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What Part Of The Brain Controls Hearing

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Which Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Memory And Intelligence

The Human Brain: Major Structures and Functions

So, now you may be wondering, what part of the brain controls memory?

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The answer to this question may be a bit more complex than you think. The truth is, there is no one memory part of the brain. In fact, different memories are stored in different places all over the brain

What Part Of The Brain Controls Hearing

Which part of the brain is responsible for this wiring that helps us to listen and interpret the sounds that we hear? Heres a great drawing that illustrates exactly how the brain hears and how hearing works.

Sounds travel through your ear canal, the eardrum vibrates and this sets the bones in the middle ear into motion. Consequently, the tiny hair cells in your cochlea also move depending on whether it is a low, middle, or high tone sound. These motions will activate neurons in your hearing nerve that is also called the auditory nerve. It then goes across to the other side of your brain where the auditory or hearing part of the brain interprets it as speech, music, or sounds. This area is on the side of your head, just above the ear, and is called the auditory cortex. The brain can interpret the different tones or frequencies and can fill in parts of a message you may have missed. The brain also has the remarkable ability to change on the stimulation it receives and to add meaning overtime to the incoming information and use it optimally. This is called the neuroplasticity of the brain.

What Controls The Bodys Balance

In addition to the cerebellum, two crucial structures in maintaining balance are the inner ear and the vestibular cranial nerves.

Located in the inner ear, the vestibular system provides your brain with the necessary information for motion, head position, and spatial orientation.

It also plays a role in your motor functions that are involved in keeping your balance, stabilizing your head and body during movement, and also helps maintain your posture.

The vestibular system absolutely essential for your bodys equilibrium, thus making it a vital part aiding you in balance.

Damage to any part of the brain related to balance isnt inherently life-threatening, however, it can result in a jerky, and uncoordinated movements if the damage is severe.

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The Cerebral Cortex Creates Consciousness And Thinking

All animals have adapted to their environments by developing abilities that help them survive. Some animals have hard shells, others run extremely fast, and some have acute hearing. Human beings do not have any of these particular characteristics, but we do have one big advantage over other animals we are very, very smart.

You might think that we should be able to determine the intelligence of an animal by looking at the ratio of the animals brain weight to the weight of its entire body. But this does not really work. The elephants brain is one-thousandth of its weight, but the whales brain is only one ten-thousandth of its body weight. On the other hand, although the human brain is one-sixtieth of its body weight, the mouses brain represents one-fortieth of its body weight. Despite these comparisons, elephants do not seem 10 times smarter than whales, and humans definitely seem smarter than mice.

Becoming Mindful Of The Brain And Its Functions

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The human brain is the epicenter of the central nervous system, which controls the bodys most vital tasks. Everything from movement of limbs and facial features to regulating bodily functions like breathing is sent as a message from some part of the brain.

Comprised of billions of nerve cells that communicate with the body through the spinal cord, the brain is a complicated organ separated into several sections and subsections. Below is a breakdown of the parts of the brain, and how they contribute to the bodys functions and abilities.

The Cerebrum

Also called the cortex, the cerebrum makes up the largest part of the brain. It is associated with higher functions, such as cognitive thoughts and actions. There are four sections of the cerebrum , each of which contributes to the body differently. The four lobes and their functions are as follows:

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum resembles a smaller version of the cortex, because of its densely wrinkled appearance and its halved parts. It is responsible for several physical tasks, like movement, balance, posture and coordination. Although smaller in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the entire brain. It is critical for accomplishing day-to-day tasks as simple as walking or sitting down.

The Limbic System

The Brain Stem

There are three parts of the brain stem: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. Below is an explanation of what each part does in relation to the brain system:

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How Does The Ear Affect Balance

The inner ear is composed of two parts: the cochlea for hearing and the vestibular system for balance. The vestibular system is made up of a network of looped tubes, three in each ear, called the semicircular canals. They loop off a central area called the vestibule.

The vestibular system detects movement through special sensory cells which are activated as you tilt or move your head. The vestibular system is very sensitive to small movements of the head. If you make large, fast or prolonged movements they can take a while to settle down afterwards. This is why the room can appear to continue to spin when we stop spinning. The vestibular system sends signals to the vestibular nerve, which joins the cochlear nerve and carries electrical signals to the brain.

The Part Of The Brain Controlling: Balance And Posture

As we mentioned earlier, the cerebellum does not work alone. It controls your equilibrium by combining sensory information from the outside world.

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Those pieces of information come from the eyes , ears , and your bodys muscles and joints . After the information is sent to the cerebellum, it processes it and relays the information back to your body instructing it on how to stay balanced during a specific movement.

For example, Consider standing on one foot. Your joints and muscles use receptors, called proprioceptors, to gather information about the spacial position of your body.

These receptors then send the information back to the cerebellum adjusting your position by making you shift body weight, or even stretching your arms out to help maintain your balance.

Now, continue standing on one foot but close your eyes. It is much more difficult to stay in that position, isnt it?

This is because you have limited the information coming to the cerebellum. Its now unable to use visual information from the eyes and has lost a little of the spatial orientation.

Usually, we are not aware of these processes they happen reflexively. But we often become aware of them when we exercise especially exercise that involves a high degree of coordination.

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S Of The Brain Involved With Hearing

When one listens to music or hears someone speak, the brain must process what it has heard 5. In order to be understood, sounds must first be converted to vibrations in the middle ear and then to electrical impulses in the inner ear. These electrical impulses are then relayed to different sites in the brain for interpretation.

If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.

The Brain Is Flexible: Neuroplasticity

Neuroanatomy – The Brainstem

The control of some specific bodily functions, such as movement, vision, and hearing, is performed in specified areas of the cortex, and if these areas are damaged, the individual will likely lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For instance, if an infant suffers damage to facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he or she will never be able to recognize faces . On the other hand, the brain is not divided up in an entirely rigid way. The brains neurons have a remarkable capacity to reorganize and extend themselves to carry out particular functions in response to the needs of the organism and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and rewires existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers to the brains ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. Neuroplasticity enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.

Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate themselves as skin or blood vessels can, new evidence suggests that the brain can engage in neurogenesis, the forming of new neurons . These new neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate to other brain areas, where they form new connections with other neurons . This leaves open the possibility that someday scientists might be able to rebuild damaged brains by creating drugs that help grow neurons.

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Results Of Damage To Auditory Cortexes

Any damage to these areas of the brain involved in hearing which prevent processing can result in a persons inability to perceive analysis and location of sound information. Although lesions in the auditory cortex can end in total deafness, they can also produce deficiencies that impair sound perception that does not leave the person deaf. Examples include patients who suffered lesions in these areas that no longer had the ability to recognize what the sounds were, the location of the sound and even what made the sound. Lesions that cause problems with music can result in a condition known as amusia. This is the inability to perceive melody and rhythm. This can compromise the ability to differentiate between unpleasant and pleasant music. It can also result in ones inability to produce or understand melody and rhythm .

References for Areas of the brain involved in hearing

The Brain Connection. . The Anatomy of Movement . Retrieved from http://brainconnection.brainhq.com/2013/03/05/the-anatomy-of-movement/

Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. . Physiology of Behavior . Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

The Free Dictionary. . Somatotopic. In Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health . Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/somatotopic

Price, M. . The risks of night work. Monitor on Psychology, 42, 38. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/01/night-work.aspx

Disorders

What Does The Temporal Lobe Do

As its position near the temples suggests, the temporal lobe plays a key role in auditory processing. This role includes perceiving sounds, assigning meaning to those sounds, and remembering sounds. Much of the auditory work of the temporal lobe is processed through the superior temporal gyrus, a temporal lobe structure that receives sound input directly from the ear. Some of its other functions include:

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

Psychology In Everyday Life: Why Are Some People Left

What is Auditory Processing Disorder?

Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only 10% are primarily left-handed . This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low, and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis .

At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasound scans show that nine out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth , and the mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome . It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems .

But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United States. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States .

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Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Balance

Standing upright, maintaining balance, and walking are all pretty natural processes to us. We dont consciously think about balance during our daily activities.

But have you ever wondered how you manage to stand on one foot? Or perform any sports activity? Or how you dont fall down every time you stumble? Today were going to explore what part of the brain controls balance.

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The Neuroscience Of Memory Recall

So, how do you fine-tune and upgrade that mental Ethernet connection to have a stronger memory recall? By building strong neural pathways.

Basically, to have a powerful memory recall means to have strong synaptic connections the better your cells are able to communicate with each other, the more quickly and accurately you will be able to access memories. You can strengthen these synaptic connections by sending the signal more frequently and having the neurons communicate more often. This paves a strong and clear neural pathway its like when a hiking path is more traveled, its easier to walk along.

The brain works this way because it is neuroplastic, meaning that it is constantly changing shape and form to suit your present needs. For instance, do you really need to remember all of the kids names you went to elementary school with? Since you dont, your brain works in this handy use it or lose it fashion. Thanks to this process of neuroplasticity, your brain is able to constantly take in new information and sharply perform the needs of now.

The Process Of Memory Consolidation

X_BIOLOGY_DAY 4_PARTS OF THE BRAIN

Memory consolidation is the brains ability to process events and turn them into memories.

When certain neurotransmitters are present in the brain, they enable the nerve cells to communicate with one another via synaptic connections. Once two neurons fire together more than once, they are more likely to fire together again . Once a message has been thoroughly communicated, you have memory consolidation.

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How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain

When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .

When light enters the eye through the pupil, it strikes in the retina called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, color and fine details.

When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.

This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.

Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.

All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.

The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.

STILL HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR BRAIN AND VISION? Talk to an eye doctor near you to schedule an appointment.

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How Hearing Aids And Amplification Can Revive Listening

Following a hearing aid fitting, many people recall that they were surprised at all the sounds that they could suddenly hear and they realize what they have been missing. During the early days after receiving a hearing aid or amplification, your brain gives a lot of attention to the new incoming sounds that it could not hear before. This stimulation of sound is good for the brain as it helps to tune into sound again. The early days and few weeks may be tiring, as the brain needs time to get used to all these sounds and add meaning to all the new information. You may, therefore, feel tired towards the end of the day while adapting to your hearing aids. Most people report that it gets easier to listen after a few weeks of consistent hearing aid use and that they feel less tired. It indicates that they have now acclimatized or adapted to the new sounds and improved hearing. It would be a good sign if you start to miss your hearing aids when they are not used. This is because listening has started to improve and the brain now realizes which information is important and which can be discarded. Important information will be speech sounds, conversations, music, and meaningful sounds. Information that is not so important will be less noticeable over time and include background noise and sounds not important for daily functioning.

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