Friday, May 13, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Homeostasis

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Regulation Of Food Intake

How Endocrine System Works Animation | Control of Pituitary Gland by Hypothalamus | Homeostasis

The hypothalamus controls appetite and food intake through the ventromedial, dorsomedial, paraventricular, and lateral hypothalamus nucleus. The ventromedial nucleus is referred to as the appetite-suppressing or anorexigenic center. Destruction of this nucleus leads to hyperpolyphagia, obesity, and to an aggressive behavior.

Contrary, the appetite-increasing or orexigenic center is considered to be the lateral hypothalamic nucleus that can lead to aphagia and cashexy in case of its destruction and to hyperphagia or polyphagia in case of its stimulation.

Appetite control is modulated by the leptin hormone released by the fatty cells that binds to specific hypothalamic receptors.

How Emotion Is Being Processed In The Brain

Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, are used as chemical messengers to send signals across the network. Brain regions receive these signals, which results in us recognising objects and situations, assigning them an emotional value to guide behaviour and making split-second risk/reward assessments.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Emotions

We are emotional beings. From happiness to sadness, fear, anger, love, and everything in between.

These feelings seem to happen automatically and sometimes feel outside the realm of our control. But emotions are very much a mental process.

Have you ever thought about what part of the brain controls emotions?

We know all about the brain centers that control breathing, balance, and speech.

But what are the less tangible aspects of our behavior? What about our emotions?

Heres all you need to know about what part of the brain controls emotions.

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Can A Psychopath Feel Love

Psychopaths are not impervious to loves benefits, and they suffer when theyre absent. Though they are largely disassociated from feelings of sincerity and vulnerabilityemotions which are central to forming strong romantic bondspsychopaths are not impervious to loves benefits, and they suffer when theyre absent.

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Keeping The Body Balanced And Steady

F.1 nervous system homeostasis

The outside world in which we live is constantly changing. The inside of our bodies also changes after we eat, drink, exercise, or sleep. Yet, despite these continuous changes, the body is able to keep its inner environment stable. We call this ability homeostasis, which is a combination of two words in Greek: homeo, meaning similar, and stasis meaning stable. For example, all the cells in the human body function best at a temperature of around 37°C. Therefore, the body works to maintain this temperature. When it is hot outside, we cool the body by sweating. When it is cold outside, we warm up by shivering, which produces heat. If we were unable to control body temperature, our cells would fail to function properly. That is why all living organisms, from single-celled bacteria or yeast to large animals, such as elephants, must maintain homeostasis to stay alive.

  • Figure 1 – The brain maintains the bodys well-being.
  • A constant conversation between the brain and the rest of the body takes place to keep physical conditions steady and balanceda state called homeostasis.

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Mood And Emotional Behavior

Your emotional response and the general mood are generated in the amygdala. But its the prefrontal cortex thats responsible for planning future action, aka, the way you behave based on those emotions.

So if you thought about robbing a bank, your prefrontal cortex would help you process the idea and connect it to an appropriate emotional response.

If the amygdala is damaged, you lose control of base impulses. In fact, you may even begin to act in an inappropriate way. Disinhibited behavior, hypersexuality, and risk-taking are behavioral consequences of a damaged amygdala.

The left hemisphere of the brain processes while the right hemisphere identifies. For example, if you felt as if you were falling in love, your right hemisphere would identify the feeling, but your left hemisphere would help you decide on how to act.

What Does The Hypothalamus Do

  • The portion of the brain that maintains the bodys internal balance .
  • The hypothalamus is the link between the endocrine and nervous systems.
  • The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones, which stop and start the production of other hormones throughout the body.

The hypothalamus plays a significant role in the endocrine system. The function of the hypothalamus is to maintain your bodys internal balance, which is known as homeostasis. To do this, the hypothalamus helps stimulate or inhibit many of your bodys key processes, including:

  • Heart rate and blood pressure
  • Body temperature
  • Fluid and electrolyte balance, including thirst
  • Appetite and body weight
  • Glandular secretions of the stomach and intestines
  • Production of substances that influence the pituitary gland to release hormones
  • Sleep cycles

SpineUniverse article about the nervous system

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Embryological Development Of The Hypothalamus

At the end of the fourth week of embryological development, the neural tube is organized in primary vesicles: the forebrain vesicle or prosencephalon, the midbrain vesicle or mesencephalon, and the hindbrain vesicle, also called rhombencephalon. Prosencephalon further divides into two secondary vesicles, the telencephalon that will form the cerebral hemispheres and the diencephalon which gives rise to the diencephalon. Mesencephalon forms the midbrain, structure involved in the processes of vision and hearing. The hindbrain vesicle or rhombencephalon divides in metencephalon, which further forms the pons and the cerebellum and the myelencephalon that forms the medulla.

Embryological concepts regarding the development of the hypothalamic region are over 100 years old. Since Herrick first proposed the columnar model of the forebrain organization, the anatomical description was accepted per se and very few research papers have questioned its validity.

The columnar morphologic model is based on the division of the forebrain in functional longitudinal units, placing the telencephalon in the most rostral region and the diencephalon caudally, in between the telencephalon and the midbrain, while the hypothalamus if formed from the ventral most part of the diencephalic vesicle .

An important role in hypothalamic development is assigned also to the presence of specific signaling centers that modulates cell proliferation and neurulation .

Brain Chemicals And Sleep

GCSE Biology – How We Control Our Body Temperature #73

Chemicals called neurotransmitters send messages to different nerve cells in the brain. Nerve cells in the brainstem release neurotransmitters. These include norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin. Neurotransmitters act on parts of the brain to keep it alert and working well while you are awake.

Other nerve cells stop the messages that tell you to stay awake. This causes you to feel sleepy. One chemical involved in that process is called adenosine. Caffeine promotes wakefulness by blocking the receptors to adenosine. Adenosine seems to work by slowly building up in your blood when you are awake. This makes you drowsy. While you sleep, the chemical slowly dissipates.

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What Is The Hypothalamus And What Does It Do

The hypothalamus is a collection of nuclei with a variety of functions. Many of the important roles of the hypothalamus involve what are known as the two H’s: Homeostasis and Hormones.

Homeostasis is the maintenance of equilibrium in a system like the human body. Optimal biological function is facilitated by keeping things like body temperature, blood pressure, and caloric intake/expenditure at a fairly constant level. The hypothalamus receives a steady stream of information about these types of factors. When it recognizes an unanticipated imbalance, it enacts a mechanism to rectify that disparity.

The hypothalamus generally restores homeostasis through two mechanisms. First, it has connections to the autonomic nervous system, through which it can send signals to influence things like heart rate, digestion, and perspiration. For example, if the hypothalamus senses that body temperature is too high, it may send a message to sweat glands to cause perspiration, which acts to cool the body down.

The hypothalamus thus has widespread effects on the body and behavior, which stem from its role in maintaining homeostasis and its stimulation of hormone release. It is often said that the hypothalamus is responsible for the four Fs: fighting, fleeing, feeding, and fornication. Clearly, due to the frequency and significance of these behaviors, the hypothalamus is extremely important in everyday life.

What Are The Two Main Control Centres Of Homeostasis In The Body

Homeostatic controlmajor controlhomeostasis

. Herein, what are the 2 main control Centres of homeostasis in the body?

Regulating centers are located in the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain particularly concerned with homeostasis it influences the action of the medulla oblongata, a lower part of the brain, the autonomic nervous system, and the pituitary gland.

Subsequently, question is, what are the main systems involved in homeostasis? The nervous and endocrine systems exert the ultimate control over homeostasis because they coordinate the functions of the body’s systems. Regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, pH, and glucose concentration are four examples of how the body maintains homeostasis.

Also know, what is the control Centre in homeostasis?

Homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components: a receptor, integrating center, and effector. The integrating center, generally a region of the brain called the hypothalamus, signals an effector to respond to the stimuli.

What are the two homeostatic mechanisms?

Human body include mechanisms that help regulate the body, this includes organs, glands, tissues and cells. The adjusting of these enables the body to constantly be in a steady state. The main mechanisms of homeostasis are body temperature, body fluid composition, blood sugar, gas concentrations, and blood pressure.

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The Obesity To Type 2 Diabetes Transition

The conceptual basis for the model advanced herein has its roots in our current understanding of obesity, a closely related metabolic disorder. Although many factors can contribute to excessive weight gain, body fat mass continues to be biologically defended even as it increases out of the normal range in obese individuals . Stated differently, obesity is a disorder characterised by a progressive increase in the defended level of the bodys primary stored fuel , so weight lost through energy restriction tends to be regained, regardless of whether one starts out being lean or obese . Elevated body fat mass in obesity may be explained by the brain becoming resistant to input from negative feedback signals that inform the brain regarding the amount of body fuel stored as fat . This resistance causes the brain to perceive the amount of body fat to be lower than it actually is and hence activates responses that raise body fat mass to a level sufficient to overcome the resistance. The net effect is a new steady state in which body fat mass and circulating negative feedback signals are both sufficiently increased to overcome the brains resistance to this input. While this proposed mechanism is not intended to capture the complexities of obesity pathogenesis in their entirety, it is highly likely that it is involved in the defence of elevated body fat mass characteristic of most obese individuals .

Fig. 2

A Psychological Constructionist Account Of The Brain Basis Of Emotion


A psychological constructionist account of emotion assumes that emotions are psychological events that emerge out of more basic psychological operations that are not specific to emotion. In this view, mental categories such as anger, sadness, and fear are not respected by the brain . A psychological constructionist approach to emotion is as old as the locationist approach, at least in its nascent form . Our contemporary psychological constructionist approach shares much in common with cognitive neuroscience approaches arguing that basic psychological operations are common across diverse task domains . As in the neural context hypothesis, it assumes that the psychological function of individual brain regions is determined, in part, by the network of brain regions it is firing with . It is also consistent with recent evidence that large-scale networks intrinsic to the brain interact to produce psychological events . In philosophy of mind, it is consistent with both a token identity and a supervenience approach to mindbrain correspondence and the mental mechanisms approach . We discuss the psychological constructionist view in somewhat more detail because it is unfamiliar to many readers.

Psychological Constructionist Hypotheses of BrainEmotion Correspondence

A: Lateral view. B: Sagital view at the midline. C: Ventral view. D: Coronal view.

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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

Importance Of Body Homeostasis

We understand body homeostasis as the existing tendency in the body to actively and constantly seek a state of balance, in such a way that the cells of our body can survive by maintaining a stable internal composition.

Maintaining this balance is essential, since the activation or maintenance of different bodily processes requires energy, which in turn requires elements to be used as fuel. Not having them will cause a series of tissue damage that can lead to death.

The same happens if we are not able to activate or stop some of the aforementioned bodily processes, necessary for our survival.

It is important to bear in mind that homeostasis acts based on the existence of changes that can occur both within the body and come from the outside, also using mechanisms of action that link both environments .

In this sense, it must be taken into account that living beings can withstand certain levels of variation and imbalance and that the mechanisms that allow homeostasis can be damaged or altered throughout the life cycle, being important to take this into account in order to introduce factors external factors that correct possible deficits.

Another body mechanism that is continuously regulated is the internal body temperature. The correct functioning of our tissues and organs can be affected by excessive cold or heat, to the point of being able to lead us to death from hypothermia or hyperthermia.

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The Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system in humans. It is regulated by the hypothalamus and controls our internal organs and glands, including such processes as pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional circumstances. The ANS is generally thought to be outside of voluntary control.

The ANS can be further subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. When activated, the sympathetic nervous system controls the endocrine glands to prepare the body for emergency action. SNS activation causes the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine , which results in the fight-or-flight response. The fight-or-flight response involves increased blood flow to the muscles, increased heart rate, and other physiological responses that enable the body to move more quickly and feel less pain in situations perceived to be dangerous.

Conversely, the parasympathetic nervous system functions when the body is relaxed or at rest it helps the body store energy for future use. Effects of PN activation include increased stomach activity and decreased blood flow to the muscles.

The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS have complementary functions, and they operate in tandem to maintain the bodys equilibrium. Equilibrium of the body, in which biological conditions are maintained at optimal levels, is known as homeostasis.

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This Post Has One Comment

Neuroscience Basics: Human Brain Anatomy and Lateralization of Brain Function, 3D Animation.
  • David Hallowell 25 Feb 2020Reply

    When we get to the bottom of the rabbit hole this is what we will find!

    As we stand between the infinite light and the infinite darkness.

    Things beyond our ability to know, and to understand.

    For the finite mind, cannot know the infinite! It Is beyond our vision and comprehension.

    What we can know is love, which is: Kindness, Goodness, Patience, Forgiveness, Truth and things such as these.

    For things such as these, are the very purpose of our existence.

    First, we must be complete in altrustic love, then we can have an infinite eternity to explore the infinate.

    But for now we must understand the concept of developing this altruistic love in all things, and all actions, even of mind and heart by understanding these from the soul or our very being.

    -Stands with a Roar-


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    Cns Control Of Islet Function

    One obvious way for the brain to maintain glucose homeostasis is by modulation of pancreatic islet function. Five decades of research incorporating a diverse range of human and animal experimentation has demonstrated conclusively that release of insulin and glucagon in response to circulating and sensory stimuli is influenced by neural input under physiological conditions . The neuronal architecture that allows this brainislet connection involves neurons situated in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei, many having glucose-sensing properties and some overlapping with neurocircuits that control food intake and body fat mass. Neurons in these brain areas project to the islet via multi-synaptic relays involving both limbs of the autonomic nervous system. Plasma insulin levels are altered rapidly by various perturbations that disrupt normal activity of these neurocircuits. Thus, the case for the existence of a refined system for brain control of islet hormone release is convincing and well supported, and the relevant neurocircuitry, although incompletely understood, overlaps with that involved in energy homeostasis.

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