Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Problem Solving

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Functions Of The Brain

How To Improve Problem Solving Skills

The human brain is magnificent and complex. The brain is made up of many parts, each with a specific and important function. It controls our ability to balance, walk, talk, and eat. It coordinates and regulates our breathing, blood circulation, and heart rate. It is responsible for our ability to speak, to process and remember information, make decisions, and feel emotions. Every brain is unique, ever-changing, and extremely sensitive to its environment.

The brain is divided into functional sections, called lobes:

  • Frontal Lobe
  • Temporal Lobe

Each lobe has an important and specific function, detailed below.

The functional sections of the brain are also categorized by side the right side and the left side. If you split the brain down the middle into two equally-sized parts, they are not the same and do not carry the same functions. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. Each side is responsible for different functions, and general patterns of dysfunction may occur depending on the side of the brain sustaining an injury.

The traits of each side are detailed below:

What Areas Of The Brain Control Executive Functioning

Executive functions are located primarily in the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobe with multiple neuronal connections to other cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. Neuroimaging and lesion studies from a variety of neurological diseases and injury models have confirmed the findings. However, it should be noted that prefrontal injury does not directly affect specific cognitive or linguistic processes; rather it affects their regulation and effective use, likely through alteration of the numerous neuronal connections between the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions.

If the distinction between a cognitive process and executive control over the process is not clearly drawn, assessment results may be incorrectly interpreted and inappropriate treatment prescribed .

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in online processing of information such as integrating different dimensions of cognition and behavior. The areas have been found to be linked to verbal and design fluency, ability to maintain and shift set, planning, response inhibition, working recall, organization skills, reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Fear

From a biological standpoint, fear is a very important emotion. It helps you respond appropriately to threatening situations that could harm you.

This response is generated by stimulation of the amygdala, followed by the hypothalamus. This is why some people with brain damage affecting their amygdala dont always respond appropriately to dangerous scenarios.

When the amygdala stimulates the hypothalamus, it initiates the fight-or-flight response. The hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol.

As these hormones enter the bloodstream, you might notice some physical changes, such as an increase in:

  • heart rate
  • blood sugar
  • perspiration

In addition to initiating the fight-or-flight response, the amygdala also plays a role in fear learning. This refers to the process by which you develop an association between certain situations and feelings of fear.

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Hippocampus And Classical Conditioning

In eyeblink conditioning, neuronal unit cluster recordings in hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3 increase in discharge frequency in paired training trials very rapidly, shift forward in time as learning develops, and form a predictive temporal model of the learned behavioral response, both within trials and over the trials of training . To summarize a large body of research, the growth of the hippocampal unit response is, under normal conditions, an invariable and strongly predictive concomitant of subsequent behavioral learning . This increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus becomes significant by the second or third trial of training, long before behavioral signs of learning develop, as would be expected of a declarative memory system. This initial hippocampal unit increase is in the US period; increases in the CS period appear at about the time point in training when behavioral conditioned responses appear.

There are strikingly parallel and persisting increases in glutamate -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor binding on hippocampal membranes in the hippocampal subfields in both eyeblink conditioning and in in vivo expression of LTP by stimulation of the perforant path projection to hippocampal dentate gyrus. The pattern of increased binding is similar in both paradigms . GlutamateN-methyl-d-aspartate receptors play the critical role in induction of LTP and also appear to be involved in acquisition of the trace eyeblink CR .

What Part Of The Brain Analyzes

Human Brain Illustrations

Occipital lobe: The lateral boundaries of the parietal and temporal lobes are delimited. It is interested in detecting and manipulating graphics. It processes and interprets what we see. To view and draw assumptions about visual images, the Occipital lobe analyzes factors such as form, colour, and movement.

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Which Frontal Lobe Group Works To Make A Decision

According to the data obtained by William T. Newsomes team, decisions would be made by a single group of neurons located in the frontal lobe, which would integrate the information and then make a single choice, always evaluating the various alternatives.

However, to move forward you have to be able to decide. Say: This is my path, I choose it. However, it is valid to understand something fundamental: not deciding is also a way of deciding; it is letting circumstances or others choose for you.

That is why it is advisable to think not only about the decision itself, but also to weigh the consequences and the effects it will have. Do not be afraid of doubts, because they are part of the decision process. Therefore, once the alternatives and their consequences have been evaluated, one must take action, and it is good to remember the phrase of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: The whole world turns away when it sees a man passing by who knows where he is going.

Getting To Know Your Brain: Cerebellum

In Latin, cerebellum actually means little brain; however, its function is anything but. This area of the brain controls important body functions such as balance, coordination, posture, and motor learning.Read More

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain

How to ACCESS ALL PARTS OF THE BRAIN, for real creative thinking

In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.

Image: DJ /;CC BY-SA 2.0;;Albert Kok /;Public Domain

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The Role Of The Executive System

The role of the executive system is to handle novel situations outside of the domain of some of our more automatic psychological processes. Norman and Shallice outlined five types of situations in which routine activation of behavior would not be sufficient for optimal performance, and where executive functions must kick in.

  • Situations that involve planning or decision making
  • Situations that involve error correction or trouble shooting
  • Situations where responses are not well-rehearsed or contain novel sequences of actions
  • Dangerous or technically difficult situations
  • Situations that require overcoming strong habitual response or resisting temptation
  • The executive functions are often evoked when it is necessary to override responses that might otherwise be automatically elicited by stimuli in the external environment. For example, when being presented with a potentially rewarding stimulus, such as a piece of pie, a person might have the automatic response to take a bite. However, where such a response conflicts with internal plans , the executive functions might engage and inhibit the response.

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    Creating Brain Characters A Strategy Used By Child Psychologists To Help Children Understand And Manage Emotions

    Help kids come up with their own names for characters in the brain. It doesnt matter what they are called as long as both you and your child know who you are referring to and what they do . You can share stories about the brain characters and their antics based on real life experiences of both your child and yourself, e.g. Remember when Big Boss Bootsy took over and made you hit your brother before you even had time to think? Or I think Alerting Allie and Big Boss Bootsy made Mummy feel cranky this morning when we were running late for school. Lucky Calming Carl was able to settle things down before they flipped my lid!

    Using the brain house and its character inhabitants helps kids talk about their emotions and related behaviors in a non-judgemental, no blame, fun way because it separates their feelings, thoughts and behaviors from the child. Some parents raise concerns about kids using this as an excuse for their behaviors, and not taking responsibility for their actions. If we jump straight into consequences though, we are trying to reason with the rational brain of our child, whereas they are perceiving our response as a threat and functioning from the emotional brain, with a huge likelihood that the stairway has been blocked and all rational thoughts locked in.

    To know more about behavior and emotions you can visit: www.changespsychology.com.au

    Deak, J. . Your Fantastic Elastic Brain Stretch it, shape it. Little Pickle Press LLC, Belvedere CA.

    Motor Representations Are Important For Sports

    What part of the brain controls problem solving  IZQHQ

    How do you learn a new sport? What would your parents or coach say? Practice, practice, practice! And as you practice, scientists think that you develop something called motor representations in your brain, which are like motor memories. Motor representations are created by groups of brain cells that interact to help you perform a movement you have learned. These representations allow you to perform better. They allow you to make the basket, slam the tennis ball, or play a violin concerto. Based upon what is happening on the soccer field, the star player can select the best response based upon her experience and the motor representations that have been developed and stored in her brain through practice. Check out this video for concrete examples of the increased speed and agility that comes with practice in cup stacking, a new Junior Olympics event .

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    Effects Of Frontal Lobe Damage

    MRI studies by Levin in 1990 indicated that the frontal lobe is the region thats most likely to experience mild to moderate injury.;The left frontal lobe is mainly responsible for controlling movements related to language while the right frontal lobe is responsible for the non-verbal movements.

    Based from Kolb and Milner, an individual that suffered from frontal damage could display few spontaneous movements in the face and speak fewer words or vice versa for right frontal lesions.

    A common characteristic of a frontal brain injury is difficulty to interpret feedback from the environment. There is also a dramatic change in a persons social behavior.

    Get To Know The Parts Of Your Brain

    That three-pound, fatty, squishy, and oddly-shaped blob in your head is truly amazing. Its what makes you, you. Its responsible for your personality and how we sense the world. It lets you relive memories over and over again. It gives you the capacity for language, art, and moral judgments. Your movements, day in and day out are your brains responsibility. That quick scratch of the nose to relieve a pesky itch, or standing up from your couch to stretchyou can thank your brain for that.

    But understanding this organ isnt so easy. There are many complex areas that are responsible for an array of functions you take for granted every day. Lets take a look at the primary components and their primary responsibilities of the human brain.

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    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

    The Lobes Of The Brain

    Your reptilian brain, explained | Robert Sapolsky | Big Think

    Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal. The frontal lobes are the largest sections of the brain and make up the front portion of the cerebrum. The frontal lobes are the main thought processing center and control reasoning, problem solving, decision making, language and personality traits.

    The temporal lobes are found on the sides of the brain, just above the ears. This part of the brain is responsible for short-term memory, understanding speech and recognizing sounds. Together with the frontal lobes, they identify and process smells.

    The back portion of the cerebrum are the occipital lobes, which control vision. Lying interior to the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes are the parietal lobes. The parietals are the sensory processing center of the brain and are responsible for spoken language and learning.

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    Relationship Between Both Halves Of The Brain

    Although we have commented that each hemisphere has its peculiarities and has its own functions, this does not mean that they are radically different from each other or that they do not carry out activities together.;

    What must be understood is that there are activities that are carried out mainly by one of the two hemispheres and others in which it is the task of its counterpart.

    As a curiosity, the research points out that interhemispheric differences are something distinctive of the human species.;

    In most people, both hemispheres complement each other. Normally, verbal aspects such as speech are under the control of the left hemisphere; however, there are cases, especially in left-handed people, in which speech is an activity exerted by areas located in both hemispheres.

    In addition, it has been seen that, in situations in which a brain injury occurs, there may be changes in the location of certain functions.;

    This transfer of functions is especially significant in childhood, at which time, thanks to brain plasticity, the brain tries to save its own capacity from the injured area by making it another area, and it may be from the opposite hemisphere, who becomes position.

    Understanding Parts Of The Brain

    Learn about the parts of the brain and ;how dementia damages them, as well as;about;the symptoms the damage causes.

    Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.

    A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.

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    Trauma Its Effects On The Brain And Coping Skills

    Coping with trauma has multiple physical, emotional, and psychological effects, and can have severe effects on the brain as well. The three main parts affected by trauma are the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex.

    The amygdala is a part of the brain that mainly regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response. This response typically occurs during traumatic events we either fight back, flee from the situation, or freeze in place. When we experience triggers and/or threatening situations, a part of the brain called the thalamus releases stress hormones, which stimulates the amygdala. When the amygdala is stimulated, a split second decision is made . This means that the cortex, where judgment and critical thinking take place, does not have control over the situation. During these situations, we tend to experience an increase in heart rate, quicker breathing, shaking, sweating, and other physiological symptoms. In some situations, it can take hours to return to normal functioning.

    On the bright side, there are multiple ways to cope with how trauma affects the brain.

    Knowing how trauma affects the brain as well as how it affects you individually can help you figure out coping skills that work for you. Healing is not linear and you might not feel great every day, but having coping skills at your disposal can make a difference.

    You are strong. You can get through this.

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