What Does It Mean When Reflex Test Results Are The Same On Both Sides
Reflex test responses should be the same for both sides of the body. Different responses on the two sides of the body may indicate early onset of progressive disease, or localized nerve damage, as from trauma. Reflex Test Responses Include: Continual jerks after the tap can indicate cerebellar disease.
What Are The Parts Of The Brain
Every second of every day the brain is collecting and sending out signals from and to the parts of your body. It keeps everything working even when we are sleeping at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this amazing control center. You can see each part and later learn what are involved with different tasks.
Where Is It Located
The cerebellum is the largest structure of the hindbrain and can be found in the back portion of the skull below the temporal and occipital lobes and behind the brainstem.
When looking at the brain, the cerebellum looks much like a smaller structure separate from the brain, found beneath the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum consists of a cortex covering white matter, as well as a ventricle filled with fluid. It is also divided into two hemispheres like the cerebral cortex.
There are two main parts of the cerebellum:
- Cerebellar cortex: A layer containing folded tissue containing most of the cerebellums neurons
- Cerebellar nuclei: The innermost part of the cerebellum containing nerve cells that communication information from the cerebellum
The cerebellum makes up just 10% of the total volume of the brain, yet it contains an estimated 50% to 80% of the brains .
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Control Mechanisms During Exercise And Sleep
The control of breathing during both sleep and exercise is worthy of further examination. During slow-wave sleep, sensory stimuli are reduced, behavioral modifications are minimal, the central control mechanisms are depressed, and alveolar ventilation is reduced. The arterial CO2 runs 2 to 3 mm Hg higher than in the waking state. The situation is different during rapid eye movement sleep. Breathing becomes irregular. Muscular activity is greatly reduced indeed, the skeletal muscles, including those of the larynx and pharynx, relax. This may produce upper airway obstruction and apnea. This type of apnea is termed obstructive. Arousal occurs when the increasingly low Pao2 and high Po2 stimulate the carotid chemoreceptors. This type of sleep apnea is seen in all persons however, it is especially common in older men. In patients with COPD whose normal ventilation is severely reduced, further reduction attributable to apneic episodes may be extremely detrimental. If the depression of the central mechanisms is severe enough, a central type of sleep apnea may occur. Respiratory activity ceases until arousal occurs. This may be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome.
M.T. Cao, C.M. Pandya, in, 2013
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Does Alcohol Really Kill Your Brain Cells
Theres no question that alcohol affects the brain in negative ways. It can impair brain function even in the short term. In the longer term, it can lead to serious brain damage. It doesnt actually kill brain cells, though.
Long-term heavy drinking can cause shrinking of the brain and result in deficiencies in white matter. This can lead to:
- slurred speech
- family history of substance abuse
Alcoholics are prone to developing a brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Symptoms include:
- mental confusion
- paralysis of nerves that control eye movement
- muscle coordination problems and difficulty walking
- chronic learning and memory problems
Drinking during pregnancy can affect your babys developing brain, a condition known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome tend to have smaller brain volume . They can also have fewer brain cells or normally functioning neurons. This can cause long-term behavioral and learning problems.
Alcohol may interfere with the brains ability to grow new brain cells, which is another reason this myth may persist.
Why is it so easy to believe these myths about the brain? Theres a grain of truth running through some of them. Others seep into our own brains through repetition, and we fail to question their validity.
If you previously bought into some of these brain myths, take heart. You werent alone.
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Figure 807 The Amygdala Is Involved In Fear And Fear Memories The Hippocampus Is Associated With Declarative And Episodic Memory As Well As Recognition Memory The Cerebellum Plays A Role In Processing Procedural Memories Such As How To Play The Piano The Prefrontal Cortex Appears To Be Involved In Remembering Semantic Tasks
Long term memory represents the final stage in the information-processing model where informative knowledge is stored permanently . Memories we have conscious storage and access to are known as explicit memory and are encoded by the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the perihinal cortex which are important structures in the limbic system. The limbic system represents a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebral cortex, and is important for a variety of functions including emotion, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction.
In contrast to the memory systems covered above related to explicit encoding and retrieval memory processes, implicit memory as discussed in the previous section refers to memories that are acquired and recalled unconsciously. Modern research has suggested that the cerebellum, the basal ganglia , the motor cortex, and various areas of the cerebral cortex are related to the storage and retrieval of implicit memory.
What Parts Of The Brain Is Responsible For Respiration
Now that we have that covered, lets talk about the involvement of the brain in this process.
Your brain starts where the spinal cord enters the skull, and the first section that you encounter is called the Brain Stem. The brain stem contains the following structures:
- The medulla oblongata
- The Pons
- The Midbrain
The medulla oblongata is involved in regulating many of the bodily processes that are controlled automatically like blood pressure, heart rate and yes, you guessed it . . . RESPIRATION.
The way this works is relatively straightforward. The medulla oblongata basically detects carbon dioxide and Oxygen levels in the bloodstream and determines what changes need to happen in the body.
The reason I mentioned the heart is because the respiratory system is very much tied to the circulatory system.
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Not All Reflexes Are Simple
There are many different reflexes in the body. Some of them are complicated and involve multiple interneurons and many synapses. When there are many synapses, the reflex is called polysynaptic . These reflexes, just like the simple monosynaptic reflex, exist in living beings, especially humans, to keep us safe! Sometimes reflexes create more than one action. Imagine removing your foot from something sharplike a Lego piece that was left on the floor. If you removed your foot from the Lego because it hurt, but didnt place your other foot down, you would fall and that would hurt even more! So, the withdrawal reflex to remove your foot works with a reflex on the other side of the body telling you to put your other foot down. That reflex is called the crossed extensor reflex. These actions are all done without you thinking or planning, but your brain helps to assess the situation as an afterthought. It might think, That hurt! Who left the Lego there?
How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .
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The Central Nervous System
This page outlines the basic physiology of the central nervous system,including the brain and spinal cord.Separate pages describe the nervous system ingeneral,sensation, control of skeletal muscle and control of internalorgans.
As You Proceed Up The Evolutionary Ladder From Fish Toward Humans Check Out The Changes In The Brain For Example The Cerebrum Gets Bigger Takes Up A Larger Part Of The Total Brain And Becomes Folded
The simplest possible creatures have incredibly basic nervous systems made up of nothing but reflex pathways. For example, flatworms and invertebrates dont have centralized brains. They have loose associations of neurons arranged in straightforward reflex pathways. Flatworms have neural nets, or individual neurons linked together that form a net around the entire animal.
Most invertebrates have modest brains that consist of localized collections of neuronal cell bodies called ganglia. Each ganglion controls sensory and motor functions in its segment through reflex pathways, and the ganglia are linked together to form a simple nervous system. As nervous systems evolved, chains of ganglia evolved into more centralized simple brains.
Brains evolved from ganglia of invertebrates. Regardless of the animal, brains have the following parts:
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Where Are Reflexes Controlled In The Brain
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This allows for faster reflex actions to occur by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain.
Why Doctors Test Reflexes
Neurologists use different reflexes to see how different parts of the nervous system are functioning. For example, for the knee-jerk reflex to work, the nerves to and from the muscle must be intact, and the spinal cord needs to be working at that level. Similarly, a brainstem reflex, such as the pupils constricting to light, can help a neurologist know that the brainstem is working properly.
Furthermore, reflexes are moderated by many other things in the body. For example, the brain usually sends impulses down the spinal cord that keeps reflexes like the knee-jerk relatively calm. After a stroke or other injury to the brain, the calming influence on the reflex is slowly lost, and this results in reflexes being hyperactive. One of the reasons neurologists check reflexes is to see if there is an imbalance between the left and right sides, which can be a clue to damage to the brain or spinal cord.
Sometimes a reflex can look a lot like conscious behavior. For example, in the triple flexion reflex, the knee, hip, and foot flex in such a way that the leg withdraws when a painful stimulus is applied. This can happen even if an electrical signal never reaches the brainit can be completely orchestrated by the spinal cord. Its important to distinguish between a reflex and intentional movement in cases of coma or altered consciousness.
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Which Part Of The Brain Controls Visual Reflexes And Eye Movements
eye movementareascontrol eye movementsvisual
Answer and Explanation: The part of the brain that controls visual and auditory reflexes is the tectum. It is a small structure in the midbrain found just above the brain
Secondly, which part of the brain is responsible for problem solving? The frontal lobe is responsible for initiating and coordinating motor movements higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organizing and for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup. The parietal lobe is involved with sensory processes, attention, and language.
Simply so, what part of the brain is responsible for reaction time?
The brain stem, which consists of the medulla , pons and midbrain . The brain stem controls the reflexes and automatic functions , limb movements and visceral functions .
What part of the brain controls muscle coordination?
The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. Its a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But its a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .
How Do I Get Rid Of My Gag Reflex Forever
You can reduce or eliminate your gag reflex by gradually getting your soft palate accustomed to being touched. One technique is to use a toothbrush on your tongue: Using a soft toothbrush to brush your tongue until you reach the area that makes you feel like you might gag. If you gag, you have brushed too far.
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Diseases Of The Somatic Nervous System
Somatic nervous system diseases are those that impact the peripheral nerves that are outside of the brain and spinal cord. Diseases that impact the peripheral nerve fibers of the somatic nervous system can cause what is known as peripheral neuropathy. This leads to nerve damage that causes numbness, weakness, and pain, often in the hands and feet.
The causes of damage to the peripheral nerves found in the somatic system can include conditions present from birth as well as acquired conditions.
Diabetes is one of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy, but it may also be caused by autoimmune conditions, infectious diseases, and trauma.
Other types of somatic nervous system diseases include:
- Brachial plexus neuropathies
Your Body’s Natural And Automatic Reflexes
A reflex is an involuntary movement to a stimulus. It is a relatively simple way your body relays information that never reaches conscious awareness. Most of us take a lot of what the body does for us for granted, and thats a good thing. It would be extremely difficult to have to plan and actively execute every tiny movement we make.
As you read this, subtle readjustments are constantly being made between the muscles of your spine and torso to keep you in balance. Your eyes make tiny readjustments for every shift of your head. Your pupils dilate appropriately to adjust to the level of light and to focus on whats in front of you. When you swallow, your throat automatically closes off your airway to prevent saliva from going down the wrong tube. Each breath you take automatically readjusts to provide the right balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood, as well as taking deeper breaths now and then to keep the lungs open.
These are just a few examples of the automatic responses that keep us functioning every day. Most of the functions that are critical for life are outside of our conscious control. Instead, these functions are governed by reflexes.
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An Invitation To Imagine
Humanity has used creativity to make sense of the nonsensical sincebefore the development of language. As we uncover how it works and where it might come from, we have a better sense ofhow to cultivate imagination. Explore the talks from TEDxMileHigh: Imagine. Together, lets abandon the need for permission and give ourselves collective permission to imagine.
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Sensory Or Afferent Neurons
Once the receptors have captured the information from the outside, the sensory or afferent neurons are in charge of collecting it and transmitting it to the nerve centers of the spinal cord, the place where the information will be processed in order to be able to elaborate the response that best adapts to environmental demands.
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How Does The Nervous System Work
The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.
All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.
Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. It’s why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child’s brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. That’s why many scientists believe it’s important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.