The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
What Is Neural Control Of Breathing
The neural control of respiration refers to functional interactions between networks of neurons that regulate movements of the lungs, airways and chest wall and abdomen, in order to accomplish effective organismal uptake of oxygen and expulsion of carbon dioxide, airway liquids and irritants, regulation of
Location And Basic Physiology
In vertebrate anatomy, the brainstem is the most inferior portion of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the brain and spinal cord. The brainstem gives rise to cranial nerves 3 through 12 and provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Though small, it is an extremely important part of the brain, as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain that communicate with the peripheral nervous system pass through the brainstem. This includes the corticospinal tract , the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway and the spinothalamic tract . The brain stem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It regulates the central nervous system and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle.
The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.
Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
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What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:
- The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
- The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.
The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the bodys important information.
The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.
The brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. Theyre both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
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What Happens During Exercise
When you are exercising, you are using your muscles in a significant way, and your body demands that you take in more Oxygen so that it can be delivered to your muscles.
Your circulatory and respiratory systems need to make sure that the Oxygen is getting to the muscles faster than when you are just chilling. Also, they need to make sure that the carbon dioxide that is produced is taken away efficiently.
In order for that process to happen efficiently, the medulla oblongata, after sensing what is happening, sends signals to the heart and the respiratory muscles .
You start breathing heavily to get that Oxygen in and carbon dioxide out. Your heart starts beating faster because not only does the Oxygen need to get into the body, but they need to be delivered to the muscles.
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Neural Control Of The Heart Is A Balance Between Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Influences
Heart rate is established by spontaneously depolarizing pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node, and the rate of depolarization of these pacemaker cells is modulated by parasympathetic and sympathetic neural activity. Under basal resting conditions, heart rate reflects the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone to the heart in humans at rest, parasympathetic tone predominates and therefore resting heart rate is lower than is the intrinsic rate of the sinoatrial node. Due to the basal tonic autonomic control of the heart, heart rate can be increased by reducing parasympathetic activity and/or increasing sympathetic activity the opposite responses slow the heart. These autonomic systems function in an integrated manner, and opposite changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity typically occur simultaneously to modulate heart rate.
The basal drive of cardiac sympathetic outflow, like sympathetic outflow to the vasculature, emanates principally from the RVLM, although the factors imparting this tonic discharge of RVLM neurons are not fully understood. Cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the brain stem are tonically active in vivo, largely reflecting input from the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Indeed, heart rate fluctuates in phase with breathing, as a result of changes in cardiac vagal activity.
Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez, … Winslow Burleson, in, 2017
The Structure Of The Brain
Before we talk about what part of the brain controls anger, it makes sense to talk about the different parts of the brain. Experts on the brain have divided it up into all kinds of different regions, but we’ll keep things simple for now.
When you think of the brain, you probably think of the top part, called the cerebrum – or more specifically the cerebral cortex. This is the rough-looking ball of grey matter that makes up the largest portion of the brain. This is the part of the brain that does things like interpret senses, initiate motion, process language, and make decisions.
Below and to the back of the cerebrum is the cerebellum. This much smaller and darker mass is primarily responsible for things like balance.
In front of the cerebellum but still under the cerebrum is what’s called the brain stem. The brain stem has the important structural job of connecting the brain to the spinal cord which in turn branches into the nerves that communicate between the brain and rest of your body. However, it is also responsible for many of your most basic bodily functions.
Just above the brainstem inside of the cerebrum are more intricate structures including the amygdala. Centrally located in the brain, the Amygdala is in the perfect position to interpret stimuli and then communicate it directly to your bodily functions. So, the most primal emotions – the ones that impact things like your breath and heart rate – are all controlled by the amygdala. That includes anger.
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How We Know What We Know About The Brain
In the middle of the twentieth century, two things happened almost simultaneously that forever changed our understanding of the brain. One of those is the tragic accident of Phineas Gage.
Gage worked on a railroad when an 1848 accident sent a metal implement through his left cheek and out the top of his head – right through his brain. Had this been the end of the story, history would’ve forgotten Mr. Gage. However, Gage lived for several years after the accident. Following the accident, Gage’s doctor realized that he had changed. He had a short temper and seemed unable to tell right from wrong where before he had been a kind and upstanding citizen. Gage’s accident – and his remarkable survival – suggested for the first time that different parts of the brain have different functions.
Eleven years later and across the Atlantic, Charles Darwin published his book “On the Origin of Species.” The now famous work utilized years of research on Darwin’s part to cement what is now known as the theory of evolution. Before Darwin’s theory that humans evolved from less sophisticated animals, most people accepted that humans had always existed as they do now. While this didn’t prevent an understanding of how the human body works, Darwin’s theory did give us new and interesting questions about where we came from. This eventually leads to the school of psychology called Evolutionary Psychology.
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Where Is The Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata, often simply called the medulla, is an elongated section of neural tissue that makes up part of the brainstem. The medulla is anterior to the cerebellum and is the part of the brainstem that connects to the spinal cord. It is continuous with the spinal cord, meaning there is not a clear delineation between the spinal cord and medulla but rather the spinal cord gradually transitions into the medulla.
Chemicals Regulate Heart Beat
Neurotransmitters are substances or chemicals that activate nerve cells and allow them to communicate with other nerve and muscle cells. Norepinephrine and epinephrine activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause the heart rate to speed up. Acetylcholine stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system and lowers the heart rate. Thyroid hormones, which affect almost all cells in the body, increase the heart rate. During hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone levels are abnormally high and force the heart to beat at a rate that can harm the heart muscle.
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Disorders Of Autonomic Nervous System
People with an autonomic disorder may have trouble regulating more than one system. The common symptoms are fainting, fluctuating blood pressure, and lightheadedness.
It is a rare degenerative disorder of the autonomic nervous system. There is a general loss of autonomic functions. For example, there is reduced sweating and lacrimation, elevated blood pressure, and sexual dysfunction.
Orthostatic hypotension is the sudden drop in blood pressure on standing upright. it is a disorder in which the autonomic nervous system fails to constrict the blood vessels when a person stands up. The main complication of orthostatic hypotension is falling due to fainting.
The damage to the blood pressure sensing nerves in the neck leads to failure of the baroreflex. It causes fluctuations in the blood pressure, making it too high or too low. Symptoms of this autonomic disorder include fainting, headaches, and dizziness.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Digestion
The autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the digestive tract. The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior. The brain controls muscles for eating and elimination. The digestive system sends sensory information to the brain.
One may also ask, what controls the movement of your stomach? The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.
Also Know, is the brain part of the digestive system?
People are most familiar with the body’s central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The enteric nervous system’s network of nerves, neurons, and neurotransmitters extends along the entire digestive tract from the esophagus, through the stomach and intestines, and down to the anus.
What part of the brain controls memory?
The main parts of the brain involved with memory are the amygdala, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, and the prefrontal cortex . The amygdala is involved in fear and fear memories. The hippocampus is associated with declarative and episodic memory as well as recognition memory.
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What Is The Medulla Oblongata And What Does It Do
For most of the 18th century, the medulla oblongata was thought to simply be an extension of the spinal cord without any distinct functions of its own. This changed in 1806, when Julien-Jean-Cesar Legallois found that he could remove the cortex and cerebellum of rabbits and they would continue to breathe. When he removed a specific section of the medulla, however, respiration stopped immediately. Legallois had found what he believed to be a “respiratory center” in the medulla, and soon after the medulla was considered to be a center of vital functions .
Over time, exactly which “vital functions” were linked to the medulla would become more clear, and the medulla would come to be recognized as a crucial area for the control of both cardiovascular and respiratory functions. The role of the medulla in cardiovascular function involves the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure to ensure that an adequate blood supply continues to circulate throughout the body at all times. To accomplish this, a nucleus in the medulla called the nucleus of the solitary tract receives information from stretch receptors in blood vessels. These receptors—called baroreceptors—can detect when the walls of blood vessels expand and contract, and thus can detect changes in blood pressure.
How The Nervous System Works
The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body.
All neurons, however, relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave.
Intelligence, learning, and memory. At birth, the nervous system contains all the neurons you will ever have, but many of them are not connected to each other. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving seemed to take so much concentration when you first learned but now is second nature: The pathway became established.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable in fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part can often learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
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What Parts Of The Brain Is Responsible For Respiration
Now that we have that covered, lets talk about the involvement of the brain in this process.
Your brain starts where the spinal cord enters the skull, and the first section that you encounter is called the Brain Stem. The brain stem contains the following structures:
- The medulla oblongata
- The Pons
- The Midbrain
The medulla oblongata is involved in regulating many of the bodily processes that are controlled automatically like blood pressure, heart rate and yes, you guessed it . . . RESPIRATION.
The way this works is relatively straightforward. The medulla oblongata basically detects carbon dioxide and Oxygen levels in the bloodstream and determines what changes need to happen in the body.
The reason I mentioned the heart is because the respiratory system is very much tied to the circulatory system.