Brain Injury And Speech
What happens if one or more of these parts is injured, damaged, or abnormal?
If you have a problem speaking or understanding speech, its a condition called aphasia. If you have trouble putting together the correct muscle movements necessary to produce speech, its a condition called .
Symptoms of aphasia or apraxia depend on where the damage occurs in the brain and the severity of the damage. These symptoms include:
Appendix: Oral Motor Scale For Children Under 39 Months
Each item was scored on the following scale, and the scores were totalled:
0 – No Attempt
1) Open the mouth wide
2) Turn down the corners of the lips
3) Close the lips tightly together
4) Stretch the lips wide
5) Blow the cheeks out
6) Stick the tongue out
7) Bring the front teeth together
8) Make the lips round and blow, child is scored on ability to make the round shape and control the blowing
10) Place honey on lips and lick off
Numbers 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10 are classified as complex movements .
For all tests: the experimenter starts slowly and then speeds up. The movements were timed using the slow playback function of a video editing machine but the maximum time of 10 seconds for each set was also timed using a stop watch, during the testing session. If the child stops or slows down before 10 seconds were over they were encouraged to continue but the period of continuous repetition was counted even if this was less than 10 seconds.
Either a puppet or the experimenter’s demonstration was used for all of the repetition tasks, which were as follows:
1) Open and close the mouth repeatedly
2) Stick the tongue out and in repeatedly
3) Make an “ah” sound in the throat repeatedly
4) Alternating Movements: open the mouth, then stick the tongue out, then close the mouth
Each item was scored:
Anomalies In The Basal Ganglia’s Circuitry Disrupt Speech Initiation
Oftentimes, people who stutter can fluently speak the same words that trip them up at the beginning of a sentence if the exact same words are spoken later in the same sentence. Hence, there’s reason to believe that stuttering is primarily an impairment rooted in the initiation of speech and isn’t the result of impaired motor skills.
Because most stutterers can fluidly say stammer-inducing words if they come later in a sentence, Guenther speculates that stuttering stems from having trouble with speech initiation, not from atypical sensory-motor encoding of the actual motor programs that facilitate speech fluency.
To help visualize how anomalies in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop can disrupt speech initiation, Guenther uses a jukebox metaphor such that if you put some money into an old jukebox with vinyl 45s, one circuit in the machine would choose the record, and another circuit would play it. Using this jukebox analogy, Guenther explains that the neural circuitry required to play the song is working fine inside a stutterer’s brain. However, the neural mechanisms needed to initiate the selection of a jukebox song are impaired.
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Different Types Of Aphasia
This is the most severe form of aphasia and is applied to patients who can produce a few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language
Injury encompasses both Wernickes and Brocas areas, global aphasia can occur. In this case, all components of speech and language are affected. Patients can say a few phrases at most and understand only a few words and phrases. They commonly cant lift out commands or title objects. They cant read or write or repeat words said to them.
Brocas aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such as the left brain inferior frontal gyrus, among others.
Damage to a discrete part of the brain within the left frontal lobe of the language-dominant hemisphere has been shown to significantly affect the utilization of spontaneous speech and motor speech control. Words could also be uttered very slowly and poorly articulated.
This type of aphasia usually has profound language comprehension deficits, even for single words or simple sentences. This can be because in Wernickes aphasia individuals have damage in brain areas that are important for processing the meaning of words and speech. Such damage includes left posterior temporal regions of the brain, which are a part of whats known as Wernickes area, hence the name of the aphasia.
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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Where Is It Located
The cerebellum is the largest structure of the hindbrain and can be found in the back portion of the skull below the temporal and occipital lobes and behind the brainstem.
When looking at the brain, the cerebellum looks much like a smaller structure separate from the brain, found beneath the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum consists of a cortex covering white matter, as well as a ventricle filled with fluid. It is also divided into two hemispheres like the cerebral cortex.
There are two main parts of the cerebellum:
- Cerebellar cortex: A layer containing folded tissue containing most of the cerebellum’s neurons
- Cerebellar nuclei: The innermost part of the cerebellum containing nerve cells that communication information from the cerebellum
The cerebellum makes up just 10% of the total volume of the brain, yet it contains an estimated 50% to 80% of the brain’s neurons.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech
Your brain is responsible for nearly all functions of your body and for interpreting sensory information from the world around you.
Your brain has many parts but speech is primarily controlled by the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.
The cerebrum can be divided into two parts, called hemispheres, which are joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
Your speech is typically governed by the left side of your cerebrum. In about a third of people who are left-handed, however, speech may actually be controlled by the right side.
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Expressive Aphasia Vs Other Aphasias
Patients with expressive aphasia, also known as Broca’s aphasia, are individuals who know “what they want to say, they just cannot get it out”. They are typically able to comprehend words, and sentences with a simple syntactic structure , but are more or less unable to generate fluent speech. Other symptoms that may be present include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition, and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing.
This specific group of symptoms distinguishes those who have expressive aphasia from individuals with other types of aphasia. There are several distinct “types” of aphasia, and each type is characterized by a different set of language deficits. Although those who have expressive aphasia tend to retain good spoken language comprehension, other types of aphasia can render patients completely unable to understand any language at all, unable to understand any spoken language , whereas still other types preserve language comprehension, but with deficits. People with expressive aphasia may struggle less with reading and writing ” rel=”nofollow”> alexia) than those with other types of aphasia.:480500 Although individuals with expressive aphasia tend to have a good ability to self-monitor their language output , other types of aphasics can seem entirely unaware of their language deficits.
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The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
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Communication Strategies: Some Dos And Donts
The Supplementary Motor Cortex
Penfield described a cortical motor area, the supplementary motor area , on the top or dorsal part of the cortex. Each neuron in the SMA may influence many muscles, many body parts, and both sides of the body. The map of the body in SMA is therefore extensively overlapping. SMA projects directly to the spinal cord and may play some direct role in the control of movement.
Based on early work using brain imaging techniques in the human brain, Roland suggested that the SMA was especially active during the internally generated plan to make a sequence of movements. In the monkey brain, neurons in the SMA are active in association with specific learned sequences of movement.
Others have suggested that, because the SMA appears to control movement bilaterally, it may play a role in inter-manual coordination.
Yet others have suggested that, because of the direct projection of SMA to the spinal cord and because of its activity during simple movements, it may play a direct role in motor control rather than solely a high level role in planning sequences.
On the basis of the movements evoked during electrical stimulation, it has been suggested that the SMA may have evolved in primates as a specialist in the part of the motor repertoire involving climbing and other complex locomotion.
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Falls And Traumatic Brain Injuries
Slip and fall accidents are a leading cause of head trauma and traumatic brain injuries . Slip and fall accidents account for more than eight million injuries every year in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents.
Slip and falls are common causes of injuries in the workplace, in the home, and outdoors in public spaces. Although lawyers commonly see injuries such as bruises, cuts and abrasions, sprained wrists and ankles, and broken bones, they also see a large percentage of life-altering head and brain injuries with tragic consequences.
What Happens When The Motor Cortex Is Damaged
The brains motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.
What happens when the sensory cortex is damaged?
Damage to the sensory cortex results in decreased sensory thresholds, an inability to discriminate the properties of tactile stimuli or to identify objects by touch. Damage can affect the ability to recognize objects even though the objects can be felt .
what happens if the neocortex is damaged?Damageneocortex
What Does The Motor Cortex Do In The Brain
The primary motor cortex, or M1, is one of the principal brain areas involved in motor function. M1 is located in the frontal lobe of the brain, along a bump called the precentral gyrus . The role of the primary motor cortex is to generate neural impulses that control the execution of movement.
In respect to this, what is the motor cortex and what does it do?
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
Secondly, what happens if the motor cortex is damaged? The motor system and primary motor cortexThe brain’s motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.
Keeping this in view, what side of the brain is the motor cortex on?
One of the brain areas most involved in controlling these voluntary movements is the motor cortex. The motor cortex is located in the rear portion of the frontal lobe, just before the central sulcus that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
What part of the brain controls speech and motor skills?
The frontal lobes are the largest of the four lobes responsible for many different functions. These include motor skills such as voluntary movement, speech, intellectual and behavioral functions.
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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Sight
Interestingly enough, vision is controlled by the part of the brain which is furthest away from the eyes themselves the occipital lobe. It is located in the back of your head above the brain stem, the part of your brain that controls breathing.
The occipital lobe also has two hemispheres. The left hemisphere processes information from the right eye and vice versa.
The primary visual cortex gets raw information from the eyes and sends them to the secondary visual cortex for further processing. The secondary visual cortex is made out of the ventral stream and dorsal stream. Visual stimuli are processed in the temporal lobe as well.
Its important to keep the brain healthy and to challenge it with new tasks on a daily basis. That way, we can keep our brains strong and functioning well.
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Evolution Of The Motor Cortex
Mammals evolved from mammal-like reptiles over 200 million years ago. These early mammals developed several novel brain functions most likely due to the novel sensory processes that were necessary for the nocturnal niche that these mammals occupied. These animals most likely had a somatomotor cortex, where somatosensory information and motor information were processed in the same cortical region. This allowed for the acquisition of only simple motor skills, such as quadrupedal locomotion and striking of predators or prey. Placental mammals evolved a discrete motor cortex about 100 mya. According to the principle of proper mass, “the mass of neural tissue controlling a particular function is appropriate to the amount of information processing involved in performing the function.” This suggests that the development of a discrete motor cortex was advantageous for placental mammals, and the motor skills that these organisms acquired were more complex than their early-mammalian ancestors. Further, this motor cortex was necessary for the arboreal lifestyles of our primate ancestors.
Enhancements to the motor cortex were evolutionarily selected to prevent primates from making mistakes in the dangerous motor skill of leaping between tree branches . As a result of this pressure, the motor system of arboreal primates has a disproportionate degree of somatotopic representation of the hands and feet, which is essential for grasping .
Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
- Information and support
- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
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A Neurosurgeon’s Overview The Brain’s Anatom
It is also believed to be responsible for moulding our personalities, talents and skills. Every single person has a right brain and a left brain. The two different sides of the brain control two different types of thinking. The right brain is the creative side while the left brain is the logical side Primary motor cortex – sends signals the motor neurons of the spinal cord to stimulate the intended muscles. Supplementary motor cortex – controls movements requiring two muscle groups. Eg. Using two hands to pick up a box. However, some of the other motor areas in the brain also play a role in certain motor functions 4) Broca’s are In addition, motor skills and basic awareness are dependent on this part of the brain. Function: Controls Motor Functions Regulates Awareness and Attention Regulates Some Autonomic Functions II) Hind Brain: The hind brain is located toward the rear and lower portion of the brain. It acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and. Frontal Lobe Part of the cortex, the frontal lobe is a key area in the brain involved in memory, problem solving, language, judgment, impulse control, social behavior, and motor function. In a sense, this is where much of our self and personality is located Speech and language brain regions The visual cortex is the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for processing visual information. The auditory cortex in the cerebral cortex processes..