative treatment provided in the study. Thus, EMDR has shown promise but remains to be fully validated as a treatment for children with PTSD.
R.J. Leigh, S.A. King, in, 2014
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The Cerebellum Coordinates Eye And Hand Tracking Movements
In the article and abundant reference material below you will learn why Mendability exercises such as Memory of weight and color or Maze in front of mirror to stimulate brain plasticity to improve brain function and eventually lead to growth and health, including in the cerebellum.
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays;an important role in motor control. It is also involved in some cognitive functions, such as attention and language, and in some emotional functions, such as regulating fear and pleasure responses.
Note: The text below does not include the tables from the original article. To read the article with its data you may wish to contact the authors directly.Nature Publishing Group http://neurosci.nature.com