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What Part Of The Brain Controls Learning

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Other Key Parts Of The Brain

The Brain for Kids – What is the brain and how does it work?

Ventricular System The brain is not a solid organ. Instead, there are fluid-filled cavities within the brain called ventricles. The ventricles provide nourishment to the brain. The ventricular system produces and processes cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery substance flowing around the brain to cushion and protect it.

Cranial NervesThe brain also contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Each is responsible for specific body functions.

  • Olfactory nerve: Sense of smell
  • Optic nerve: Vision

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The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

Also Check: What Does The Hippocampus Do In The Brain

The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

Where Is The Brain Located

Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ ...

The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

Also Check: Are Brain Freezes Dangerous

Left Or Right Hemisphere Of The Brain: Learning A Foreign Language

If you’re reading this, your brain is performing a series of functions that allows you to recognize the patterns of the letters and words, put them in the correct order and comprehend their meaning. Until the late 20th century, scientists believed that almost everything you do, including the ability to learn a foreign language, was determined by which side of your brain you are using.

Frontal Lobe Damage Symptoms

Symptoms of damage to the frontal lobe can vary because there are so many functions carried out by the frontal lobes. These symptoms may include one or more of the following:

  • Weakness on one side of the body or one side of the face
  • Falling
  • Low attention span, easily distracted
  • Reduced or increased sexual interest or peculiar sexual habits
  • Impulsive or risky behavior

Recommended Reading: Part Of The Brain That Controls Eyesight

What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

  • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
  • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

The Cerebellum And Prefrontal Cortex

How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

Although the hippocampus seems to be more of a processing area for explicit memories, you could still lose it and be able to create implicit memories , thanks to your cerebellum . For example, one classical conditioning experiment is to accustom subjects to blink when they are given a puff of air. When researchers damaged the cerebellums of rabbits, they discovered that the rabbits were not able to learn the conditioned eye-blink response .

Other researchers have used brain scans, including positron emission tomography scans, to learn how people process and retain information. From these studies, it seems the prefrontal cortex is involved. In one study, participants had to complete two different tasks: either looking for the letter a in words or categorizing a noun as either living or non-living . Participants were then asked which words they had previously seen. Recall was much better for the semantic task than for the perceptual task. According to PET scans, there was much more activation in the left inferior prefrontal cortex in the semantic task. In another study, encoding was associated with left frontal activity, while retrieval of information was associated with the right frontal region .

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General Inability To Speak And Understand Language

Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.

People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .

PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.

Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.

Brain Anatomy And Functions

In this area, we will look closer at the brain’s anatomy and the functions of each structure

THE BASAL GANGLIA: A group of subcortical neuronal structures that work to start and integrate movement. They receive information from the cerebral cortex and the base of the encephalon, process it, and project it to the cortex, the medulla, and the base to allow for a coordinated movement. This group of neuronal structures works with the cerebellum to coordinate fine motor skills. It is made up of a few structures:

  • Caudate nucleus, which is a “C” shaped nucleus that is implied in voluntary movement control, although it is also implied in learning and memory processes.
  • Putamen
  • Globus pallidus
  • Amygdala, which plays an important key role in emotions, especially in fear. The amygdala helps to store and classify memories and emotions.

THE HIPPOCAMPUS: A small subcortical seahorse shaped structure that plays a very important role in the formation of memory, both in classification and long-term memory.

EACH HEMISPHERE IS DIVIDED INTO 4 LOBES: These lobes are delimited by 4 cerebral suculi :

Recommended Reading: Hippocampus Atrophy

The Neuroscience Of Memory Recall

So, how do you fine-tune and upgrade that mental Ethernet connection to have a stronger memory recall? By building strong neural pathways.

Basically, to have a powerful memory recall means to have strong synaptic connections the better your cells are able to communicate with each other, the more quickly and accurately you will be able to access memories. You can strengthen these synaptic connections by sending the signal more frequently and having the neurons communicate more often. This paves a strong and clear neural pathway its like when a hiking path is more traveled, its easier to walk along.

The brain works this way because it is neuroplastic, meaning that it is constantly changing shape and form to suit your present needs. For instance, do you really need to remember all of the kids names you went to elementary school with? Since you dont, your brain works in this handy use it or lose it fashion. Thanks to this process of neuroplasticity, your brain is able to constantly take in new information and sharply perform the needs of now.

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Unit 1: Meet Your Brain
  • David Hallowell 25 Feb 2020Reply

    When we get to the bottom of the rabbit hole this is what we will find!

    As we stand between the infinite light and the infinite darkness.

    Things beyond our ability to know, and to understand.

    For the finite mind, cannot know the infinite! It Is beyond our vision and comprehension.

    What we can know is love, which is: Kindness, Goodness, Patience, Forgiveness, Truth and things such as these.

    For things such as these, are the very purpose of our existence.

    First, we must be complete in altrustic love, then we can have an infinite eternity to explore the infinate.

    But for now we must understand the concept of developing this altruistic love in all things, and all actions, even of mind and heart by understanding these from the soul or our very being.

    -Stands with a Roar-

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    Also Check: How Do Steroids Affect The Brain

    Frontal Lobe Anatomy And Function

    The brain has two hemispheres, the left and the right, which are further divided into three sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. Differentiation of these separate parts occurs during fetal development. Each has specific functions:

    • The hindbrain controls respiration and heart rate
    • The midbrain controls reflex actions such as eye movement
    • The forebrain controls emotional perceptions and responses, involuntary movements, sleep patterns, memory, and organizational ability

    The forebrain eventually develops into the cerebrum, the outer layer of which is called the cerebral cortex. The frontal lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, which also includes the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the occipital lobe.

    Each of these regions carries out specific functions, and damage to any of these lobes results in corresponding impairment.

    The frontal lobes are relatively large compared to other regions of the brain, and the extensive functions controlled by the frontal lobe is reflected in its proportional size.

    Areas Of The Brain Involved In Reading And Writing

    -By Timothy Lyons

    Both the ability to recognize words and sounding out words letter by letter are part of the process of reading. There are several areas of the brain involved in reading and writing. Previously learned words that are familiar can be read through a process known as whole word reading. With new or unlearned words reading is performed by phonetic reading which is sounding out the letters to produce the whole word .

    Visual information from the left side of the body is sent to the primary visual cortex which is then sent to the visual association cortex. This information moves to the left visual association cortex via the corpus callosum. This area of the VAC is known as the visual word-form area . The person can then verbally read a word aloud because the information processes through instruments of speech in the left frontal lobe .

    Recommended Reading: Why Do People Get Brain Freeze

    A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

    The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

    The Real Neuroscience Of Creativity

    Your Brain is You: Meet Your Brain (Part 2 of 6)

    So yea, you know how the left brain is really realistic, analytical, practical, organized, and logical, and the right brain is so darn creative, passionate, sensual, tasteful, colorful, vivid, and poetic?

    • Print

    So yea, you know how the left brain is really realistic, analytical, practical, organized, and logical, and the right brain is so darn creative, passionate, sensual, tasteful, colorful, vivid, and poetic?

    Stop it.

    Please.

    Thoughtful cognitive neuroscientists such as Anna Abraham, , Adam Bristol, Kalina Christoff, Andreas Fink, Jeremy Gray, Adam Green, Rex Jung, John Kounios, Hikaru Takeuchi, Oshin Vartanian, Darya Zabelina and others are on the forefront of investigating what actually happens in the brain during the creative process. And their findings are overturning conventional and overly simplistic notions surrounding the neuroscience of creativity.

    The latest findings from the real neuroscience of creativity suggest that the right brain/left brain distinction does not offer us the full picture of how creativity is implemented in the brain.* Creativity does not involve a single brain region or single side of the brain.

    Instead, the entire creative process from preparation to incubation to illumination to verification consists of many interacting cognitive processes and emotions. Depending on the stage of the creative process, and what youre actually attempting to create, different brain regions are recruited to handle the task.

    Or else this can happen:

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    Blood Supply To The Brain

    Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

    The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

    The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

    The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

    Myth: You Can Train Certain Parts Of The Brain To Improve Their Functioning

    Fact: This has been an attractive and sometimes lucrative idea for many entrepreneurs. However, it is not possible to target a specific brain region and teach just to that part of the brain. The brain is highly connected. Neurons in the brain learn remember and forget, but they do not do so in isolation. Skills need to be broken down into their component parts and these parts can be taught. However, we do not totally understand how this learning takes place nor do we know exactly “where” in the brain that learning is stored. Evidence from victims of stroke and head injury show that injury to the brain of one individual may not result in the same loss in the brain of another person . Brains are like fingerprints although there are commonalities, there are differences that make each brain unique.

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