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What Part Of The Brain Controls Judgement

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech

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Your brain is responsible for nearly all functions of your body and for interpreting sensory information from the world around you.

Your brain has many parts but speech is primarily controlled by the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.

The cerebrum can be divided into two parts, called hemispheres, which are joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.

Your speech is typically governed by the left side of your cerebrum. In about a third of people who are left-handed, however, speech may actually be controlled by the right side.

Functions Of The Cortex

When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

S Of The Limbic System

The limbic system is made up of some important organs such as the following:

  • Amygdaloid nuclear complex, which is very popularly known as amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Stria medullaris
  • Central gray, dorsal nuclei of gudden and ventral nuclei of gudden

The limbic system is divided into three areas known as the cortical area, subcortical area, and diencephalic structures. The structure of the limbic system is such that it helps the human body in the motivation-creation process, emotions-creating process, learning process and the memory-making and retaining process.

All these processes closely related to each other because all of these processes need some kind of emotion that triggers a reaction.

The hippocampus and the amygdalae are few of the most important parts of the limbic process because the hippocampus is the part of the limbic system that helps in understanding a situation thoroughly and completely.

The amygdala is the part of the limbic system that helps in starting the response for the information or data that is perceived by the hippocampus. The hippocampus works along with the prefrontal lobe to perceive the information or data from a specific situation or circumstance.

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Brain Structure And Function

The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:

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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.

Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.

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The Process Of Memory Consolidation

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Memory consolidation is the brains ability to process events and turn them into memories.

When certain neurotransmitters are present in the brain, they enable the nerve cells to communicate with one another via synaptic connections. Once two neurons fire together more than once, they are more likely to fire together again . Once a message has been thoroughly communicated, you have memory consolidation.

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Psychology In Everyday Life: Why Are Some People Left

Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only 10% are primarily left-handed . This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low, and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis .

At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasound scans show that nine out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth , and the mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome . It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems .

But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United States. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States .

What Part Of The Brain Decides In A Quick Response

The brain amygdala is responsible for recognition and rapid response to threatening or dangerous stimuli. In parallel, the nucleus accumbens, which is the brains reward system, is stimulated and leads to seeking pleasant activities, such as immediate responses.

Finally, the prefrontal cortex allows you to evaluate and control instinctual desires based on experience and specific context. In this way it can manage the activation of the amygdala, modulate the emotional response and, furthermore, evaluate the activation of the nucleus accumbens by weighting the weight of the gain.

Concomitantly, it inhibits impulsive behavior because it is in charge of reasoning, that is, of weighing the real danger of the situation, the short and long-term consequences, the potential benefits, etc.

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The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

  • The amygdala
  • Regions of the limbic cortex
  • The septal area

These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Long Term Memory

Parts of the Brain-Human Brain Structure and Function

The study of memory necessitates the study of the brain. Memories are created in, stored in, and affected by different parts of the brain:

  • Neocortex. This is the brains wrinkly-looking outer layer. It stores memories.
  • Hippocampus. This is involved in converting our perceptions into long-term memories. The right posterior section is involved in spatial navigation, which, as well see, is an important aspect of memory.
  • Medial temporal lobe. This contains the hippocampus and is involved with long-term memory.
  • Basil ganglia. This is involved in learning habits.
  • Cerebellum. This is involved in learning motor skills.
  • Frontal and parietal cortices. These are involved with recalling long-term memories.

When we use our brains, they physically changewe can form new neurons and rearrange connections. This is known as neuroplasticity. For example, neuroscientist Eleanor Maguire studied the brains of London cabbies-in-training. She found that their right posterior hippocampi were 7% larger than the average persons because they spent so much time memorizing the layout of the city. This is a fascinating insight into what part of the brain controls long term memory.

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How Does Memory Work

Before we begin delving into the neural geography of memory, it is important to fully answer the question, how does memory work?

While we generally use the analogy of accessing memories by sorting through a type of mental filing cabinet, the actual mechanics of memory are far more dynamic. A better analogy would be plugging your mind into a sort of mental Ethernet cable and the strength of the network connection is based on how the event was uploaded into the brain.

Hmm, sounds like some pretty tricky stuff, right? Well, lets dive in.

Functions Of The Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobes are responsible for planning and executing learned and conscious actions. Moreover, the frontal lobe is the location of many inhibitory functions. There are at least 4 functionally distinct areas in the frontal lobes:

  • the primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus ,
  • the medial areas,
  • the orbital areas,
  • the lateral areas .

The medial frontal area is responsible for awareness and motivation. The frontal orbital area helps shape social behavior. The inferolateral area is responsible for linguistic functions, while the dorsolateral area manages freshly acquired information. Therefore, it is functionally called “working memory”.

The primary motor cortex controls all voluntary movements of the contralateral side of the body .

Since 90% of the fibers from the primary motor cortex cross the medial line in the area of the brain stem, damage to the motor cortex of one lobe causes weakness of the contralateral side of the body. Besides, specific parts of the frontal lobe house the smell recognition centers.

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Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

What Part Of The Brain Is Associated With Memory

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Brain memory is a complex topic, but we will do our best to break down where memories are stored in the brain by first focusing on two main different types of memory: implicit memory and explicit memory.

So, what part of the brain controls memory? All of its different, interconnected regions work together as the memory part of the brain. They each play their unique role in both memory consolidation and memory recall.

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Relationship Between Both Halves Of The Brain

Although we have commented that each hemisphere has its peculiarities and has its own functions, this does not mean that they are radically different from each other or that they do not carry out activities together.

What must be understood is that there are activities that are carried out mainly by one of the two hemispheres and others in which it is the task of its counterpart.

As a curiosity, the research points out that interhemispheric differences are something distinctive of the human species.

In most people, both hemispheres complement each other. Normally, verbal aspects such as speech are under the control of the left hemisphere however, there are cases, especially in left-handed people, in which speech is an activity exerted by areas located in both hemispheres.

In addition, it has been seen that, in situations in which a brain injury occurs, there may be changes in the location of certain functions.

This transfer of functions is especially significant in childhood, at which time, thanks to brain plasticity, the brain tries to save its own capacity from the injured area by making it another area, and it may be from the opposite hemisphere, who becomes position.

Do Different Brain Regions Control Different Functions

Doctors originally divided the brain into four separate regions for the sake of conveniently labeling anatomical functions. We now know that the lobes of the brain roughly correlate with a variety of functions. The temporal lobe, for instance, plays a key role in auditory processing, while the frontal lobe helps regulate attention and memory.

This doesn’t mean that brain regions control these functions. Many functions overlap across brain regions, and the functioning of one region often depends on another. Moreover, some research suggests that when there is damage to one region of the brain, other regions may compensate, suggesting that the brain is highly malleable.

This all means that the brain is an unpredictable organ. Much remains to be understood, and our understanding of which brain regions do what changes with each new brain study.

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What Happens When The Frontal Lobe Is Damaged

Most people experience some atrophy in the frontal lobe in their senior years, with frontal lobe volume decreasing by .5%-1% each year beginning around age 60. This slow and steady decline accounts for many of the changes, such as mild memory loss and difficulty with finding some words, associated with normal aging. More rapid frontal lobe decline can lead to symptoms of dementia.

The frontal lobe is highly vulnerable to damage for at least two reasons: first, as the last brain region to fully develop, developmental anomaliesincluding child abuse, an insufficiently stimulating environment, drug use, infections, and other factorscan permanently alter its development. Second, the frontal lobes home in the front of the forehead renders it highly vulnerable, especially to auto accident-related injuries, violence, and falls. Even relatively minor blows can rattle the brain sufficiently to impede frontal lobe functioning.

The effect of frontal lobe damage is dependent on its location and severity, as well as how quickly it is detected. Children who face serious abuse may live with frontal lobe damage for years, while car accident survivors often get more immediate help. Treatment for frontal lobe injuries typically includes medical and psychological treatment, since the frontal lobe houses the emotional life and personality.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger

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Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.

Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.

Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.

Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes

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Effects Of Physical Activity On Cognitive Performance

We had seen above that cognitive exercises and motor imagery can effect overall motor performance , but does the reverse hold true? Can motor training and exercise affect cognitive performance? The mind and its attendant cognitive abilities is no longer simply conceived of as a control mechanism for logical/abstract functions, but rather as a biological system interconnecting bodily experience and action and how those functions allow interaction with other individuals. From this perspective, the physicalmental dichotomy cannot be simply understood in the context of action and representation, but must be seen as closely interrelated, perhaps even part of the same process. Action, the interaction with objects, and the co-operation with individuals in our world the representation of the world as well as perceiving what is in it, categorizing it, and understanding the significance of perceptions, are different levels of the same relational link that exist between organisms and the local surroundings in which they operate, live, and think. This is reflected both developmentally: in the effects of motor development on cognitive development and throughout life.

Castelli et al. , in a relatively large sample, found a relationship between physical fitness and achievement test performance in thirdfifth graders. Their Fitnessgram was based on aerobic capacity , muscle , and the participants bodymass index. The results are represented in Figure .

Getting To Know Your Brain: Cerebellum

In Latin, cerebellum actually means little brain however, its function is anything but. This area of the brain controls important body functions such as balance, coordination, posture, and motor learning.Read More

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