Thursday, May 26, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Movement And Balance

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Psychology In Everyday Life: Why Are Some People Left


Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only 10% are primarily left-handed . This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low, and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis .

At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasound scans show that nine out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth , and the mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome . It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems .

But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United States. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States .

Anatomy Of The Nervous System

If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race takes a lot less time than it just took to read about it.

Considering everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and grooves, though, provide it with the additional surface area necessary for storing all of the bodys important information.

The spinal cord, on the other hand, is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and ¾ inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. These make up the peripheral nervous system.

The Part Of The Brain Controlling: Balance And Hearing

The processing of sound happens in the temporal lobes which are a part of the cerebrum. The audio stimuli come through the ear and go directly into the primary auditory cortex located in the temporal lobes.

But how does the temporal lobe affect balance?

Have you ever heard a loud noise and reflexively found yourself moving away from the source of the noise?

Thats the temporal lobe at work. Your temporal lobe is directly connected to the cerebellum by neural pathways. This connection enables a quick reaction to loud noise.

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Vestibular System And Posture

The vestibular system is intrinsically connected the reflexive posture system of the body. The particular pathway is called the Vestibulo-spinal system and the Vestbilo-cerebellum. These pathways have reflexive connections into the posterior chain to support upright posture and provide a platform for movement. It also has reflexive connections into the glands of the endocrine system, so any hormonal imbalances can effect posture and visa versa.

I believe that every single movement & rehabilitation professional should be assessing the Vestibular system.

Control By The Cerebral Cortex

The nervous system

While basic locomotor synergy was not largely disturbed if pyramidal tracts were bilaterally disconnected , skilled locomotor task was severely impaired. Liddell and Phillips found after unilateral or bilateral pyramidal lesions that the cats became helplessly immobile, unable to take a step without slipping or falling, when they were required to walk along a narrow beam or horizontal ladder. Such a skilled performance became more severely damaged by postcruciate than by precruciate lesions. After postcruciate lesions including both the somatosensory and parietal cortices, the cat refused to walk on narrow trucks . The precruciate area, which corresponds to supplementary motor area and premotor area of the primates, may be involved in movement initiation. On the other hand, the postcruciate cortices may utilize specific somatosensory inputs to fulfil a role in the regulation of ongoing movements in the manner of anticipatory or feed-forward adjustments . Skilled posture-gait control, therefore, can be achieved on the basis of knowledges of the orientation and motion of the body in space as well as motion perception and spatial localization of objects in extra-personal space . Such a knowledge is provided by integration of vestibular, somatosensory and visual sensory signals which occurs at both the cerebral cortex and cerebellum .

Anticipatory postural adjustment

Maintenance of vertical posture

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How Does The Brain Work

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

Where Is The Brain Located

The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

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Exercises And Critical Thinking

  • Do you think that animals experience emotion? What aspects of brain structure might lead you to believe that they do or do not?
  • Consider your own experiences and speculate on which parts of your brain might be particularly well developed as a result of these experiences.
  • Which brain hemisphere are you likely to be using when you search for a fork in the silverware drawer? Which brain hemisphere are you most likely to be using when you struggle to remember the name of an old friend?
  • Do you think that encouraging left-handed children to use their right hands is a good idea? Why or why not?
  • Which Part Of The Brain Controls Balance And Posture Plus Coordination

    Brain Balance: Exercises to Help You Grow

    Did you know that maintaining balance is a very difficult and complicated process that is happening in your brain? It involves multiple parts of your brain performing and happens as a result of your brain communicating with your environment.

    If you are curious about which part of the brain controls balance and posture, that main part of your brain is theCerebellum.

    But, other parts of the brain that help out too. The brain stem is also responsible for the development of healthy breathing practicesand balance as well.

    TheCerebellum, which is also known as your little brain, is located at the back of your cranium or your head, above the amygdala . Besides controlling balance and posture, the Cerebellum is also responsible for monitoring your voluntary movements, eye movements, and speech control.

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    Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

    The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

    This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

    The Motor System And Primary Motor Cortex

    The brains motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. It starts with premotor areas, for planning and coordinating complex movements, and ends with the primary motor cortex, where the final output is sent down the spinal cord to cause contraction and movement of specific muscles.

    The primary motor cortex on the left side of the brain controls movement of the right side of the body, and vice-versa, the right motor cortex controls movement of the left side of the body.

    Different areas of the primary motor cortex connect to, and control, movement of different parts of the body, forming a kind of body map known as the homunculus.

    The size of the area on the homunculus determines the level of fine movement control we have with that part of the body. So, for instance, a large proportion of the motor cortex is devoted to our thumb, fingers, mouth and lips, as they are vital for manipulating objects and speech articulation.

    The connection from the primary motor cortex to muscles of the body is so important that any damage leads to an impaired ability to move. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.

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    Motor Representations Are Important For Sports

    How do you learn a new sport? What would your parents or coach say? Practice, practice, practice! And as you practice, scientists think that you develop something called motor representations in your brain, which are like motor memories. Motor representations are created by groups of brain cells that interact to help you perform a movement you have learned. These representations allow you to perform better. They allow you to make the basket, slam the tennis ball, or play a violin concerto. Based upon what is happening on the soccer field, the star player can select the best response based upon her experience and the motor representations that have been developed and stored in her brain through practice. Check out this video for concrete examples of the increased speed and agility that comes with practice in cup stacking, a new Junior Olympics event .

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    Relationship Between Both Halves Of The Brain

    What are the functions of the cerebrum cerebellum and ...

    Although we have commented that each hemisphere has its peculiarities and has its own functions, this does not mean that they are radically different from each other or that they do not carry out activities together.

    What must be understood is that there are activities that are carried out mainly by one of the two hemispheres and others in which it is the task of its counterpart.

    As a curiosity, the research points out that interhemispheric differences are something distinctive of the human species.

    In most people, both hemispheres complement each other. Normally, verbal aspects such as speech are under the control of the left hemisphere however, there are cases, especially in left-handed people, in which speech is an activity exerted by areas located in both hemispheres.

    In addition, it has been seen that, in situations in which a brain injury occurs, there may be changes in the location of certain functions.

    This transfer of functions is especially significant in childhood, at which time, thanks to brain plasticity, the brain tries to save its own capacity from the injured area by making it another area, and it may be from the opposite hemisphere, who becomes position.

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    What Part Of Your Body Controls Balance

    The eyes, the joints and muscles and the vestibular organs in the inner ears control a body’s balance by sending nerve signals to the brain. Dysfunction in any one of these systems can result in loss of balance.

    Light-sensitive nerve endings, or sensory receptors, in the retina send nerve impulses to the brain. These visual sensory signals are used by the brain to help maintain balance.

    Sensory input provided by muscles and joints, the sense of proprioception, is received by the brain. The muscles and joints are surrounded by sensory receptors sensitive to pressure or stretch, and these sensory impulses tell the brain what the body is doing at any instant. The impulses that come from the neck, which indicate the head’s direction, and the impulses that come from the ankles, which determine the body’s movement or sway, are the most important.

    Brainstem And Spinal Cord Core

    In the absence of their forebrain, like a decerebrate cat, it can walk, trot and gallop. When the decerebration is made at precollicular-postmammillary level, the cat initiates locomotion by electrical or chemical stimulation applied to the mesencephalic or midbrain locomotor region . However, if the neuraxis is transected slightly higher at the precollicular-premammillary level, cats can spontaneously elicit locomotion with well-coordinated postural control . Therefore, a critical region exists between these decerebrate levels. This area is recognized as the subthalamic locomotor region , which mostly corresponds to the lateral hypothalamic area. Stimulation of the SLR evoked locomotion after a large lesion was made in the MLR area , indicating that the SLR has direct connections with the brainstem locomotor pathway beyond the MLR. However, the walking in the decerebrate preparations is machine-like and is neither goal-directed nor adaptive to the environment. Hence, the SLR connections to the MLR are likely important for normal control of posture and gait.

    So far three locomotor regions have been identified in animals: the MLR in the mesopontine tegmentum, the SLR and the cerebellar locomotor region in the mid-part of the cerebellum . Human imaging study demonstrated that the organization of these supraspinal locomotor centers was preserved during the transition to bipedal locomotion human . The clinical relevance of these centers has so far been largely neglected.

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    Connections To The Cerebellum

    Cranial Nerve VIII, the Vestibulo-Cochlear Nerve carries impulses from the inner ear to the vestibular nuclei that live within the cerebellum.

    The vestibular system is tonic, meaning it fires continuously into the cerebellum. This way the brain always knows where our heads and can reflexively fire our extensor muscles to keep us upright, balanced and as much as possible out of harms way.

    The Part Of The Brain Controlling: Balance And Posture

    The Vestibular System: The Brain and Balance

    As we mentioned earlier, the cerebellum does not work alone. It controls your equilibrium by combining sensory information from the outside world.

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    Those pieces of information come from the eyes , ears , and your bodys muscles and joints . After the information is sent to the cerebellum, it processes it and relays the information back to your body instructing it on how to stay balanced during a specific movement.

    For example, Consider standing on one foot. Your joints and muscles use receptors, called proprioceptors, to gather information about the spacial position of your body.

    These receptors then send the information back to the cerebellum adjusting your position by making you shift body weight, or even stretching your arms out to help maintain your balance.

    Now, continue standing on one foot but close your eyes. It is much more difficult to stay in that position, isnt it?

    This is because you have limited the information coming to the cerebellum. Its now unable to use visual information from the eyes and has lost a little of the spatial orientation.

    Usually, we are not aware of these processes they happen reflexively. But we often become aware of them when we exercise especially exercise that involves a high degree of coordination.

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    Which Frontal Lobe Group Works To Make A Decision

    According to the data obtained by William T. Newsomes team, decisions would be made by a single group of neurons located in the frontal lobe, which would integrate the information and then make a single choice, always evaluating the various alternatives.

    However, to move forward you have to be able to decide. Say: This is my path, I choose it. However, it is valid to understand something fundamental: not deciding is also a way of deciding it is letting circumstances or others choose for you.

    That is why it is advisable to think not only about the decision itself, but also to weigh the consequences and the effects it will have. Do not be afraid of doubts, because they are part of the decision process. Therefore, once the alternatives and their consequences have been evaluated, one must take action, and it is good to remember the phrase of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: The whole world turns away when it sees a man passing by who knows where he is going.

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