Friday, May 13, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Personality

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger

What are the Parts of the Brain?

Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.

Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.

Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.

Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes

Resting State Fmri Analysis

All fMRI analysis was performed using the FMRIB Software Library ,. In this work we perform spatial dimensionality reduction prior to a temporal ICA decomposition. For spatial dimensionality reduction we selected regions of interest based on prior literature and the Harvard-Oxford atlas. We opted for a regions-of-interest approach to decrease the chance for type I errors and to increase our sensitivity to detecting associations between our new and complex behavioral modalities and the brain. For each region, we created a mask for the area with high probability of belonging to that specific region. For the anterior cingulate cortex , we made a sub-selection for the dorsal ACC and the pregenual/medial prefrontal section . This resulted in 12 regions of interest: amygdala , hippocampus , subgenual anterior cingulate cortex , medial prefrontal cortex , dorsal anterior cingulate cortex , posterior cingulate cortex , precuneus , dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , insula and orbitofrontal cortex .

We extract the mean time-series reflecting the temporal dynamics of each of the regions of interest and perform a full rank temporal ICA decomposition to identify spatial patterns of interaction and their related independent time-series. This approach can be seen as a spatially informed Temporal Functional Modes analysis. We will further refer to these time-series as mode time-series.

Hippocampus And Classical Conditioning

In eyeblink conditioning, neuronal unit cluster recordings in hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3 increase in discharge frequency in paired training trials very rapidly, shift forward in time as learning develops, and form a predictive temporal model of the learned behavioral response, both within trials and over the trials of training . To summarize a large body of research, the growth of the hippocampal unit response is, under normal conditions, an invariable and strongly predictive concomitant of subsequent behavioral learning . This increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus becomes significant by the second or third trial of training, long before behavioral signs of learning develop, as would be expected of a declarative memory system. This initial hippocampal unit increase is in the US period; increases in the CS period appear at about the time point in training when behavioral conditioned responses appear.

There are strikingly parallel and persisting increases in glutamate -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor binding on hippocampal membranes in the hippocampal subfields in both eyeblink conditioning and in in vivo expression of LTP by stimulation of the perforant path projection to hippocampal dentate gyrus. The pattern of increased binding is similar in both paradigms . GlutamateN-methyl-d-aspartate receptors play the critical role in induction of LTP and also appear to be involved in acquisition of the trace eyeblink CR .

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The Role Of The Executive System

The role of the executive system is to handle novel situations outside of the domain of some of our more automatic psychological processes. Norman and Shallice outlined five types of situations in which routine activation of behavior would not be sufficient for optimal performance, and where executive functions must kick in.

  • Situations that involve planning or decision making
  • Situations that involve error correction or trouble shooting
  • Situations where responses are not well-rehearsed or contain novel sequences of actions
  • Dangerous or technically difficult situations
  • Situations that require overcoming strong habitual response or resisting temptation
  • The executive functions are often evoked when it is necessary to override responses that might otherwise be automatically elicited by stimuli in the external environment. For example, when being presented with a potentially rewarding stimulus, such as a piece of pie, a person might have the automatic response to take a bite. However, where such a response conflicts with internal plans , the executive functions might engage and inhibit the response.

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    Functions Of The Frontal Lobe

    Parts of the Brain and What They Do

    The frontal lobe plays a key role in future planning, including self-management and decision-making.

    People with frontal lobe damage often struggle with gathering information, remembering previous experiences, and making decisions based on this input.

    Some of the many other functions the frontal lobe plays in daily functions include:

    One of the most infamous frontal lobe injuries happened to railroad worker Phineas Gage.

    Gage survived after a railroad spike impaled a portion of his frontal lobe. Though Gage survived, he lost his eye and much of his personality.

    Gages personality dramatically changed, and the once mild-mannered worker struggled to stick to even simple plans. He became aggressive in speech and demeanor and had little impulse control.

    Much of what we know about the frontal lobe comes from case reports on Gage. Those have been called into question since, however. Little is known for sure about Gages personality before his accident, and many stories about him may be exaggerated or false.

    The case demonstrates a larger point about the brain, which is that our understanding of it is constantly evolving. Hence, it is not possible to accurately predict the outcome of any given frontal lobe injury, and similar injuries may develop quite differently in each person.

    In general, however, damage to the frontal lobe due to a blow to the head, a stroke, growths, and diseases, can cause the following symptoms:

    • speech problems

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    What Does The Brain Do

    The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.

    Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

    When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

    The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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    What Happens When The Frontal Lobe Is Damaged

    Most people experience some atrophy in the frontal lobe in their senior years, with frontal lobe volume decreasing by .5%-1% each year beginning around age 60. This slow and steady decline accounts for many of the changes, such as mild memory loss and difficulty with finding some words, associated with normal aging. More rapid frontal lobe decline can lead to symptoms of dementia.

    The frontal lobe is highly vulnerable to damage for at least two reasons: first, as the last brain region to fully develop, developmental anomaliesincluding child abuse, an insufficiently stimulating environment, drug use, infections, and other factorscan permanently alter its development. Second, the frontal lobe’s home in the front of the forehead renders it highly vulnerable, especially to auto accident-related injuries, violence, and falls. Even relatively minor blows can rattle the brain sufficiently to impede frontal lobe functioning.

    The effect of frontal lobe damage is dependent on its location and severity, as well as how quickly it is detected. Children who face serious abuse may live with frontal lobe damage for years, while car accident survivors often get more immediate help. Treatment for frontal lobe injuries typically includes medical and psychological treatment, since the frontal lobe houses the emotional life and personality.

    How Downstairs Brain And The Upstairs Brain

    The Understanding of Left Brain Characteristics

    Lets have another look at the emotional, downstairs brain and the rational, upstairs brain. The downstairs brain is the part of our brain that makes us act without thinking. It has to do this quickly for survival purposes if you are in a life threatening situation you dont have time to sit down and draw up a plan of action, you just need to act! Developmentally, this part of the brain is well developed at birth and forms more connections earlier than the upstairs brain because it is responsible for essential tasks such as making sure our needs are met, feeling strong emotions, using instinct to keep us safe, and managing bodily functions.

    The upstairs, rational brain whilst structurally all there is much slower in its development of connections. This part of the brain is highly sophisticated and responsible for problem solving, rational thinking, logic, planning and decision making, organisation, and self-control. All of these things are learnt through repeated experiences. Keeping to the house analogy, the upstairs, rational brain is under major construction for the first few years of life. During adolescence, the upstairs brain gets a remodelling which takes several more years. So the upstairs brain is not fully mature until the mid-twenties!!!!

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    What Do The Parts Of The Brain Control

    Researchers study the parts of the brain and what each part does in order to understand where functions of the brain occur. Discoveries about brain anatomy assist medical professionals in diagnosing and treating brain disorders and tumors. There are three main divisions of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.

    Functions Of The Cortex

    When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig ;applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

    Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

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    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

    Brain Map Frontal Lobes

    Left Brain vs. Right Brain Dominance

    The frontal lobes are located directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobes are the largest lobes in the human brain and they are also the most common region of injury in traumatic brain injury. The frontal lobes are important for voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions. Executive functions refer to a collection of cognitive skills including the capacity to plan, organise, initiate, self-monitor and control ones responses in order to achieve a goal. The frontal lobes are considered our behaviour and emotional control centre and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms.

    Damage to the frontal lobes can result in:

    • Loss of simple movement of various body parts
    • Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks, such as making coffee
    • Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others
    • Inability to express language
    • Loss of flexibility in thinking and persistence of a single idea or behaviour
    • Inability to focus on a task and to filter out distractions
    • Mood fluctuations
    • Difficulty inhibiting or controlling a response or impulse
    • Reduced motivation, initiation and persistence on activities
    • Reduced awareness/insight into difficulties

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    What Part Of The Brain Controls Fear

    From a biological standpoint, fear is a very important emotion. It helps you respond appropriately to threatening situations that could harm you.

    This response is generated by stimulation of the amygdala, followed by the hypothalamus. This is why some people with brain damage affecting their amygdala dont always respond appropriately to dangerous scenarios.

    When the amygdala stimulates the hypothalamus, it initiates the fight-or-flight response. The hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol.

    As these hormones enter the bloodstream, you might notice some physical changes, such as an increase in:

    • heart rate
    • blood sugar
    • perspiration

    In addition to initiating the fight-or-flight response, the amygdala also plays a role in fear learning. This refers to the process by which you develop an association between certain situations and feelings of fear.

    What Does The Pituitary Gland Control

    • Growth hormone controls the growth and size of muscles and bone
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to release hormones, such as those that control metabolism
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal glands, which produce hormones with effects similar to steroids
    • Follicle stimulating hormone keeps the ovaries and testes working properly by stimulating follicle production in the ovaries and sperm production in men
    • Luteinizing hormone works with FSH and stimulates estrogen in women and sperm production in men
    • Prolactin stimulates breast milk production
    • Antidiuretic hormone prompts the kidneys to absorb more water in the blood and causes you to urinate less
    • Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions for childbirth and milk production

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    The Gateway To Conscious Awareness

    Children who have difficulty learning to control a response often have behavioral problems which continue into adulthood, says Professor Cella Olmstead, the principal investigator on the study. She notes that impulsivity is a primary feature of many disorders including addiction, ADHD, obsessive compulsive disorder and gambling. Identifying the brain region and mechanism that controls impulsivity is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

    In conditions where learning does not occur properly, it is possible that it is this mechanism that has been impaired, adds co-investigator neuroscience Professor Eric Dumont.

    Contact: Kristyn Wallace

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    What are the different parts of the brain and what do they do? | Cancer Research UK

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    What Organs Are Affected By Stress

    Stress affects all systems of the body including the musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, nervous, and reproductive systems. Our bodies are well equipped to handle stress in small doses, but when that stress becomes long-term or chronic, it can have serious effects on your body.

    How Do I Get The Best Quality Sleep

    10 Tips to Get More Sleep

  • Go to sleep at the same time each night, and get up at the same time each morning, even on the weekends.
  • Dont take naps after 3 p.m, and dont nap longer than 20 minutes.
  • Stay away from caffeine and alcohol late in the day.
  • Avoid nicotine completely.
  • Get regular exercise, but not within 2-3 hours of bedtime.
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    Understanding Parts Of The Brain

    Learn about the parts of the brain and ;how dementia damages them, as well as;about;the symptoms the damage causes.

    Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.

    A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.

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