Tuesday, May 3, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Smell And Taste

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Cellular Expression Of The Virus Receptor

Study indicates COVID-19 causes brain damage, even in mild cases

ACE2 was characterized as the main entrance receptor for SARS-CoV-2 interacting with its spike proteins. The spike protein allows the entrance into the host cell via a fusion domain . This fusion domain is uncovered after maturation of the spike protein by both ACE2 and the transmembrane serine protease 2 . These proteins mainly direct the cellular sensitivity to SARS-CoV-2.

Both proteins are mainly expressed in the upper part of the respiratory tract and the highest density of these proteins is found in the olfactory epithelium. Sustentacular cells express most of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and these proteins are absent from OSN . Both are also expressed to a lesser extent in Bowmans gland, microvillar cells and basal stem cells . Based on this expression profile, sustentacular cells seem to be the main target of the SARS-CoV-2 in the olfactory epithelium.

Interestingly, chemical disorders associated with COVID-19 seem to be linked to the ethnicity. A recent review reporting on nearly 40,000 patients across 104 studies found that anosmia is more prevalent in Caucasians than Asians . Such differences in chemical disorder susceptibility do not seem to be due to underreporting, but may be explained by virus strain differences among SARS-CoV-2 and/or ethnic variation in the frequencies of ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 sequences giving more affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to Caucasians .

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Anatomy Of The Olfactory System

Odorant contact with the primary olfactory neurons is the starting point of olfactory transduction. The glomerulus of the olfactory bulb is the only relay between the peripheral and central olfactory system. Olfactory information is conducted to the secondary olfactory structures, notably the piriform cortex. The tertiary olfactory structures are the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and insular cortex.

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Frontal Lobe Anatomy And Function

The brain has two hemispheres, the left and the right, which are further divided into three sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. Differentiation of these separate parts occurs during fetal development. Each has specific functions:

  • The hindbrain controls respiration and heart rate
  • The midbrain controls reflex actions such as eye movement
  • The forebrain controls emotional perceptions and responses, involuntary movements, sleep patterns, memory, and organizational ability

The forebrain eventually develops into the cerebrum, the outer layer of which is called the cerebral cortex. The frontal lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, which also includes the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the occipital lobe.

Each of these regions carries out specific functions, and damage to any of these lobes results in corresponding impairment.

The frontal lobes are relatively large compared to other regions of the brain, and the extensive functions controlled by the frontal lobe is reflected in its proportional size.

Loss Of Taste And Smell

What area of the brain gives us sense of smell: the ...

Although it’s rare, loss of taste and smell can be linked with brain tumours in certain parts of the brain.

Loss of taste and smell is something that’s been spoken about a lot this year, as it’s a key symptom of coronavirus and one that can last for weeks or months in some cases.

If you’re experiencing a loss of taste or smell it’s important that you follow Government guidelines.

Is loss of taste and smell a symptom of a brain tumour?

Loss of taste and smell may be connected with other health conditions, but, although it’s rare, it could be linked to a brain tumour in certain parts of the brain.

For example,

  • a brain tumour in the frontal lobe could lead to loss of smell
  • a brain tumour in the temporal lobe could lead to sensations of strange smells
  • a brain tumour in the parietal lobe could lead to difficulty bringing together information from your senses, including smell and taste .

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Loss Of Taste And Smell After Head Injury: Key Points

Loss of taste and smell after head injury can have a serious impact on a persons quality of life. It typically occurs after damage to the parts of the brain in charge of smell, such as the olfactory regions.

While there are currently no proven treatments for anosmia caused by head trauma, olfactory training may prove useful. Its also a good idea to talk to your doctor about your symptoms as soon as you notice them. New treatments for anosmia are on the rise, and your doctor might know of some that could help you.

Children And The Sense Of Smell

Some children are born without a sense of smell, or lose their sense of smell during childhood, as a result of serious underlying disease such as cancer. There is at present no established method of testing the sense of smell in children. However, clinical research is being carried out at the childrens department of the faculty.

Dr Singh and Associate Professor Ingvild Brusevold are working on the validation of a test, developed at the Technische Universität Dresden, to identify the sense of smell in children. This new test is currently being validated in twenty countries, and Dr Singh is responsible for its validation with Norwegian children.

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Scientists Identify The Location Of ‘taste’ In Your Head And It’s Not The Tongue

How exactly do our brains sort between the five taste groups: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami? We’ve now got a much better idea, thanks to research that has pinned down where in the brain this taste processing happens.

Step forward: the insular cortex. Already thought to be responsible for everything from motor control to social empathy, we can now add flavour identification to its list of jobs.

It’s an area of the brain scientists have previously suspected could be responsible for sorting tastes, and which has been linked to taste in rodents, but this new study is much more precise in figuring out the role it plays in decoding what our tongues are telling us.

“We have known that tastes activate the human brain for some time, but not where primary taste types such as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter are distinguished,” says one of the team, Adam Anderson from Cornell University in New York.

“By using some new techniques that analyse fine-grained activity patterns, we found a specific portion of the insular cortex an older cortex in the brain hidden behind the neocortex represents distinct tastes.”

Anderson and his team used detailed fMRI scans of 20 adults as well as a new statistical model to dig deeper than previous studies into the link between the insular cortex and taste. This helped separate the taste response from other related responses like the disgust we might feel when eating something sour or bitter.

Role Of Flavor In Eating Behavior In Pathophysiological Conditions

What part of the brain processes taste and aroma?

Taste and smell dysfunctions are common clinical problems associated with disease processes but are often neglected . Yet deficits in taste and olfactory chemical senses have a severe impact on the pleasure from foods and represent risk factors for nutritional deficiencies. Causes of smell, taste, and oral somatosensory disorders that affect intakes are numerous: aging, chronic nasal-sinus disease, upper respiratory tract infection, pathologies of the middle ear, head trauma, neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, liver and kidney diseases, cancer, environmental chronic exposures, medications, oral health, surgical interventions, infections and nutritional intervention for chemosensory disorders .

Several studies observed that the coronavirus causing COVID-19 is responsible for smell and taste dysfunctions . Some studies have reported that 11% of COVID-19 patients with smell loss have chronic deficits, with a chemosensory dysfunction that persists beyond 4 weeks after onset . Accordingly, the current number of such patients worldwide can be estimated. This unprecedent magnitude of the number of cases emphasizes the importance of understanding the clinical consequences of loss of smell/taste.

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Senses Of Taste And Smell More Important Than We Think

Research smell and taste is a relatively new field in Norway, but Postdoctoral Fellow Preet Bano Singh at the Faculty of Dentistry is breaking new ground in this area.

A great deal of interesting research is carried out at the Dry Mouth Clinic into taste and smell, for instance, in patients with Sjögrens syndrome. Postdoctoral Fellow Preet Bano Singh collaborates closely with Professor Janicke Cecilie Liaaen Jensen. Photo: Margit Selsjord OD/UIO.

Humans have five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. In modern neurology, knowledge of the classical senses, especially sight and hearing, has played an important role in understanding how the brain interprets sensory impressions. The senses of smell and taste, on the other hand, have received little attention.

And that is really quite surprising, says Dr Singh, especially in the light of a current discussion about how the sense of taste is possibly the only one of the five classical senses that for humans is actually essential to life.

If the sense of taste is impaired, it may often negatively affect patients food intake, nutritional status and consequently health condition.. Senses of smell and taste are vital in identification of valuable nutrients in the environment, procurement of adequate energy and central to survival. That is an important reason why research into taste and smell should receive just as much attention as the other senses, says Dr Singh.

What Does The Brain Do

The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.

Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

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The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

Right Brain Left Brain

Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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Frontal Lobe Damage Symptoms

Symptoms of damage to the frontal lobe can vary because there are so many functions carried out by the frontal lobes. These symptoms may include one or more of the following:

  • Weakness on one side of the body or one side of the face
  • Falling
  • Low attention span, easily distracted
  • Reduced or increased sexual interest or peculiar sexual habits
  • Impulsive or risky behavior

I Think I Have A Brain Tumour What Should I Do

Brain tumours are rare, however, if you’re worried and a symptom persists or if you have more than one symptom of a brain tumour then:

  • If your symptoms are limited to changes in vision and/or headaches, get your eyes tested by an optician before seeing your GP.
  • Go to A& EIf the symptoms are sudden or severe, you should go to your emergency department or call 999.

Should I speak to a doctor during the coronavirus pandemic?

We understand you may feel worried about seeking help from your GP during the coronavirus pandemic but please don’t delay speaking to a healthcare professional.

The NHS and your GP are still here for you and have made changes that make it easier to safely speak to a healthcare professional and get medical help if you need it.

It’s more important than ever for you to prepare for your appointments by understanding what might happen during the appointment and what questions you want to ask.

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The Theory And Some Science:

The sense of smell is closely linked with memory, probably more so than any of our other senses. Those with full olfactory function may be able to think of smells that evoke particular memories the scent of an orchard in blossom conjuring up recollections of a childhood picnic, for example. This can often happen spontaneously, with a smell acting as a trigger in recalling a long-forgotten event or experience. Marcel Proust, in his book A Recherche Du Temps Perdu, , wrote that a bite of a madeleine cake vividly recalled childhood memories of his aunt giving him the very same cake before going to mass on a Sunday.

What Are The Parts Of The Brain

What part of the brain processes taste and aroma? #Answer

The brain has three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The Forebrain

The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain as well as other structures under it.

The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes you who you are: your intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres. They’re connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers that lets them communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

  • The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.
  • The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

So when you’re balancing your checkbook, you’re using the left side. When you’re listening to music, you’re using the right side. It’s believed that some people are more “right-brained” or “left-brained” while others are more “whole-brained,” meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, and :

The Midbrain

The Hindbrain

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What Happens In The Brain During Imagination

In another fascinating discovery reported by Live Science in 2014, researchers found that reality and imagination flow in different directions in the brain: the visual information from real events that the eyes see flows up from the brains occipital lobe to the parietal lobe, but imagined images flow down from Nov 12, 2019.

The Smell Of Fear Means Poorer Treatment

A research project was carried out at the Dentistry Skills Center to see what happens when dentists treat patients who are anxious or nervous. The trial was conducted using T-shirts with body odors from two situations, one in which the bearers were nervous, and one when they were relaxed. The shirts were then placed on practice dummies while students performed dental treatments. Clean T-shirts with no smell were used as controls. All the T-shirts were masked with a substance called eugenol, so that it was not possible for the students to distinguish which smell was in which T-shirt.

The students were then asked to perform the treatment the normal way. The results showed that the dummies wearing T-shirts that smelled of fear were given poorer treatment.

The results of this study show how important it is to know about this mechanism, says Dr Singh. If dentists are aware of how a nervous patient in the chair can affect them subconsciously, they can make use of that knowledge and take extra care.

The project was carried out in collaboration with the University of Trieste in Italy and involves Master students at the faculty. The study was published in Chemical Senses.

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