Right Brain Left Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
Which Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Thinking And Memory
The majority of thinking-related processes happen in the frontal lobe. These include decision-making, problem-solving, and planning.
The frontal lobe also helps the development of cognition, language processing, and intelligence.
The temporal lobe controls other processes related to language understanding, perception, and recognition. It is also in charge of learning and memory.
Hippocampus And Classical Conditioning
In eyeblink conditioning, neuronal unit cluster recordings in hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3 increase in discharge frequency in paired training trials very rapidly, shift forward in time as learning develops, and form a predictive temporal model of the learned behavioral response, both within trials and over the trials of training . To summarize a large body of research, the growth of the hippocampal unit response is, under normal conditions, an invariable and strongly predictive concomitant of subsequent behavioral learning . This increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus becomes significant by the second or third trial of training, long before behavioral signs of learning develop, as would be expected of a declarative memory system. This initial hippocampal unit increase is in the US period; increases in the CS period appear at about the time point in training when behavioral conditioned responses appear.
There are strikingly parallel and persisting increases in glutamate -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor binding on hippocampal membranes in the hippocampal subfields in both eyeblink conditioning and in in vivo expression of LTP by stimulation of the perforant path projection to hippocampal dentate gyrus. The pattern of increased binding is similar in both paradigms . GlutamateN-methyl-d-aspartate receptors play the critical role in induction of LTP and also appear to be involved in acquisition of the trace eyeblink CR .
Brain Myths Of Creativity #: Left Brain And Right Brain
Have you ever been asked if you are left brained or right brained ? This question refers to the idea that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different abilities. In general, the left hemisphere has been thought to specialize in understanding words, processing mathematical information, and thinking analytically . The right hemisphere, on the other hand, was thought to specialize in processing non-verbal information, spatial information, music, emotions, and creativity. As we see in creativity and other complex functions, a number of specialized structures in the brain work together to accomplish something. Localization of certain abilities to one side of the brain or the other was first found in certain individuals who had the main communication between their hemispheres, the corpus callosum, cut so that each hemisphere was essentially working independently. In most people, however, the two sides of the brain are able to communicate, so while brain structures may have some specialization, most complex brain functions require many parts of the brain working together.
- Figure 3 – The leftright brain myth.
- People used to believe that the two sides of the brain were specialized for different activities: the logical left and creative right hemispheres. Retrieved from: .
What Happens In The Brain During Creative Thinking
So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. Previous research has demonstrated that several different thought processes in the brain, including processes called working memory, abstraction, planning, and cognitive flexibility, are all critical to creative thinking. This research has also shown that the ability to develop strategies is a key part of creativity . Neuroscientists , in their attempt to make a connection between creative thought processes and the parts of the brain that may process them, have defined creativity as requiring the mixing and remixing of mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking If you look back to Steve Jobs quote, you will see that he describes creativity in a similar way. Combining and recombining mental representations is simply connecting things in the brain in the way that the brain stores information.
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The World In The Front Of The Brain
Short-term and long-term memory are not the only forms in which the brain stores information. All the time that the five senses are operating, the brain is assembling and sorting perceptions of the outside world, directing some to conscious attention and collecting others into a set of perpetually updated mental representations. Although we may seldom be aware of the full extent of these mental representations, or examine them directly, nevertheless, they hold great importance for our thought processes and our ability to carry out the simplest planned action or predictive step, even something as elementary as following a fast-moving target with our eyes. These mental representations are the data on which we base cognitionour thoughts, ideas, and abstract mental processes.
Animals, too, form complex mental representations of the world, which are shaped by their own brain structure and ecological requirements. For instance, information gathered through the sense of smell undoubtedly plays a much larger role in the mental representations of a dog than in those of a bird, which relies much more on its excellent vision to help it recognize its kin, observe the territories of its rivals, and seek out food and mates. With such differences taken into account, the study of mental representation in animals can help scientists explain similar processes in humans, particularly if the neurobiology of the animal is also under study or is well known from earlier research.
The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.
You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.
The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
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Various Types Of Memory
To help you understand what exactly each part of the brain does in relation to memories, it is also important to understand what the different types of memories are. Lets take a look at each type of memory involved in the human brain.
Short Term Memory Short term is closely related to working memory, and it usually involves being able to remember recent events that happened up to 1 minute ago, give or take.
Sensory Memory Sensory memory is a very short-term type of memory, one related to our senses, and this type of memory is usually only a few seconds in nature.
Long Term Memory Generally speaking, long term memory is the ability for our brain to store, manage, and retrieve memories from the past. There are various forms of long-term memory.
Explicit Memory One type of long-term memory is explicit memory, which involves conscious memory, such as declarative memory, which can then be broken down into further categories. Declarative memory can take the form of episodic memory, which is related to events and experiences, as well as semantic memory, which is related to facts and concepts.
Implicit Memory Implicit memory is another form of long-term memory, but an unconscious kind of memory, mainly procedural memory, which has to do with skills and tasks, like motor skills.
The Process Of Memory Consolidation
Memory consolidation is the brains ability to process events and turn them into memories.
When certain neurotransmitters are present in the brain, they enable the nerve cells to communicate with one another via synaptic connections. Once two neurons fire together more than once, they are more likely to fire together again . Once a message has been thoroughly communicated, you have memory consolidation.
The Hippocampus And Long
A short-term memory can be consolidated into an enduring long-term memory. This involves a system of brain structures within the medial temporal lobe that are essential for forming declarative memories. The hippocampus is a key region in the medial temporal lobe, and processing information through the hippocampus is necessary for the short-term memory to be encoded into a long-term memory.
The long-term memory does not remain stored permanently in the hippocampus. These long-term memories are important and having them stored in only one brain location is risky damage to that area would result in the loss of all of our memories.
Instead, it is proposed that long-term memories become integrated into the cerebral cortex . This process is referred to as cortical integration; it protects the information stored in the brain.
However, damage to areas of the brain, particularly the hippocampus, results in loss of declarative memories, which is known as amnesia.
The famous case study of H.M. – Henry Molaison – demonstrated the hippocampus is vital to the formation of long-term memories. H.M. had his hippocampus removed as a 23-year-old in an attempt to treat epileptic seizures that originated in his medial temporal lobe.
Understanding Parts Of The Brain
Learn about the parts of the brain and ;how dementia damages them, as well as;about;the symptoms the damage causes.
Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.
A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.
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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Thinking
With more than 86 billion functional neurons, the brain is the most complex organ in the human body that deals with thinking. It controls everything that your body does and thinks.
It develops the main functions of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and hearing. And also helps primary functions such as breathing, talking, storing memories and thinking.
In other words, the brain is the boss of your body.
Many people wonder, which part of the brain deals with thinking?
We need to understand how our minds work so we can work our minds better.
Lets find out the answer to this question!
Can You Live 20 Years After A Stroke
Long-Term Mortality Rate Study, Ages 1850 The majority of the 959 patients studied suffered from ischemic stroke. The study found that, among 30-day survivors, the risk of death by the twentieth year mark was highest for ischemic stroke patients, at 26.8 percent, with TIA sufferers close behind at 24.9 percent.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Word Retrieval
Broca’s AphasiaDamage to a discrete part of the brain in the left frontal lobe of the language-dominant hemisphere has been shown to significantly affect the use of spontaneous speech and motor speech control. Words may be uttered very slowly and poorly articulated.
where is language stored in the brain? For more than a century, it’s been established that our capacity to use language is usually located in the left hemisphere of the brain, specifically in two areas: Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area .
Also to know is, what is word retrieval difficulty?
A ‘word retrieval difficulty‘ or ‘word finding problem’ is when a person knows and understands a particular word, but has difficulty retrieving it and using it in their speech. A child with an acquired brain injury will also have greater problems with finding the right word when they are tired or stressed.
What causes loss of word retrieval?
Causes. There are many causes of word–finding difficulty, including stroke, delirium, major depression, anxiety, head injuries, and aging.
Does The Brain Have Infinite Storage Capacity
You might have only a few gigabytes of storage space, similar to the space in an iPod or a USB flash drive. Yet neurons combine so that each one helps with many memories at a time, exponentially increasing the brains memory storage capacity to something closer to around 2.5 petabytes .Ordibehesht 11, 1389 AP
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Learning Recalling And Thinking
The brain regulates an array of functions necessary to survival: the action of our five senses, the continuous monitoring of the spatial surround, contraction and relaxation of the digestive muscles, the rhythms of breathing and a regular heartbeat. As the vital functions maintain their steady course without our conscious exertion, we are accustomed to consider the brain as preeminently the organ of thought. The brain houses our mind and our memories, and we rely on its information-processing capacities when we set out to learn something new.
But where in the brain can we locate memory or thought itself? offered some clues about the ways scientific investigationfrom the molecular level to studies of the alert, behaving animalhas begun to define in physical terms an abstract quality such as “attention.” Similar techniques and approaches are being applied to other mental functions, too, even those as seemingly intangible as learning, remembering, or thinking about the outside world.
Learning and memory, which for many years were considered central problems in psychology, the social sciences, and philosophy, have recently assumed greater importance in the area of neurobiology, itself a confluence of several lines of investigation.
Most available evidence suggests that the functions of memory are carried out by the hippocampus and other related structures in the temporal lobe.
Emotions And False Memories
; ;A;flashbulb memory;is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid episodic memory of the circumstances surrounding a piece of surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing news was heard. However, even flashbulb memories can have decreased accuracy with the passage of time, even with very important events. For example, on at least three occasions, when asked how he heard about the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President George W. Bush responded inaccurately. In January 2002, less than 4 months after the attacks, the then sitting President Bush was asked how he heard about the attacks. He responded:
I was sitting there, and my Chief of Staffwell, first of all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.
Contrary to what President Bush recalled, no one saw the first plane hit, except people on the ground near the twin towers. The first plane was not videotaped because it was a normal Tuesday morning in New York City, until the first plane hit.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger
Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.
Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.
Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.
Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes
Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
This image is from:
Frontal Lobe:;most anterior, right under the forehead; the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe:;near the back and top of the head above the ears; the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
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